Skip to main content

Full text of "Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington"

See other formats


TABLE OF CONTENTS . . VOLUME 59 

Allred, D. M. : Mitos Found on Mice of the Genus Peromyscus in Utah. 

II. Family Haemogamasidae (Acarina)— 31 

. : A New Species of Mite, Hirstionyssus biseiosus, from tne 

Nests of the Desert Wood Rat, Neotoma lepida lepida Thomas (Aca- 

rina, Dermanj-ssidae ) _— 83 

Arnaud, p., Jr. :A Bibliographical Note on Ceratopogon yezoensis Matsumura 

(Diptera, Heleidae) 82 

Baldup, W. v.: The Spread of Catorhintha mendica Stal (Coreidae, Hemip- 

tera) 176 

Barr, a. R.: a New Species of CuUscta (Diptera: Culicidae) from North 

America 163 

Bell, R. T.: Carahus aiiratns L. (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in North America 254 

Berner, L. : A Mayfly Gynandromorph „ 167 

Blake, Doris H. : A Note on Two Chrysomelid Beetles (Coleoptera)—. 278 

Burks, B. D. : A New Bruchophagus from a Liliaceous Plant with a Host 

Plant List for the Genus (Hymenoptera : Eurytomidae) - 273 

Cerqueira, N. L. : See Lane, J. — - 244 

Cunliffe, F. : Notes on the Anystidae with a Description of a New Genus 

and Species, Adamystis donnae, and a New Subfamily, Adamystinae 

(Acarina) ^ 172 

Davis, H. G., and James, M. T.: Black Flies Attracted to Meat Bait (Dip- 
tera : Simuliidae) 243 

Drake, C. J.: An Undescribed Apterous Aradid from the Philippines (He- 

miptera) - - 169 

Edmunds, G. F., Jr.: The Systematic Relationships of the Paleantarctie 

Siplilonuridae (including Isonychiidae) (Ephemeroptera) 245 

Edmunds, Lafe R. : Observations on the Biology and Life History of the 

Brown Cockroach PcripJaiietn bnivnea Burmeister 283 

Elbel, R. E.: See Emerson, K. C. -... 232 

Emerson, K. C: New Species of Eallicola (Philopteridae: Mallophaga) 185 

Emerson, K. C, and Elbel, R. E.: New Species and Records of Mallophaga 

from Gallinaceous Birds of Thailand 232 

Evans, Howard E.: The North and Central American Species of Propisto- 

cera (Hj'menoptera : Bethylidae) 289 

Froeschner, R. C. : Perillus lunatiis Knight (Homiptera: Pentatomidae) 

in Montana 162 

Fullaway, D. T.: A New Reared Opius from Africa (Hymenoptera: Bra- 

conidae) 98 

Galindo, p.: On the Validity of Haemagogtis spegazinii Falco Kumm et al, 

1946 (Diptera: Culicidae) 121 

Galindo, Pedro: A Note on the Oviposition Behavior of Sabethes (Sabe- 

thoides) chloropierus Humboldt 287 

Hood, J. D. : A Note on Thilakothrips habidi Ramakrishna 194 

HuRLBUTT, H. W. : See Slater, J. A. 67 

HussEY, R. E.: a New Gargaphia from Florida (Hemiptera: Tingidae) 175 

James, M. T.: Some Sarginae Collected in South India (Diptera, Stratio- 

myidae) 25 

James, M. T.: See Davis, H. G. 243 

Johnson, Phyllis T.: See Scanlon, John E., and Johnson, Phyllis T..... 279 
Kissinger, D. G. : Taxonomic notes on North American Apion (Coleoptera, 

Curculionidae) 40 

Kohls, Glen ;M.: Ixodes doicnsi, a New Species of Tick from a Cave in Trin- 
idad, British West Indies (Acarina, Ixodidae) - 257 

Krombein, K. v., and Schuster, R. :\I.: A Review of the Typhoctinae 

(Hymenoptera : Mutillidae) _._ ._. 209 



Lahore, D. : The Spider, Conopisiha trigona Hentz, Family Theridiidae, as 
a Commensal of AUepiera Icmniscata Walckeiiaer, Family Argiopidae, 
in Prince George 's County, Maryland 79- 

Lane, J., and Cerqueira, N. L. : The Validity and Change of Name of Two 

Species of Wyeomyia (Diptera: Ciilicidae) 24:i 

Melander, a. L. : A New Tachyemjyis (Diptera: Empididae) 296 

MUESEBECK, C. F. W. : See Shenefelt, E. D. - 129 

NELSO>f, G. H. : A New Species of Denilrocoris and a New Combination of 

Atizies (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) 197 

Sabrosky, C. W. : The Throat Bot Fly: Gasterophilus nasalis or veterlnus? 
(Diptera, Gasterophilidae) 

. : Two Overlooked Sources of Tj'pe Designations for Genera 171 

Sailer, E. I.: Solnica Bergroth, 1891, a Synonym of Oehalus Stal, 1862, 
and A Note Concerning the Distribution of 0. ornatus (Sailer) (Hemip- 
tera, Pentatomidae) 41 

ScANLON, John E., and Johnson, Phyllis T.: On Some Microtine-Infest- 

ing Polyplax (Anoplura) 279 

Schuster, E. M.: See Krombein, K. V. 209 

Selander, E. B. : Descriptions and Eecords of North American Meloidae. 

I. ( Coleoptera ) — - 135 

Shenefelt, E. I)., and Muesebeck, C. F. W. : Ashmead's Meteoridea (Hy- 

menoptera : Braconidae) 129 

Slater, J. A., and Hurlbutt, H. W.: A Comparative Study of the Metatho- 

racie Wing in the Family Lygaeidae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) 67 

Snyder, T. E.: A New Bugitermes from Bolivia (Isoptera, Kalotermidae)— - 81 

SoMMERMAN, K. M. : Three New Species of Uposcelis (= Troctes) (Psocop- 

tera) from Texas 125 

Steyskal, G. C. : The Date of Publication of Bezzi's Studies in Philippine 

Diptera, II 90 

Steyskal, George C. : A New Species of the Genus Pteromicra Associated 

with Snails (Diptera, Sciomyzidae) 271 

Strandtmann, E. W., see Tibbett, Ted, and Strandtmann, E. W 

Summers, F. M. : American Species of Ledermuelleria and Ledermuelleri- 

opsis, with a Note on New Synonymy in Neognathus (Acarina, Stig- 
maeidae, Caligonellidae) — 49 

TiBBETTS, Ted, and Strandtmann, E. W. : The Snake Mite Parasites of the 
Family Ixodorhynchidae (Mesostigmata), with Description of a New Spe- 
cies, Ixodorhynch us gordoni .._. 265 

Todd, E. L. : Five New Species of Gelastocoridae with Comments on Other 

Species (Hemiptera ) .— 145 

Townes, H. : A Eevision of the Genera of Poemeniini and Xoridini (Hjnnen- 

optera, Ichneumonidae) - 15 

. : A Eeview of the Generic Names Proposed for Old World Ich- 

neumonids, the Tn^es of Avhose Genotypes are in Japan, Formosa, or 
North America (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) 100 

■ — .: A Bibliography of the Scientific Publications of E. A. Cushman 248 

Wallis, E. C. : Host Feeding of Cnliseta morsitans - -,. 199 

Werner, F. G.: A New Species of Epicauta from the Gulf Coast of Texas 

( Coleoptera , Meloidae ) 97 

Wheeler, G. C, and Wheeler, J.: The Larva of Simopelta (Hymenoptera: 

Formicidae) 191 

Wheeler, J.: See Wheeler, G. C. 191 

Williams, E. W. : Observations on the Breeding Habits of Some Heleidae 

of the Bermuda Islands (Diptera) .— 61 

. : See Wirth, W. W. 5 

Winkler, J. E. : Notes on Bionomics and Ecology of Moss Mites (Acari: 

Oribatei) 190, 270 

Wirth, W. W., and Williams, E. W.: The Biting Midges of the Bermuda 

Islands, with Descriptions of Five New Species (Diptera, Heleidae) 5 



^OL 



. 59 ^y^ s < 



FEBRUARY 1957 



NO. 1 



PRDCEEDIIVGS 



of the 



ENTaMDiaGICAL SOCIETY 

. WASHIIVBTOIV 




U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 
WASHINGTON 25, D. C 

PUBLISHED BIMONTHLT 



CONTENTS 

ALLRED, D. M. — Mites Found on Mice of the Genus Peromyscus 
in Utah. II Family Haemogamasidae (Acarina) 31 

JAMES, M. T. — Some Sarginae Collected in South India (Diptera, 
Stratiomyidae) 

KISSINGER, D. G. — Taxonomic Notes on North American Apion 
(Coleoptera, Curculionidae) 

SABROSKY, C. W. — The Throat Bot Fly: G asterophilus nasalis or 
reterinus? (Diptera, Gasterophilidae) — 

SAILER, R. I. — Solubea Bergroth, 1891, a Snyonym of Oebalus 
Stal, 1862, and A Note Concerning the Distribution of O. ornatus 
(Sailer) (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae) 



25 



40 



TOWNES, H. — A Revision of the Genera of Poemeniini and 
Xoridini (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) 

WIRTH, W, W., and WILLIAMS, R. W.— The Biting Midges of 
the Bermuda Islands, with Descriptions of Five New Species 
(Diptera, Heleidae) 

ANNOUNCEMENTS ■ 

BOOK REVIEW 



OBITUARY— Norman Eugene Mclndoo, 1881-1956. 
SOCIETY MEETING— November, 1956 ,;r<^ \-, 






41 
15 

5 

4 

23 

43 

45 



(7 



''V 



r T r, -) 9 ^ 



\\ 



3XV. ON 



THE 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 

Organized March 12, 1884 

Regular meetings of the Society are held in Boom 43 of the U. S. National 
Museum on the first Thursday of each month from October to June, inclusive, at 
8 P.M. Minutes of meetings are published regularly in the Proceedings. 

MEMBERSHIP 

Members shall be persons over 18 years of age who have an interest in the 
science of entomology. Annual dues for members are $4.00; initiation fee is 
$1.00 (U. S. currency). 

OFFICERS FOR THE YEAR 1957 

Honorary President _ _ R. E. Snodgbass 

President _ _ ..__F. L. Campbell 

First Vice President R. I. Sailee 

Second Vice President _ R. H. Nelson 

Recording Secretary Kellie O 'Neeol 

Corresponding Secretary Kelvin Doeward 

Treasurer F. P. Harrison 

Editor — _ Alice V. Renk 

Custodian H. J. Conkle 

Program Chairman J. F. G. Clarke 

Executive Committee A. B. Gitrnet, T. L. Bissell, R. A. St. George 

Nominated to represent the Society as Vice President of the Washington Academy 

of Sciences- C. F. W. Muesebeck 

Honorary Members.— Adam G. BoviNG, C. F. W. Muesebeck, H. G. Barber 



The Corresponding Secretary, Custodian, Editor, and Treasurer should be ad- 
dressed as follows : 

Mr. Kelvin Dorward Mr. Herbert J. Conkle 

Plant Pest Control Branch, ARS Plant Quarantine Branch, ARS 

U. S. Department of Agriculture U. S. Department of Agriculture 

Washington 25, D. C. Washington 25, D. C. 

Miss Alice V. Renk Dr. Floyd P. Harrison 

Entomology Research Branch, ARS Department of Entomology 

TJ. S. Department of Agriculture University of Maryland 

Room 3151, South Building College Park, Md. 
Washington 25, D. C. 



Entered as second-class matter at the Post Office at Washington, D. C. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Entomological Society of Washington 
vol. 59 february 1957 no. 1 

THE THROAT EOT FLY: GASTEROPHILUS NASALIS OR VETERINUS? 

(DiPTERA, GASTEROPHILroAE) 

Curtis W. Sabbosky, Entomology Eesearch Branch, U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, WasMngton, D. C. 

Adoption of the name Gasterophilus veterinus for the throat bot fly 
of horses in the latest taxonomic study of the Gasterophilidae, by 
Zumpt and Paterson (1953), has again raised the question of the 
proper scientific name for that species, long known to North American 
entomologists as Gasterophilus nasalis (L.). Authors who reject 
nasalis for a horse bot have applied the name instead to a deer nose bot 
called CepJienemyia trompe (Modeer) by other authors. 

In Opinion 106 of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature (1929), Cephenemyia y^'a.'s, placed on the Official List of 
Generic Names with Oestrus trompe Fabrieius as the type species 
(Fabrieius actually credited the species to Modeer!). In the body of 
the Opinion, although not in the Summary, trompe is said to be a 
synonym of Oestrus nasalis Linnaeus. However, that is a zoological 
conclusion, and its acceptance or rejection is not affected by the 
Commission's action relative to the generic name and its type species. 

After reviewing the evidence and the conflicting opinions, it is my 
conclusion that the proper scientific name of the throat bot fly should 
be Gasterophilus nasalis (L.)^ for three major reasons discussed below. 

(1) A Mixed Series and the First Reviser Rule 

Early descriptions of bot and warble flies (Oestridae in the old and 
very broad sense) soon involve one in uncertainty and confusion. 
Descriptions of adults, which are often brief and generalized, are 
combined with various statements of larval habitat, and it is difficult 
to be positive about what an author described or included. 

In four important publications of Linnaeus, species are described as 
follows in the genus Oestrus: 

1746. Fauna Suecica, ed. 1, pp. 306-307: Six species described; not named 



iDr. F. Zumpt, of the South African Institute for Medical Research at Johannes- 
burg, South Africa, has kindly permitted me to state that he has read the manu- 
script and agrees fully with the conclusions, at which he had arrived independently 
subsequent to his 19.53 publication. I am also indebted to Dr. F. van Eniden, of 
the Commonwealth Institute of Entomology at London, for suggestions and review 
of the manuscript. 



2 PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 59, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1957 

buiomiiially, but from comparison of data and references with the next three 
Avorks, it is clear that the species are described in the following order: bovis, 
tarandi, tMsalis, ovi.s, haemorrhoidaUs, and a sixth species not subsequently 
referred to Oestnis. 

1758. Systema Naturae, ed. 10, pp. .'584-085: Five species, in the order bovis, 
tarandi, n^salis, haennon-hoidalis, ovis. 

1761. Fauna Suecica, ed. '2, pp. 42S-4;^0: Five species, in the same order as in 
1758. 

1767. Systema Naturae, ed. li.', vol. 1, part 2, pp. :;69-970: Five species in the 
same order as in 1758. 

By the order of listing of species, which is consistent throughout 
for bovis, tarandi, and nasalis, and by the references, one could con- 
clude that nasalis is the same throughout. If one considers only the 
1746 description and associated information, it seems certain that the 
deer nose hot was described. But the starting point for zoological 
names is the tenth edition of the Systema Naturae in 1758. Abbre- 
viated though it is, the diagnosis in the latter is markedly different 
from that in 1746, plus the fact that Linnaeus introduced the state- 
ment "Habitat in Equorum fauce, per nares intrans." The diagnosis 
has been interpreted by some able specialists (Aldrich 1926; van 
Emden in litt.) as applying perfectly to a species of Gasterophilus, 
and by other able specialists (Railliet 1918; Rodhain and Bequaert 
1920) as applying perfectly to a species of Cephenemyia. Its perfec- 
tion is clearly open to difference of opinion. It appears to me to agree 
most nearly with the usual appearance of the GasferopMliis which has 
been called nasalis. The habitat statement quoted above has long been 
dismissed as an erroneous observation by primitive peoples, a lapsus, 
or the erroneous association by Linnaeus of the habitat of still another 
— and non-Scandinavian — species, Rhinoestrus purpureus (Brauer). 
However, in view of the fact that throat hot larvae may in their early 
stages attach to the throat or pharynx, sometimes in numbers, the 
habitat statement may represent a keen observation that was far 
ahead of its time and not appreciated. 

If therefore one considers only the diagnosis and habitat informa- 
tion of 1758, it is possible to conclude, from one point of view at least, 
that Linnaeus was indeed dealing with the horse hot that we know 
as Gastcrophilus nasalis. However, he also cited species No. 1026 of 
the Fauna Suecica (1st edition), which is admittedly the deer nose 
bot. I believe that in all such cases one must consider all the informa- 
tion present,^ including descriptive material, habitat, and references, 

-If this is not done, some peculiar situations will arise. For example, the 
original diagnosis of adult Oestrus bovis L. (now Hi/poderma hovLs, the northern 
cattle grub) is unmistakably that of the horse bot fly, Gasterophilus intestinalis 
(DeGeer), associated in error with the larvae living in the backs of cattle. DeGeer 
recognized the confusion, restricted bovis to the cattle pest, and proposed intesti- 
iiaUf for the horse bot fly. I doubt that anyone would insist on calling the horse 
bot fly GasterophiJu.^ bovis on the basis of only the diagnosis part of the original 
publication. 



PROO. BNT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 59, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1S).")7 3 

as representing the total species concept of the anthor, no matter how 
confused it may be by modern standards. Accordingly, I consider 
Oestrus nasalis L. (1758) to have been based upon a mixture of 
species. It then becomes necessary to determine the first reviser, i.e., 
the first author who recognized that a mixture existed and who clearly 
restricted the name nasalis to one of its component parts. 

Linnaeus himself appears merely to have continued his confusion 
of 1758 ill his later works. As far as I can find, the first author who 
clearly recognized and resolved the confusion was Modeer (1786), who 
proposed Oesiriis trompe for the deer nose bot, and restricted Oestrus 
nasalis to the horse bot. Under trompe he pointed out that Linnaeus 
described the species on deer, though not perfectly, m the first edition 
of the Fauna Suecica. However, wrote Modeer (pp. 134-5), "A 
greater error has occurred in the second edition of the same book, for 
in that there is an entirely different and quite separate description 
bearing on an entirely different little creature, entered under the 
name of nasalis (whose larva lives in the horse's pharynx)." After 
noting the elimination of accompanying citations from Oestrus nasalis 
in the fifth edition of the Systema Naturae, Modeer stated that "From 
all this it can certainly be concluded that Oestrus trompe is far differ- 
ent from the nasalis cited in the more recent Fauna Suecica and the 
above-mentioned Systema — " (p. 135). Later, under nasalis, Modeer 
wrote that "There is no other author who has described this nose- 
sting fly [Nosstyng-fluga, i.e. Oestrus na^salis] except von Linne" (p. 
146) [Translations from Swedish by Miss Ruth Ericson]. 

Modeer 's work made a clear-cut distinction between trompe and 
nasalis. After his work, the name trompe was widely recognized bj* 
the great dipterists of the time (e.g., Fabricius, Fallen, Meigen, Zetter- 
stedt, etc.) as applying to a deer nose bot, and nasalis to a horse bot 
(either as the name of elioice or as a synonym of veterinus). 

(2) Substitute Name 

In 1797 Bracy Clark definitely accepted nasalis as applying to the 
throat bot fly, but renamed it veterinus only because he regarded the 
name nasalis as inappropriate ("I have given it the name veterinus, 
because beasts of burden are particularly subject to it, in preference 
to the erroneous one of nasalis," p. 313). Veterinus, which has been 
used for the throat bot fly by those authors who regard lui-salis as a 
deer nose bot, is thus really only a substitute name for nasalis and 
neither a separate proposal nor a restriction. It is, however, an invalid 
substitute name, because zoological names are not to be rejected be- 
cause of inappropriateness (International Rules of Zoological Nomen- 
clature, Article 32) ; hence the proper specific name is nasalis, with 
viferinus as an objective synonym. 



4 PROC. ENT. SOC. ^V.\iiU., VOL. 59, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1957 

(3) Usage 

Although a few authors, chiefly taxonomists, have used Hcisalis L. 
for the deer nose bot and veterinus Clark for the throat hot fly of 
horses, predominant usage since Modeer (1786) has nasalis L. as the 
throat hot fly and trompe Modeer as the deer nose bot. As a purely 
practical approach, there will be less inconvenience and more contribu- 
tion to stability by maintaining that predominant usage. Otherwise, 
the specific names of two important economic species would have to 
be changed, including the transfer of the name iiasalh from one 
species to another. We are not always so fortunate to find that usage 
and technical priority yield the same answer. 

LiTEiBATURB CiTEa> (other than references in text) 

Aldricli, J. M., 1926. What is Oestrus nasalis Linnaeus? lusecutor Inscitiae 

Menstruus 14: 15-16. 
Brauer, F., 1886. Naehtriige zur Monographie der Oestriden. Wien. Ent. Ztg. 5 : 

289-304. 
Clark, Bracy, 1797. Observations on the genus Oestrus. Trans. Linnaean Soc. 

London 3 : 289-329. 
Modeer, A., 1786. Styng-riug-Sliigtet (Oestrus). Svenska Yetenskaps Aead., Nya 

Handlingar 7: 125-158. 
Railliet, A., 1918. Sur la nomenclature de deux O-^strides du Cheval. Bull. Soc. 

Zool. France 43 : 102-104. 
Eodhain, J. and Bequaert, J., lliL'O. Oestrides d'antilopes et de zel>res . . . avoc 

un conspectus du genre GasterophiUis. Revue Zool. Africaine 8: 169-228. 
Zunipt, F. and Paterson, H. E., 1953. Studies on the family Gasterophilidae. Jour. 

Ent. Soc. S. Africa 16: 59-72. 

ANNUAL MOSQUITO MEETING 

The 13th annual meeting of the American Mosquito Control Association, Inc., 
will be held in the Di Lido Hotel at Miami Beach, Florida, April 28 to May 2, 
1957. Subjects of invitational papers include a report of the worldwide malaria 
eradication program, an evaluation of insect resistance to insecticides and its 
future significance on a worldwide basis, a report of the present status and 
future possibilities of biological control of mosquitoes, and a discussion of the 
importance of the relationship of taxonomy to mosquito control. 

PLAN NOW TO ATTEND ! ! ! 

ANNOUNCEMENT 

Short scientific articles, not illustrated, two double-spaced typewritten pages or 
less in length, are welcome and will usually receive prompt publication. References 
to literature should be included in the text. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 59, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1957 5 

THE BITING MIDGES OF THE BERMUDA ISLANDS, 
WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF FIVE NEW SPECIES' 

(DiPTERA, HELEIDAe) 

Willis W. Wirth" and Kogeb W. Williams^ 

During June and July, 1955, the junior author conducted light- 
trap and recovery-cage studies of the Heleidae in each of the several 
parishes of Bermuda, and made observations on their breeding habits, 
which he will report on separately. Two pairs of recovery cages were 
placed for weekly periods in each of 15 areas, and a mosquito light 
trap was operated for a week in each of 7 of the areas and for 4 days 
at the Biological Station. In this study 13 species of Heleidae, rep- 
resenting 4 genera, were taken, of which 5 species are new to science. 

In the taxonomic descriptions the following terms should be defined : 
''Antenna! ratio" (AR) is the value obtained b.y dividing the com- 
bined lengths of the five elongated distal segments by the combined 
lengths of the preceding eight, or XI-XV over III-X (in Pterohosca 
the ratio is X-Xy over III-IX). "Tarsal ratio (TR) is the value ob- 
tained bj^ dividing the length of the hind basitarsus by the length of 
the second hind tarsomere. Wing length is measured exactly from the 
basal arculus to the wing tip. The Tillyard modification of the Com- 
stoek-Needham system of wing venation is used whereby the branches 
of the anterior fork are called Mi and M2 and the branches of the 
posterior fork M34-4 and Cui. The types of the new species here de- 
scribed and most of the material studied are deposited in the U. S. 
National Museum in Washington, D. C. Paratypes and other speci- 
mens when available will be furnished the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology in Cambridge, Mass., the British Museum (Natural History) 
in London, and the Bermuda Biological Station, St. George's, 
Bermuda. 

Johnson (1913) mentioned only two species of the family Heleidae 
(= Ceratopogonidae) from the Bermuda Islands. One, which he de- 
scribed as new under the name Ceratopogon fur, was actually Ptero- 
hosca fusicornis (Coquillett) ; the second species he referred to only 
as Ceratopoyon sp., without notes that would give us a clue to its 
identity. Ogilvie (1928) does not mention this family as occurring 
in Bermuda, nor does Waterston (1940). 



^Contribution Xo. 226 of the Bermuda Biological Station. This study was sup- 
ported by a National Science Foundation grant-in-aid and a Childs Frick Fellow- 
ship granted to the junior author by the Bermuda Biological Station for investi- 
gation of the Cnilicoidpfi of the Bermudas. Thanks are due Wm. Sutcliffe, Jr., 
director of the Biological Station, for assistance and to members of the Bermuda 
Agriculture Experiment Station, Gordon E. Groves, director, Idwal Wyn Hughs, 
assistant director, J. Hubert Jones, assistant horticulturist, and C. A. Baker, hor- 
ticulturist, for transporting equipment and identifying the plants. 

- Entomology Research Branch, Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. 

^School of Public Health and Administrative Medicine of the Faculty of Medi- 
cine, Columbia University. 



i proc. ent. soc. wash., vol. 59, no. 1, february, 1957 

Key to the Bermuda Species of Helbidab 
(Based primarily on females) 

1. Fore femur with strong ventral spines; tarsal claws large; macrotrichia 

of wing absent; wing with only one radial cell, the costa extending to 

0.72 of distance to wing tip 14. Bezzia atlantica, n. sp. 

Fore femur without ventral spines; tarsal claws small; macrotrichia pres 
ent on wing, usually abundant; wing with two radial cells present; 
costa extending to less than O.fi of distance to wing tip 2 

2. Empodium well developed ; wing with abundant, long appressed macro- 

trichia; first radial cell narrow, second radial cell not sharply angled 

at apex — 3 

Empodium absent; wing with sparse, suberect macrotrichia -6 

3. Terminal six segments of antenna elongated; empodium greatly developed, 

pad-like TR 3.0 1. Pterobosca fusioornis (Coquillett) 

Terminal five segments of antenna elongated; empodium normal, small; 
TR 0.5-1.3 4 

4. TR 0.5 ; mesonotum with pale mesal longitudinal band ; pleuron with 

transverse dark band; legs with apices of femora and bases of tibiae 
dark; wing without pale spots; halter brown ._.3. Forcipomiria raleighiMnciiQ 
TR 1.0-1.3; mesonotum unicolorous brown; pleuron not banded; legs 
banded or unbanded ; wing with or without pale spots ; halter pale or 
brown ^ 

5. TR 1.0; legs with broad pale and dark hands; wing with pattern of pale 

spots; halter knob brownish 4. Forcipomyia varipennu, n. sp. 

TR 1.3; legs unbanded; wing uniformly brownish gray; halter pale 

2. Forcipomyia ingrarni Carter 

6. First radial cell nearly or completely obliterated, second obliterated or 

square-ended ; humeral pits not developed ; eyes pubescent ; wing hyaline 

without color pattern 7 

First and second radial cells well developed, subequal; humeral pits well 
developed; eyes bare; wing usually with pattern of pale spots 12 

7. Abdominal terga with posterior borders narrowly white; large species 

(wing 1-1.4 mm. long) 8 

Abdominal terga. uniformly blackish ; small species (wing 0.65-0.9 mm. 
long) 10 

8. Abdominal pleura dappled wnth many small black streaks; large species 

(wiug 1.4 mm. long) ; mesonotum with median tuft of scale-like bristles 

5. Dasyhelea cincta (Coquillett) 

- Abdominal pleura uniformly pale or with several large dark areas; medium 
sized species (wing 1-1.2 mm. long) ; mesonotum without median tuft of 
scale-like bristles 9 

9. Mesonotum grayish green pollinose ; abdominal pleura III-VI extensively 

black . 6. Dasyhelea grisea (Coquillett) 

Mesonotum yellowish brown with three obscure darker brown vittae ; 

abdomen without dark areas on pleura III-VI 

— 7. Dasyhelea luteogrisea, n. sp. 



PKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1957 7 

10. Thorax uniformly dull, jet-black; male dististyle bifid - 

_. _ _ 8. Dasyhelea scissurae Maofie 

Thorax shiniug brown to black with yellow scutellum, humeri and pre 
scutellar and supra-alar spots; male dististyle simple 11 

11. Antennal segments longer, segment XI 1.39 times as long as X; second 

radial cell twice as long as broad; spermatheca 0.01 mm. in diameter 
with selerotized base of duct one-third as long as diameter of sperma- 
theca; male genitalia as in figure 1 9. Dasyhelea atlantis, u. sp. 

Antennal segments shorter, segment XI 1.25 times as long as X; second 
radial cell not twice as long as broad; spermatheca 0.06 mm. in diame- 
ter with base of duct selerotized only a short distance ; male genitalia as 
in figure 2. 10. Dasyhelea hermudae, n. sp. 

12. Color subshining pale yellow; wing without pattern; two spermathecae 

present 11. Culicoides fioridensis Beck 

Color pruinose grayish brown; wing with pattern of large pale areas; 
only one spermatheca present 13 

13. Wing markings consisting of sharply defined pale areas, second radial cell 

blackish to tip ; mesonotum with prominent pattern 

12. Culicoides crcpuscvlaris Malloch 

Wing markings not sharply defined; second radial cell yellowish at the 

extreme apex ; mesonotum without pattern 

_ .._. 13. Culicoides hermudensis Williams 

1. Pterobosca fusicomis (Coquillett) 

Ceratopogon fusicomis Coquillett, 1905, Jour. New York Ent. Soe. 13: 63 (female; 

Biscayne Bay, Florida). 
Pterobosca fusicomis Johannsen, 1951, Florida Ent. 34: 117 (records; syu. : 

macfiei Costa Lima and floridana Johannsen). 
Ceratopogon fur Johnson, 1913, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 6: 444 (female; Ber- 
muda; fig. wing; attached to a small agrionid dragonfly). NEW 
SYNONYMY. 
The two cotypes of Ceratopogon fur in the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology at Harvard University were examined through the courtesy 
of Dr. P. J. Darlington. One female is attached to the thorax of the 
agrionid host at the membranous portion at the base of the wings, with 
the proboscis of the midge parasite piercing the integument of the 
host. The other cotype female which was glued to a card point on a 
separate pin was dissected and mounted on a slide by the senior 
author. Examination of the following characters shows the species to 
be the same as Pterohosca fusicomis (Coquillett), the type of which 
was used for comparison. Eyes bare ; third palpal segment with a 
shallow, definite pit ; tarsal ratio 3.0 ; tarsal claws each deeply cleft 
and the two parts each broadly expanded, bladelike ; empodium large 
and broad, modified for clinging; wing 1.13 mm. long, with moderately 
dense, long, suberect hairs arranged in lines, with narrow bare lines 
along the veins ; halter brown ; legs brown ; thorax shining brown, with 
brown hairs, scutelhmi slightly paler. This species, which was not 



8 PROO. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1957 

taken in the present stndy, was the only named species of the family 
previously known from Bermuda. 

2. Forcipomyia ingrami Carter 

Voi-cipomyia ingrami Carter, 1919, Ann. Trop. Med. Parasit. 12: 290 (male, fe- 
male; Gold Coast; fig. antenna, wing, tarsus, palpus, genitalia, larva, pupa); 
Edwards, 1928, Ins. of Samoa, pt. VI, fasc. 2, p. 51 (Samoa) ; Maefie, 1933, 
B. P. Bishop Mus. Bull. 114: 91 (Marquesas Ids.); Maefie, 1934, Stylops 3: 
133 (Hawaii) ; Maefie, 1934, Ann. Trop. Med. Parasit. 28: 179 (Malaya). 

Specimens examined: 16 males, 314 females, in light traps from 
Biological Station, Wilkinson Pond, Pampas Farm (South Shore 
Marsh), Spittal Pond, Paget Marsh, Warwick Marsh, Southampton 
Marsh, and Evans Pond, and in recovery cages from Pampas Farm, 
Devonsliire Marsh, Paget Marsh, Pembroke Marsh, AVarwick Marsh, 
and Southampton Marsh. 

Forcipomyia ingrami is a pale brown, unmarked species with female 
TR about 1.3, the male TR from 0.8 to 1.1. The male genitalia offer the 
best characters for the separation of ingrami from the related species 
such as calcarata (Coquillett) from Mexico and qnasiingrami from 
Brazil; in ingrami the aedeagus is in the form of a truncated cone and 
the selerotized band of the parameres is broadly U-shaped rather than 
narrowly V-shaped anteriorly. 

Maefie 's records of ingrami from Trinidad were later referred by 
him to quasiingrami, and the present record constitutes the first 
authentic record of ingrami from the Western Hemisphere. 

3. Forcipomyia raleighi Maefie 

Forcipomyia raleighi Maefie, 1938, Proc. Eoy. Ent. Soe. London (B) 7: 160 (male, 
female; Trinidad; fig. male genitalia). 

Specimens examined : 77 males, 36 females, in light traps from 
Biological Station, Wilkinson Pond, Spittal Pond, Paget Marsh, 
Southampton Marsh and Evans Pond. 

Forcipomyia, raleighi is easily recognized by its short basitarsus 
(TR about 0.5), plain wings, mesally pale mesonotum, dark halteres 
and dark-banded pleura and banded abdomen. It is widely distributed 
in the Caribbean area. 

4. Forcipomyia varipennis, new speeies 

Female. — Length of wing 0.67 mm. 

Head brown, eyes bare. Antenna with flagellar segments in proportion of 
13:12:12:12:12:12:12:12:15:18:18:18:23, AR 0.95, proximal flagellar segments 
short, tapering, segments XI-XIV vase-shaped with short distal necks, last segment 
with terminal papilla which has a spherical tip. Palpal segments in proportion of 
10:10:20:10:10, third segment greatly swollen to apex, three-fourths as broad as 
long, with a large, deep, sensory cavity opening by a small pore. Mouthparts 
rudimentai-y, mandibles not developed. 

Thorax dark brown, mesonotum and scuteUum with numerous long, mixed 



PROO. ENT. SOC. AVASH., A'OL. 59, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1957 9 

brown and golden, upright hairs and appressed slender, yellowish scales. Coxae 
yellowish ; fore and hind tibiae with narrow sub-basal and broader subapical brown 
bands, the latter subequal in width to the yellowish band of each side; mid tibia 
brown except at extreme base and apex ; tarsi brown with narrow segmental yellow 
bands. Legs with numerous long, upright, stiff hairs and appressed, narrow, 
striated scales; six spines in hind tibial comb; hind tibial spur almost half as long 
as basitarsus, scaly at base; TR 1.0; claws slender and curved, simple. 

Wing with abundant long, striated, blackish scales; adorned with small yellow- 
ish anterior spot past end of costa and irregular, diffuse, paler areas on distal and 
posterior portions. Halter knob brownish. Abdomen dark bro\vn with numerous 
dark brown hairs and slender scales. Spermathecae two, subequal, elongate oval, 
each measuring 0.035 by 0.055 mm. 

Holoiype. — Female, Warwick Pond, Bermuda, 4 July 1955, R. W. 
Williams, recovery cage (type No. 62916, U.S.N.M.). Paratypes. — 8 
females, Bermuda, same data as type ; 1 female, Warwick Marsh, 
recovery cage, 4 July 1955. Puerto Rico — 1 female, El Yuuque, 20-23 
March, 1954, J. Maldonado and S. Medina. United States — 1 female, 
Brownsville, Texas, 1 October 1951, A. B. Gurney, palm grove. Guate- 
mala — 2 females, Actenango, 22 June 1951, Gibson and Ascoli, at 
light ; 1 female, Yepocapa, 26 July 1951, Gibson and Ascoli, at light. 

Forcipomyia cinciipes (Coquillett) from United States (type local- 
ity, Florida ) is very similar, but has pale halteres, dark coxae, femora 
dark nearly to bases, the second dark band on hind tibia is twice as 
broad as the pale bands on each side, the third palpal segment is not 
greatly swollen and has a small sensory pit and the size averages larger 
(wing up to 1.4 mm. long). Forcipomyia or^mtipennis Macfie from 
Brazil is also related, but also is a larger species (wing 1.3-1.4 mm. 
long) with three large pale spots on the anterior margin of the female 
Aving, halteres pale, and the legs have more extensive yellow bands on 
the femora and mid tibia. Mactie's reference (1953, Beitr. zur Ent. 3: 
96) to a damaged male specimen of ornatipennis from Costa Rica prob- 
ably refers to varipcunis. 

5. Dasyhelea cincta (Coquillett) 

Ceratopogoti cinctus Coquillett, 1901, Proe. U. S. Nat. Mus. 23: 605 (female; 

Lake Worth, Florida). 
Da.syhelea cincta, Johannsen, 1943, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 36: 778; Wirth, 1952, 

Univ. Calif. Pub. Ent. 9: 150 (male, female; fig. wing, antenna, palpus, 

spermathecae, male genitalia; many U. S. localities). 

Specimens examined: 7 males, 18 females, from recovery cages at 
Paget Marsh, Warwick Marsh, and Southampton Marsh. 

This is a relatively large species (wing about 1.4 mm. long) with 
pruinose bluish-black mesonotum spotted wdth yellowish, especially on 
the borders, and bearing a tuft of black scale-like bristles in the middle 
of the mesonotum ; wings with bare lines, abdomen wdth posterior 
borders of terga white and abdominal pleura with many small black 
streaks. 



10 PROC. EMT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, XO. 1, FKHKl'AKV, '[\>r>7 

(i. Dasyhelea grisea (('o(|uilk'tt ) 

Ceratopoc/on (/ri.seus (\)((uilk"tt. lilOl. Proe. V. S. X:it. Miis. 23: (502 (female; 

Washington, 1). C, Lake Worth, Florida). 
Dasyhelea grisea Thoniseii, 193."), Jour. New York Ent. Soc. 43: 283; Wirth, 1952, 

V\u\. Calif. Pub. Ent. 9: Iw (male, female; many U. S. localities; fig. 

antenna, palpus, male genitalia). 

Specimens examined: 19 males, 43 females, from reeoveiy cage at 
Warwick Marsh. 

This moderate sized (win<-' 1-1.2 mm. lono) species can be recog- 
nized by its nniformly grayish-green pollinose mesonotum with three 
narrow darker setigerons vittae ; wing with sparse hairs and bare 
lines; legs pale with blackish knees; abdomen black above, the apices 
of segments narrowly white-margined ; pleura of abdominal segments 
III-VI extensively black; spermatheca one, oval with a short sclero- 
tized neck ; male genitalia with blunt dististyle, a distinct sclerotized 
hook on mesal margin of basistyle. ninth sternum not produced caudad, 
aiid apicolateral ])r()cesses of ninth tergum well developed. 

7. Dasyhelea luteogrisea, new species 

Female. — Length of wing l.d mm. 

Structurally nearly identical with fp-i.sea (("oquillett). ^Mesonotum yellowish 
browTi with three broad, oliscure, darker, dull, grayish-brown vittae; Imlter knob 
yellowish; al)dominal pleura without integumeiital daik patches on segments TII- 
Vr, but with denser, longer, i-onspicuous patches of brownish l)ristly hairs; all 
hairs of body slightly longer and more conspicuous than in e/rixea. 

Male. — Mesonotum uniformly dark browni with heavy bluish-gray poUinosity; 
scntellum dull yellowish brown. (lenitalia with spine of apicolateral processes of 
iiintli tcigum sliort and stout. Otherwise as in gri.^ea. 

Tijpes. — Ilolotype female, allotype male. Bermuda, from recovery 
cage at Spittal Pond, 17-28 June 1955, R. W. Williams (type No. 
62917, U.S.N.M., nu)untcd on slides). Paratypes: 250 males, females, 
Bermuda, from recovery t-ages at Spittal Pond, Trott's Pond, Paget 
Marsh, Warwick Pond, Warwick Marsh, Evans Pond, Southampton 
Marsh and Mid-Ocean Country Club Pond, and in the light trap at 
Spittal Pond. Also the following paratypes : TTnited States — 22 males. 
7 females. Lake Worth, Florida, 9 August 1951, W. W. Wirth, light 
trap; 7 males, 18 females. North Miami Beach, Florida, 18 April 1951, 
J. E. Porter, light trap ; 8 females, Lake Charles, Louisiana, 9 June 
1917, J. M. Aldrich ; 2 females, Galveston, Texas, 16 April 1905, W. D. 
Pierce, on Tamarix gallica. Bahamas — 1 female. South Bimini Island, 
June 1951, Cazier and Vaurie. 

This species is evidently a salt marsh relative of Dosyhclea grisea 
(Coqnillett), with whieh it occasionally occurs, but without showing 
evidence of interbreeding. 



PROr. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 19n7 11 

S. Dasyhelea scissurae Macfie 
Basyhelea scissurae Maefie, 1937, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (10) 20: 15 (male; Trini- 
dad; fig. genitalia) ; Macfie, 1953, Beitr. zur Ent. 3: 103 (male, female; Costa 
Eica). 
Specimens examined : 2 males, 1 female, Paget Marsh, light trap, 
28 June and 1 male, Evans Pond, in light trap, 12-18 July 1955. 

The uniformly dull, jet-blaek color with only the halteres white, 
small size (wing 0.9 mm. long) and the bifid male dististyles will 
readily identify this species. 

9. Dasyhelea atlantis, new species 
(Figure 1) 

Male, female. — Length of wing 0.75-0.8 mm. 

Color in specimens preserved in alcohol shining dark brown ; male mesonotum 
uniformly blackish, female mesonotum paler brown with humeri, supra-alar spots 
and a pair of oval spots in prescutellar depression, yellowish. Scutellum yellowish, 
with six bristles; postscutellum and pleuron dark brown. Antenna brown, palpus 
yellowish ; legs yellowish, femora and tibiae more or less infuscated ; halter knot) 
whitish, stem dark; wing grayish hyaline, the radial cells slightly darkened; 
abdominal terga uniformly blackish. Eye pubescent. Antenna with flagellar seg- 
ments in proportion of 15:10:11:11:12:12:13:13:18:18:18:18:25; tenth segment 
l.fi times as long as broad; last segment without terminal stylet. Palpal segments 
in proportion of 15:25:12:12. TR 2.4; six or seven spines in hind tibial comb. 
Wing with second radial cell twice as long as broad, macrotrichia numerous, 
arranged in lines on disc but forming patches on distal and posterior wing mar- 
gins. Spermatheca one, subspherical, diameter about 0.04 mm., with a very slender 
sclerotized duct one-third as long as diameter of spermatheca. Male genitalia as 
in figure 1. 

Holotype. — Male, Bermuda, from recovery cage at Trott's Pond, 10 
June 1955, R. AV. Williams (type No. 62919,' U.S.N.M., on slide). Allo- 
type.— Female, from recovery cage at Spittal Pond, 17-23 June 1955. 
Paratypes. — About 700 males and females, from recovery cages, during 
June and July from Lovers Lake, Wilkinson Pond, Trott's Pond, 
Spittal Pond, Warwick Pond. Seymour Pond, Evans Pond, Pilchard 
Ray and Mid-Ocean Countrv Club l^onds. and from the light traji at 
Spittal Pond, 17-23 June 1955. 

10. Dasyhelea bermudae, new species 
(Figure 2) 

Male, female. — Length of wing 0.65-0.70 mm. 

Very similar in color markings to ailaniist, the shining blackish mesoiiutum with 
yellowish humeri and prescutellar spots outstanding. Structurally as in atlantis, 
but differing as follows: Antennal segments slightly shorter, flagellar segments in 
proportion 15:12:12:12:12:12:12:12:15:15:15:15:20. "Wing slightly hairier, sec- 
ond radial cell not quite as long as broad. Spermatheca larger, diameter about 
0.06 mm., the base of the duct sclerotized only a short distance. Male genitalia 
quite different, as in figure 2. 



12 



PROC. ENT. SOr. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1957 



Holotype. — Male, Bermuda, from recovery cage at Warwick Pond, 
4 July 1955, R. W. Williams (type No. 62918, U.S.N.M., on slide). 
AlloUjpc. — Female, from recovery cage at Pampas Farm, 21-27 June 
1955. Parat\)pcs. — 50 males. 75 females, from recovery cages during 
June and July at Pampas Farm. Devonshire Marsh, Paget Marsh, 
Warwick Pond. Warwick Marsh, Seymour Pond, and Southampton 
Marsh. 





Fig. 1, male genitalia of Dasyheha atlantis ; fig. 2, male genitalia of Basyhelea 
hermudae. The stippling represents areas of greater sclerotization. 



11. Culicoides floridensis Beck 

Culicoides floridcnsis Beck, 19.")1, Florida Ent. 34: 135 (male, female; Florida; 
fig. male genitalia). 

Specimens examined : Only 3 males and 3 females were taken, these 
in the light trap at Wilkinson Pond. 

Culicoides floridensis is somewhat similar to rnelleus of the Atlantic 
and Gulf Coasts of the United States, in that it is a pale yellowish 
species with unspotted wings, but the wings of floridensis are relatively 
barer and the female has the spermathecae less heavily sclerotized. 
The male genitalia of floridensis have normal dististyles, conspicuously 
spinose parameres, and a V-shaped aedeagus, whereas those of melleus 
have the dististyles conspicuously bent, the parameres simple and the 
aedeagus massive, wdth high arch and truncate tip. 



PROC. EXT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 59, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 19.")7 13 

12. Culicoides crepuscularis Mallocli 

Culicoides crepuscularis Mallocli, 191.5, Bull. Illinois St. Lab. Nat. Hist. 10: 303 
(male, female; Illinois, Michigan, Arizona; fig. wing, mesonotum, male 
antenna, genitalia); Foote and Pratt, 1954, Pub. Hlth. Monogr. 18: 19 (re- 
described, records, fig. wing, mesonotum, palpus, male genitalia). 

Specimens examined : 176 females and 74 males from a light trap 
at Biological Station, Wilkinson Pond, Spittal Pond, Pampas Farm, 
Paget Marsh, Warwick Marsh, Southampton Marsh, and Evans Pond, 
and 577 males and 658 females from recovery cages at Pampas Farm, 
Devonshire March, Paget ]\Iarsh, Pembroke Marsh, Warwick Marsh, 
Seymour Pond, Southampton Marsh, Pilchard Bay, and the larger of 
the two Mid-Ocean Golf Course Ponds. 

This species is a close relative of canithorax Hoffman and alaskensis 
Wirth from North America, as well as hermudensis with which it was 
associated in Bermuda. Crepuscularis can be distinguished from these 
species by its conspicuous wing pattern of definite rounded spots and 
by the prominent mesonotal pattern consisting of a median longi- 
tudinal diamond-shaped anterior band and a pair of crescent-shaped 
lateral bands which are dark brown on a pruinose grayish background. 

13. Culicoides bermudensis Williams 

Culwoides hermudeiisis Williams, 19-56, Jour. Parasit. 42(3) : 297-300. (female; 
Bermuda; fig. wing, palpus). 

Specimens examined : 22-1 females in light trap from Pampas Farm, 
Paget Marsh and Southampton Marsh, and 111 females in recovery 
cages from Trott's Pond, Devonshire Marsh, Paget Marsh, Pampas 
Farm, Warwick Pond, and Southampton Marsh. 

Culicoides herinudensis is a small, browaiish, poorly marked species. 
The female is closely related to canithorax of North America, but 
differs from it in possessing 8 or less mandibular teeth instead of 15, 
the AR is less than 1.2, the distance between the eyes is about 2.5 times 
as great, the palpus and wing are less than two-thirds as long, macro- 
triehia are sparse, the first spine of the hind tibial comb is the longest, 
the long axis of the distal pale spot in cell R5 lies at a 45° angle to 
vein M] and the single spermatheca is more than 1.5 times as large as 
in canithorax. No males were collected. 

14. Bezzla atlantica, neAv species 

Male, female. — Length of wing 1.2 mm. 

Head brown ; antenna and palpus pale brown, basal rings of antennal segments 
at the verticils whitish; flagellar segments in proportion of 20:18:18:19:20:22: 
23:24:35:35:30:40:44. Palpal segments in proportion of 8:12:20:12:18. Man- 
dible with ten teeth. Thorax in preserved specimens dark brown, with short dark 
pubescence, extent of pruinose pattern undetermined; four or five long black 
bristles above wing base ; scutellum yellowish, with four strong black bristles. 
Legs dark brown; broad yellow bands on middle of hind femur, at base and before 
apex of fore tibia, on distal half of mid tibia but leaving extreme apex dark, and 



14 PROr. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, IPo? 

on iiiiddlr tliiid of hind tibia; tarsi yellowish. Logs moderately stout; fore femur 
with three long, rather slender, black spines on flexor side, fore and mid femora 
Avith one apical extensor spine, hind fenuir witli extensor series of three or four 
bristles; claws black, equal, each with a strong, blunt, basal tooth; TE about 2.0. 
Wing yellowish hyaline, costa extending to 0.72 of wing length; medial fork 
sessile. Halter brown. Abdomen dull yellowish brown ; female with one pair of 
gland rods as long as 3.5 segments. Female spermatheeae two, pjniform, subequal. 
Male genitalia as figured by Wirth (1952, fig. 27 f) for setulofia. 

Holotypc. — Male, Bermuda, Devonshire Marsh, from recovery cage, 
2]-27 June 1955, R. W. Williams (type No. 62920, U.8.N.M. on' slide). 
Allotype. — Female, Bermuda, Pampas Farms, from recovery cajie, 21- 
27 June 1955. Paratypes. — 4 males, 4 females, same data as holotype. 

Bezzia setulom (Loew), a common Nearctic species, is closely re- 
lated, but difiFers in having the legs more extensively yellowish, the 
femora with very broad pale bands at midlength and the fore femur 
with an additional pale preapical ring, the pale tibial bands are also 
slightly broader, the female gland rods extend through 4.5 segments 
and the spermatheeae are not distinctly pyriform. 

Ebferences 

Johnson, C. W. l!tl3. The Dipteran fauna of Bermuda. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 6: 

443-452. 
Oglivie, L. 192S. The insects of Bermuda. Bermuda Dept. Agr. 
Waterston, J. M. 1940. Supplementary list of Bermuda insects. Bermuda Dept. 

Agr. 
Wirth, W. W. 1952. The Heleidae of California. Fniv. Calif. Puli. Ent. 9: 95-266. 



PROCEEDINGS 

Back Volumes and Single Numbers Availabi^e 

Vols. 1-19, per volume #2.00 

per number .50 

Vols. 20-5(1, per volume _— -4.00 

per number _ ..._ ,50 

Vols. 51-57, per volume - . - 4.00 

per number .75 

Note: No.'s 1-4 of Vol. 9 and No.'s 1-4 of Vol. 19 are available only 

as complete volumes. Per volume 2.00 

Complete Sets, Vols. 1-57 (1884-1955, inclusive) _ _ 194.00 



PROC. EXT. SOC. AV.VSH., VOL. 59, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 19.17 15 

A REVISION OF THE GENERA OF POEMENIINI AND XORIDINI 

(Hymexopteka, Ichxeumonidae) 

Hexry Toavxes, Mu.sciim of Zoologii, University of Michi(/a», Ann Arbor. 

The iehneiimonid tribes Poemeniini and Xoridini belong- in the snb- 
family Pimplinae, which subfamily includes species with usually a 
rather cylindrie body shape, areolet trianoular or absent, tarsal claws 
not visibly pectinate but often lobed or cleft, spiracle of first abdomi- 
nal tergite at or in front of the middle, and ovipositor long and with- 
out a subapical dorsal notch. These characters are rather general in 
statement and subject to exceptions, but are enough for a correct sub- 
family placement of the majority of the Pimplinae, including mem- 
bers of the present tw^o tribes. Perhaps the greatest difficulty for the 
tribes under consideration is to distinguish them from members of the 
Gelinae belonging to the subtribe Echthrina (tribe Mesostenini). 
The Echthrina ditfer from the Poemeniini and Xoridini in having 
the areolet, when present, rectangular or quadrangular (except in the 
Ethiopion genus Gahunia), and the dorsal valve of the ovipositor 
somewhat enclosed apically by a dorsal flange of the ventral valves. 
It is a common mistake of older authors to put some of these echthrine 
genera in the Xoridini because of a superficial resemblance, but both 
larval and adult characters show them to be true members of the 
Gelinae. 

The Poemeniini aiul Xoridini have commonlv been included in the 
single tribe Xoridini (Ashmead, 1900, Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 23 : 60-62 ; 
and Schmeideknecht, 1907, Opuscula Ichneumonologica, p. 1336) or in 
the tribes Xoridini and Odontomerini (Cushman and Rohwer, 1920, 
Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 57: 395-396). More recently a division into 
two tribes approximately as used here has been etfected, but hereto- 
fore without a statement of the characters on which the division was 
based (Townes, 194-1, Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc. 11: 80-85; 102-115, and 
Townes and Townes, 1951, U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Monog. 2: 198-199; 
204-207). In spite of the fact that members of the two tribes have 
been commonly classified together, they are not closely related. Lar- 
val and adult characters seem to ally the Poemeniini with the Rhys- 
sini and seem to relate the Xoridini with the Labenini and Acaenitini. 
At any rate, they are certain!}' distinct tribes. 

Key DiSTixifuisHixG the Poemexiixi from the Xoridini 

1. Propodeuni not aroolated, prepectal carina absent; epipleurum of second 
abdominal tergitc very narrow, almost absent ; middle tibia of female 

without oblique grooves Poemeniini 

Propodeum completely or almost completely areolated; prepectal carina 
present ; epipleurum of second abdominal tergite moderately wide, usually 
about 0.25 times as wide as long; middle tibia of female usually with ozie 
or two oblique grooves that give it a twisted appearance : Xoridini 



16 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1957 

Tribe Poemeniini 

As defined in the key, this tribe includes Pocmenia, Deutcroxorides, 
Neoxorides, Eugalta, and the new genera Podosohistus, Cnastis, and 
Ganodes. In 1944 I included also the genera Clistopyga and Diacritus 
(Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc. 11: 80-85). Clistopyga was removed to the 
Polysphinctini in 1951 (Townes and Townes, IT. S. Dejjt. Agr., Agr. 
Monogr. 2: 192). Dmcritus has a prepectal carina, and in some other, 
less definite, characters is a misfit in the Poemeniini. It is hereby 
removed from the Poemniini and referred provisionally to the Plecti- 
scinae. The genera which I believe are properly referred to the 
Poemeniini are discussed below. 

Key to the GEosrERA. of Poemeniini 

1. Mandible with two apical teeth, the upper tooth smaller; clypeus evenly 

convex, about 2.0 times as wide as long; tarsal claws simple. Hol- 

aretic Paemenia 

Mandible without two teeth, its apex truncate and chisel-shaped; clypeus 
basally convex and apically impressed, 1.3 to 1.8 times as wide as long; 
tarsal claws of middle legs with a. subapical tooth except in Neoxorides. .. 2 

2. Dorsal half of temple finely and weakly scabrous; clypeus about 1.8 times 

as wide as long. Palacarctic. Deuteroxorides 

Dorsal half of temple coarsely and strongly scabrous; clypeus about 1.5 
times as Avide as long. 3 

3. Outer claw of liind tarsus bent at a sharp angle, the inner claw more weakly 

curved ; apical ungual bristle on outer claw of hind tarsus enlarged and 

spatulate. Oriental and Japanese Euffolia 

Outer claw of hind tarsus not bent at a sharp angle and not more sharply 
curved than inner claw; apical ungual bristle on outer claw of hind tar- 
sus not enlarged. __ 4 

4. Tarsal clawa simple; second and third tergites impunctate or with a few 

weak punctures. Holaretic. Neoxorides 

Tarsal claws with a subapical tooth, or the hind claws sometimes simple; 
second and third tergites definitely punctate. 5 

5. Hind tarsal claws with a subapical appressed tooth ; nervulus opposite the 

basal vein. Holaretic. Podoschistvs 

Hind tarsal claws simijle ; nervulus before the basal vein by about 0.25 
to 0.45 times its length. 6 

6. Areolet present; first tergite of female about 2.4 times as long as Avide. 

Neotropical. Ganodes 

Areolet absent; first tergite of female about 1.5 to 2.0 times as long as 
wide. Japan, Philippines, Java, and Siam. Cnastis 

Genus Poemenia 

Poemenia Holmgren, 1859. Ofvers. Svcnska Vetensk. Akad. Porh. 1(3: 130. 

Type: Poemenia notata Holmgren. Monobasic. 
Calliclisis Foerster, 1868. Verh. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande 25: 169. 

Type: Ephialtes liectirus Gravenhorst. Designated by Viereck, 1914. 



PBOO. BNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1957 17 

FMhmodes Tscliek, 1868. Verb. Zool.-Bot. Gesell. Wien 18: 272. 

Type: Ephialtes liecUciis Gravenhorst. Monobasic. 
Evxorides Cresson, 1870. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 3: 167. 

Type: Euxorides americanus Cresson. Monobasic. 
Lissonotopsis Habennehl, 1917. Ztsclir. Wiss. Ins. -Biol. 13: 234, 306. 

Type: (Lissonatopsis riifa Habermehl) = hectica Gravenhorst. Monoljasic. 

Clypeus moderately large, about 2.0 times as wide as long, evenly convex, cov- 
ered with rather long hairs, its apical margin concave; mandible moderately long, 
with two apical teeth, the upper tooth shorter; temple in profile about 0.53 times 
as long as eye, its dorsal half sometimes with a weakly scabrous area; meso- 
scutum moderately trilobed; notauli strong anteriorly, fading out on disc of 
mesoscutum ; areolet present or absent, when absent the intercubitus about 0.8 
times as long as second abscissa of cubitus ; nervulus usually opposite basal vein, 
but sometimes before or a little beyond ; tarsal claws simple, those of the hind 
legs sharply curved in a right angle turn; first tergite about 2.0 to 3.5 times 
as long as wide ; second and third tergites with fine dense punctures. 

This is a rather small, Holaretic genus. In North America there 
are four species. 

Genus Deuteroxorides 

Deuteroxorides Viereck, 1914. Bui. U. S. Natl. Mus. 83: 43. 

Type: Xorides albitar»us Gravenhorst. 
Clypeus rather small, about 1.8 times as Avide as long, convex basally, the rest 
impressed and the apical margin concave; mandible of moderate length, its apex 
chisel-shaped, without teeth ; temple in profile about 0.5 times as long as eye, its 
dorsal half finely and half weakly scabrous ; mesoscutum strongly trilobed ; notauli 
strong, almost meeting on disc of mesoscutum; areolet absent; intercubitus about 
0.5 to 1.0 times as long as second abscissa of cubitus; nervulus opposite or a 
little before basal vein ; tarsal claws of male simple, the outer claw of hind tarsus 
more sharply curved than inner claw; female tarsal claws with an internal trun- 
cate tooth on front and middle legs, simple on hind leg or with an inner tooth 
on inner claw, the outer claw more sharply curved than imier claw; first tergite 
about 2.0 to 4.0 times as long as wide; second and third tergites with rather close, 
moderate sized punctures. 

There are two species: the European Xorides alhitarsus Graven- 
horst, 1829, and the Japanese Xorides orientalis Uchida, 1928. 

Genus Eugalta 

Eugalia Cameron, 1899. Mem. & Proc. Manchester Lit. Phil. Soc. 43 : 135. 

Type: Eugalta strigosa Cameron. Designated by Ashmead, 1900. 
Pseudeugalta Ashmead, 1900. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 23: 55. 

Type: Engalta spinosa Cameron. Monobasic. 
Baliena Cameron, 1900. Mem. & Proc. Manchester Lit. Phil. Soc. 44: 101. 

Type : Baliena leptopns Cameron. Monobasic. 
Tilgida Cameron, 1900. Mem. & Proc. Manchester Lit. Phil. Soc. 44: 108. 

Type: Tilgida alh if arsis Cameron. Monobasic. 



IS PK01-. KXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, XO. ], FEBRUARY, l!t.')7 

Acthriii Tosqiiinct, 1908. Mem. Soc. Eiit. Bolgique Id: 114. Xfw synonymy. 
Type: Aeihvia coii.^pwua Tosquinet. Monobasic. 

Bathymeris Cameron, 1906. Entomologist 39: 251. 
Type: Baihiimcris longipes Cameron. Monobasic. 

Formoxorides Ueliida, 1928. Jour. Fac. Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 25 : 14. 
Type: Achorocephahis pilosus Szepligeti. Original designation. 
Clypeus small, quadrate, about 1.5 times as wide as long, convex basally, apical- 
ly impressed, the apical margin subtruncate ; mandible short, its apex chisel- 
shaped, without teeth ; temple in profile about 0.3 times as long as eye, its upper 
hnlf coarsely scabrous; mesoscutum strongly trilobed ; notauli strong, strongly 
convergent^ nnd almost meeting on disc of mesoscutum; areolet present or ab- 
sent, when absent the intercubitus about as long as second abscissa of cubitus ; 
nervulus opposite basal vein; tarsal claws each with a. large truncate median 
tooth ; outer claw of hind tarsus bent a little sharper than a right angle, its 
median tooth obscured within the bend and its apical ungual bristle enlarged and 
spatulate ; first tergite about 2.0 to 4.0 times as long as wide; second and third 
tergites polished, impunetate or variously punctate. 

This is an Oriental genus, with many species. One species, (Xor- 
idef;) Eugalia olhonarginalis Uchida, 1928 (new combination 1, oc- 
curs in Japan. 

Genus Podoschistus, new genus 

Clyjjeus small, quadrate, about 1.2 times as wide as long, basally convex, the 
rest imjjressed, its apex truncate or concave ; mandible short, its apex chisel- 
shaped, without teeth; temple in profile about 0.55 times as long as eye, its upper 
half coarsely scabrous; mesoscutum rather strongly trilobed; notauli strong, 
convergent and almost meeting on disc of mesoscutum ; areolet absent, the inter- 
cubitus about 0.5 times as long as second abscissa of cubitus ; nervulus opposite 
basal vein; tarsal claws with a median, appressed, pointed tooth; first tergite 
about 2.3 to 3.0 times as long as wide; second and third tergites mat, with mod- 
erate punctures. 

Genotype — Xoridcs vittifroiis Cresson, 1868. 

This is a Holarctic genus, including Xorides vitifrons Cresson, 
1868, from eastern North America; Xorides scutellaris Desvignes, 
1856. from Europe; and Xorides alpensis ITchida, 1928, from Japan. 

Genus Ganodes, new genus 
Clypeus small, quadrate, about 1.5 times as wide as long, convex basally, the 
rest impressed, its apical margin subtruncate ; mandible short, its apex chisel- 
shaped, without teeth; temple in profile about 0.4 times as long as eye, its upper 
half coarsely scabrous ; mesoscutum strongly trilobed ; notauli strong, convergent, 
meeting on disc of mesoscutum; areolet present; nervulus before basal vein by 
about 0.3 times its length ; claws on front and middle legs of female (the male 
unknown) with a small median acute tooth; claws on hind tarsus simple, rather 
strongly curved; first tergite of female about 2.3 times as long as wide; second 
and third tergites polished, with moderate sized punctures. 

Genotype — Gnnodes haUeatus, new species. 



PBOC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 59, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, lll.)7 It) 

Ganodes balteatus, new species 

Femah — Fore whig 10 to 15 mm. long. Frons impunctate but with a few setae; 
scrobe of pronotum impunctate ; mesoscutum smooth, with scattered small, indis- 
tinct punctures, centrally with some sharp wrinkles; mesopleurum polished, most 
of it with shallow, moderate-sized, rather close punctures; propodeum trans- 
versely wrinkled on its median third, wrinkled on its lower margin, the rest with 
rather sparse weak punctures ; first tergite polished, with a few weak punctures 
and faint, fine transverse wrinkling; second and third tergites with moderate 
sized, rather close punctures interrupted by a median impunctate stripe, the stripe 
a little wider and the punctures a little sparser on the second tergite. 

Head white, the mandible, scabrous area on temple, frons medially and con- 
nected with upper half of occiput, and antenna except for flagellar segments 8 to 
19 black; propleurum brown, whitish near fore coxa; pronotum black, broadly 
white below and above; mesoscutum black, a lateral spot on front part of median 
lobe and a pair of discal streaks whitish; scutella w'hite surrounded by black; 
propodeum whitish, its median third black and with a dark brown pleural stripe 
extending from spiracle posteriorly ; a triangle under hind wing brownish ; pleura 
and sterna rufus, the mesopleurum sometimes mottled with whitish and with 
black below the subalar tubercle ; subalar tubercle of mesopleurum and mese- 
pimeron whitish ; tegula white ; wings hyaline, their veins dark browm but the 
costa basally whitish. Legs fulvous, the fore coxa anteriorly, the middle and 
hind coxae posteriorly, and tinges on front and middle femora and middle troch- 
anters browaiish ; front and middle tarsi blackish ai>ically; hind femur blackish; 
liind tibia and tarsus yellow. 

Tyi^e — ?, Nova Teutoiiia. I>razil, lX-27-4(). Fritz IMaumaiiu 
(Towiies). 

Taraiifpes. — 3 9 9 , same data as the tvpe but with the dates ITT-24:- 
27, IX-1.3-40. and X-19-4() (Towiies). 

Genus Cnastis, new genus 

Clypeus small, iiuadrate, about l.-l times as wide as loiiu, convex l)asally, ai)ically 
impressed, the apical margin subtruncate ; mandible very sliort, its apex chisel- 
shaped, without teeth; temple in profile about 0.67 times as long as eye, its upper 
0.6 coarsely scabrous; top of head somewhat flattened; mesoscutum weakly tri- 
lobed ; notauli sharp but not strongly impressed, almost meeting on disc of meso- 
scutum ; areolet absent, the intercubitus about 1.1 to 1.35 times as long as second 
aljseissa of cubitus ; nerAoilus before basal vein by about 0.3 to 0.4 times its 
length ; tarsal claws of fore and middle legs of female with an acute submedian 
tooth ; tarsal claws of hind leg simple, strongly curved ; first tergite of female 
about 1.5 to 2.0 times as long as wide; second and third tergite polished, with 
rather coarse, moderately dense punctures. The last tergite of the female is un- 
usual in extending beyond the cerci as a flattened lobe that is longer than wide. 
In related genera, the apex of the female last tergite is shorter and scoop-shaped. 

Genotype — Neoxorides longicaudis longicandis Baltazar, 1955. 

The genotype is from Luzon in the Philippines. There is a sub- 
species of the genotype (N. longicxmd/is mindanensis Baltazar, 1955) 
in Mindanao, Philippines, an undescribed subspecies of i\^. longicaudis 



20 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1957 

in Siani, and a specimen of the species is known from Java. Xorides 
vulgaris Uehida, 1928, is a second species of the genus, occurring in 
Japan. 

Genus Neoxorides 

Neoxm-ides Clement, 1938. Festschr. Embrick Strand, v. 4, p. 517. 
Type: Xorides nitens Gravenhorst. Original designation. 
Clypeus small, quadrate, about 1.5 times as wide as long, convex basally, the 
rest impressed, its apical margin subtruncate; mandible short, its apex chisel- 
shaped, wdthout teeth; temple in profile about 0.6 times as long as eye, its upper 
half coarsely scabrous; mesoscutum strongly trilobed; notauli strong, approxi- 
mate on disc of mesoscutum; areolet absent, the intercubitus about 0.4 times 
as long as second abscissa of cubitus; nervulus interstitial; claws simple, mod- 
erately curved; first tergite about 2.0 to 3.0 times as long as wide; second and 
third tergites microscopically transversely aeieulate, impunetuate or with a few 
weak, ineonspiciious punctures. 

This is a Holarctic g-enus, including the European Xorides nitens 
Gravenhorst, 1829, the European Xorides collaris Gravenhorst, 1829, 
and the American Xorides carijae Harrington, 1891, and Xorides 
horeoJis Cresson, 1870. 

Tribe Xoridini 

This tribe includes Xorides (—Xylononius) , Ischnoceros, Odonto- 
colon, and Aplomerus. Xorides is an isolated genus. The other three 
form a compact group, differing from Xorides as indicated in the key 
to genera and in the ovipositor as described under the genera. 

Ktsy to the Genera of Xoridini 

1. Mandible without two teeth, its apex chisel- shaped; epomia long and strong, 

usually projecting dorsally as a tooth ; female antenna curved or elbowed 
subapically, at the curve or elbow with one, two or a series of peg-like 

setae. Worldwide. Xorides 

Mandible with two subequal teeth (as normal) ; epomia absent or short 
and weak, not projecting dorsally ; female antenna not specialized sub- 
apically (as described above). 2 

2. Hind femur with a strong median ventral tooth. Holarctic. Odontocolon 

Hind femur without a median ventral tooth. 3 

3. Frons Avith a strong median horn or tubercle; body subcylindric. 

Holarctic. Ischnoceros 

Frons without a median horn or tubercle; body flattened. Nearctic.-.yl /)/omer«s 

Genus Ischnoceros 
Ischnoceros Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichncumonologiea Europaea 2 : 949. 
Type: Ichneumon rusticus Fourcroy. Designated by Viereek, 1914. 
Head and body not depressed ; apex of mandible with two subequal teeth ; 
frons with a strong median horn or tubercle; female flagellum not specialized 
as in Xorides; epomia absent; hind femur not thickened, without a tooth beneath; 
first abdominal segment short, stout, rather strongly bent at the middle; second 
torgite with weak oblique basal grooves; second and third tergites punctate or 



PROC. BNT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 59, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1957 21 

tniiisversely aeiculate ; apical part of ovipositor weakly compressed, the ventral 
valve Avith about five ridges, basad of which there is no roughened area. 

There are several Palaearctic species, and one in the United States. 
The United States species is described below. 

Ischnoceros clivulus, new species 

Female — Forewing 7 to S nun. long. Frons with rather fine punctures, and 
with a large, median, mound-like, weakly compressed tubercle whose apex is 
weakly grooved vertically; mesoseutuni polished, with small punctures whose inter- 
spaces are about 1.5 times their diameter ; mesopleurum polished, with moder- 
ately large Aveak punctures whose interspaces are about equal to their diameter; 
area dentipara with a weak transverse apical tooth; first tergite without a dorso- 
lateral carina beyond the spiracle; second tergite polished, except near the apical 
margin covered with microscopic transverse aciculation; ovipositor sheath about 
(•.(i7 times as long as fore Aviiig. 

Black. Tegula, base of fore wing, and l)ase of hind tibia externally, whitish; 
wings faintly tinged Avith lirown, the veins dark brown ; legs ferruginous, the 
hind tibia with a weak apical inf uscation ; abdomen brownish ferruginous basally, 
darkening to brown apically; ovipositor sheath blackish, ferruginous at the apex. 

This is the only species of Ischnoceros with the abdomen partly fer- 
rnginons. Its frontal horn is nnexcaA'ated, as in Ischnoceros sappo- 
rensis, but the abdominal sculpture is aciculate as in I. rusiicns rather 
than punctate as in I. sapporensis. 

Type—^, Cinder Cone, Lassen National Park, Calif., VI-19-41, 
P. D. Ilnrd (Berkeley). 

Paraiijpes — 2 9$. same data as tvpe (Berkeley and ToAvnes). 
?, Wright's Lake, Eldorado Co., Calif", VII-2-48, p". D. Hurd (Ber- 
keley). 

Genus Odontocolon 

Odoniomerns Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichneumonologica Europaea 3:851. 
Name preoccupied by Leach, 1819. 
Type: Ichneumon clenilpes Gmelin. Designated by WestAvood, 1839. 
Odontocolon Cushman, 1942. Proc. Ent. Soe. Wash. 44: 179. NeAV name. 
Head and body not, or A\'eakly flattened ; apex of mandible with two subequal 
teeth; frons without a median tul)erele or horn; female flagellum not specialized 
as in Xorides ; epomia absent or rudimentary; hind femur thickened, beneath 
with a strong median tooth ; first abdominal segment rather slender basally and 
enlarged apically, a little bent near the middle; second tergite Avithout oblique 
basal grooves ; first and second tergites polished, smooth or more or less aciculate 
or punctate; apical part of ovipositor Aveakly compressed, the ventral valve Avith 
about five ridges, basad of Avhich there is no roughened area. 

This is a Holarctic genus Avitli numerous species. 



2l2 PKOt". ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, XO. 1, FEHKUARY, 1957 

Genus Aplomerus 

J'IdliisoiiKi Piovaiiclu'r. ISS.l. Canad. Ent. 17: llo. Nanio iireoci-upied by 
Leach, 1S17, by Lienard, 1832, and by Brandt, 1835. 
Type: Platysoma tibialis Provaneher. Monobasic. 
Aplomerus Provaneher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada p. 117. 

New name for Platysoma. 
Anodontomerus Ashmead, 1900. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 2o : (il. 
Type: Aplomerus tihialis Provaneher. Original designation. 
Haplo-merus Dalla Torrt'. 19(il. Catalogus Hynienoi)terorum. 3: 392. 
Emendation. 
Head and body distinctly flattened; apex ot ni:indil)le with two subequal teeth; 
f rons without a median horn or tubercle ; female tlagelhim not apieally special- 
ized as in Xorides; epomia absent; hind femur not thickened, without a tooth 
beneath ; first abdominal segment depressed, its spiracle near its basal 0.3 ; second 
tergite without oblique basal grooves ; first and second tergites polished or with 
various aciculation or fine wrinkling; apical part of ovipositor weakly compressed, 
the ventral valve with about five ridges, basad of which there is no roughened 
area. 

This is a Xearetic genus, witli five speeies. 

Genus Xorides 

Xorides Latreille, 1809. Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins. 4: -t. 

Tj^e: Ichneumon indicatorius Latreille. Monobasic. 
Epixorides Smith, 1862. .Jour. Proc. Linnaenn Soc. London (Zool.) 6: 64. 
New s.ynonymy. 
Type: Epixorides clialyheator Smith. Monobasic. 
Moayisa Tosquinet, 1896. Mem. Soc. Ent. Belgique 5: 345. New synonymy. 

Type: Moansa praestans Tosquinet. Monobasic. 
Xeoxylonomus Szepligeti, 1914. Ann. Mus. Natl. Hungariei 12: 421. 
New synonymy. 
Type: Xeoxylonomus australis Szepligeti. ^lonobasic. 
Other synonyms: Xylonomus, Sterotriclius, Gonoplionus, Moerophora, Siclielia, 
Eharlina, Perissocerus, Cyanoxorides, Spiloxorides, Macrosterotrichius, Caeno 
stoma, Pcriccros, 'Rliadinopimpla, Ahyhorhyssa, Lavaudenia, Xylonomimus, 
and Xeoxylonomus Clement, not Szepligeti. 
Head and body not, or weakly flattened; apex of mandible chisel-shaped, with 
out teeth; frons without a median tubercle or lioiii, or sometimes with a horn or 
lamella lietween the antennal bases; female flagellum subapically elbowed or 
curved, on the outer side of the elbow or curve with one to several peg-like bris- 
tles; epomia strong, long, dorsally turning forward and usually forming a pro 
.jecting tooth at the turn; hind femur not thickened, without a tooth beneath; 
first abdominal segment subcylindric or prismatic basally, expanded apieally: 
stout and rather short to elongate and slender ; second tergite nearly always with 
an oblique basal groove on each side cutting off baso-lateral corners, and often 
with other grooves or impressions; second and third tergites variously sculptured; 
apical part of ovipositor cylindric or slightly depressed, the lower valve with about 
eight ridges, basad of whicli thei-e is a roughened area. 



PROC\ EXT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 59, \0. 1, FF.UKIAK V, lit.")? 23 

This is a large yeiuis of workhvide distribution and nnich struc- 
tural diversity among its sjK^eies. The speeifie diversity has led to 
the creation of separate genera for reception of some of the structural 
types. I list these generic names above as simple synonyms, though 
it is probable that after the specific relations are better understood it 
will be advisable to use some of the pro]iosed names for subgenera. 

BOOK REVIEW 

A CLASSIFICATION OF THE FIRST INSTAR LARVAE OF THE MELOI- 
DAE (COLEOPTERA), l.y J. W. MacSwaiii. T'liiversity of California 
Publications in l']ntoniolo,t!:,v, I"ni\HTsit\' of Califoiiiia Press, vol. 12, iv jihis 
181 pp., 29 pis. IIKIIJ. .^3.0(1. 

Tlie title is perliaps an uiiderstatenieiit of tlie scope of the paper, for in 
actuality this Avork represents a carefully anal\zefl account of both the phytogeny 
and the classification of the ^Nleloidae of the world. Furthermore, while the 
author's primary source of data was a comparative study of the morphology of 
the first-stage larvae, information pertaining to the morphology of the adults and 
especially biology was integrated and temperately synthesized wherever possible. 
Since the author's ideas concerning the systeniatics of the family Avere based on 
all these lines of evidence, there is little doubt but that this definitive paper will 
represent the l>asic framework of the classification of the Meloidae for years to 
come, in spite of the fact that small changes will become advisible when more 
1)iological data are uncovered, when larvae of other species are collected, and 
when the adults are more completely studied. 

The general outline of the i»ai)er is as follows: After the introduction, and 
acknowledgements, tlu' author brieiiy but concisely presents the history of the 
biological and systematic work ])ertaining to the larvae. He next treats the 
known biology of the members of the family, summarizing the data at the end 
in the form of comparative biological diagnoses of three of the five subfamilies. 
Little is known of the other two subfamilies, which, however, are small. This is 
followed by a discussion of the morphology of the first instars, with particular 
reference to an evaluation of the characters of systematic use. The last part of the 
paper, dealing with systeniatics of the family, is by far the largest, occupying 
127 pages. It is introduced by a treatment of tlie phytogeny, in which the author's 
reasons, both liiological and morphological, for dividing the family into five 
subfamilies are presented and discussed. The paper then provides, in a strietly 
taxonomic arrangement, an account of the subfamilies, tribes, genera, and species 
based upon the knowii first-stage larvae. This section includes both keys and 
comparative descriptions, and lists as well the geographic range of the taxon, 
the larval food, and the data of the material examined. In addition, the descrip- 
tions are often accompanied by some general explanatory remarks pertaining to 
relationship, nomenclature, and other pertinent information. Also included in 
the paper is a very extensive selected bibliography covering eight and one-half 
pages. The study terminates with twenty-nine plates of precisely delineated com- 
parative illustrations of the larvae, drawn mostly by the author. — Jerome G. 
ROZEN, Jr., Enfoniolofij/ Sesenrch Branch, U. S. Department of Af/ricuJture, Wash- 
ington, 1). C. 



24 PROe. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOU 59, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1957 

FOR EARLY PUBLICATIOIS 



\ CLASSIFICATION OF THE SIPHONAPTERA OF 
SOUTH AMERICA 

WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES 

by Phyllis Truth Johnson 



Memoir 5 

of the 

Entomological Society of Washington 



The stud}^ of South American fleas was begun in 1879 when Weyen- 
bergh published the first descriptions of species from that region, using 
specimens mounted on cardboard as was usual in that day. These 
fleas were restudied in balsam by Jordan and Rothschild in England 
shortly after the turn of the century, and from that time to the 
present day a large number of siphonapterologists, both in England 
and the Americas, have contributed to this study. Dr. Johnson's 
work is the first comprehensive taxonomic treatment of the fleas of 
the region, which comprises Trinidad and all of the continent and its 
coastal islands. The contemplated 275 page volume will be indispensa- 
ble to the serious student of this important order of insects. 

Memoir 5 opens with two discussions of morphological characters, one devoted 
to the terms used in the taxonomic section and the other to their taxonomic 
validity and possible phylogenetic significance. All the families, tribes and 
genera known to occur in South America are completely described and illus- 
trated, and the species within each genus have been listed with host and lo- 
cality data. Descriptions of 17 new species and two new subspecies bring the 
total number to 170. Keys to families, tribes, genera, and species are included. 
The discussion of each genus is terminated by a section giving the synonymies 
of the hosts concerned. The 114 plates are said to contain among the best 
illustrations of fleas currently available, and are grouped according to family. 
A section listing hosts, each with the fleas known to occur on it, recapitulates 
the host-flea information ; sections dealing with references, systematic index and 
list of abbreviations close the volume. 



Prepublication orders at the price of $8.00 to members and $9.00 to non- 
members may still be placed with the Society for Memoir No. 5. Orders should 
be addressed to Mr. Herbert J. Conkle, Custodian, Plant Quarantine Branch, 
Agricultural Research Sen ice, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington 
25, D. C. 



PROO. HINT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 59, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1957 25 

SOME SARGINAE COLLECTED IN SOUTH INDIA 

(DiPTERA, StRATIOMYIDAe) 

Maurice T. James, State College of Washington, Pullman. 

The present paper is based on collections made by P. S. Nathan in 
South India and either purchased by the author or supplied to him 
for study by the Canadian National Museum through the courtesy 
of G. E. Shewell. The study of this material has aided considerably 
in clarifying the taxonomic status of some poorl,y known species; it 
has provided material for proposing a new synonymy, previously 
suspected but not confirmed, involving a well-known and widely dis- 
tributed species ; and, finally, it has revealed two striking generic 
intergrades, one of which is a species apparently new to science. 

Microchrysa flaviventris (Wiedemann) 
Sargns flaviventris Wiedemann, 1824, Anal. Ent., p. 31. 

The status of the Oriental Microchrysa in which the males have 
a unicolorous yellow abdomen is unsettled, but the common Indian 
species seems to be flaviventris. I have seen a series from Gudalur, 
Nilgiri Hills, 3500', April, 1949 (Nathan; James Coll.) and a female 
from Kodaikanal, Pulney Hills, May, 1953 (Nathan; Canadian Na- 
tional Collection). Information on the types of M. flaviventris and 
M. fuscistigma de Meijere furnished to me through the courtesy of 
S. L. Tuxen and Br. Theowald, respectively, indicates that the discal 
cell is completely developed in both, contrary to what I had previously 
thought (James, 1950, p. 254) ; and in a series from Bangkok, Thai- 
land, Sept. 9, 1952 (M. H. Griffith; Univ. Kansas Collection), two 
males and one female had the discal cell complete, whereas one male 
had the vein forming the upper apical portion evanescent. This latter 
character, therefore, is apparently not of specific value. 

Microchrysa dichoptica, new species 

A typically appearing Microchrysa. in all aspects except that the 
eyes of the male are widely separated. The female might, on first ex- 
amination, be taken for 31. flaviventris, but the legs are entirely yellow 
and the head structure is different, the occipital orbits being more 
strongly developed below and the inner posterior corners of the eyes, 
when viewed dorsally, being almost angulate instead of broadly 
rounded, as in flaviventris. In Brunetti's (1923) keys this species 
would trace to the genus Sargns because of the dichoptic males ; under 
Sargns it would trace to inficitus Walker, from Bat j an, a yellowish 
species marked with black and, as Brunetti remarks, probably a Micro- 
chrysa, since Walker describes it as having holoptic males (the tyi3e 
is lost) ; under Microchrysa it traces either to fuscistigma or to 
flaviventris, depending on whether one considers the stigma as brown 
or yellow. Both fuscistigma and flaviventris males are holoptic, with 
the abdomen at least mostly yellow. 



•2ii PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, XO. 1, FEBKUAKY, 19.")7 

'Male. — Eyt's broadly sepaiati'd, tlio front and face almost ])arMlk'l sided, the 
latter l>ut sliglitly tlie Ijroader, about one-fiftli head widtli and sliglitly wider 
tlian the ocellar triangle. Occipital orbits narrow, tliough distinct, along their 
entire extent. Head metallic, lilue green on upper part of front and upper occipi- 
tal orl)its, blackish dulled by whitish pollen on lower third of front, bronze-green 
on the face, and blackish on the occiput and lower occipital orbits; facial orbits 
silvery; pile of upper part of front and occiput whitish, that of lower part of 
front and facial orbits silvery. Antennae yellow, the flagellum orange-yellow; 
arista black. Proboscis yellow. Thorax metallic bluish green, the pleura slightly 
more blackish, tlie humeri and the narrow upper margin of the mesopleura white; 
pile of pleura silvery, that of mesonotum yellowish-Avhite. Legs wholly yellow 
and yellow pilose; at most the last last segment of the hind tarsi blackish. Wings 
hyaline, the stronger veins brownish; venation altogether typical of the genus; 
stigma 1)rownish ; the veins forming the discal cell all strong; Mi weak; M.-i 
but little more than a fold in the membrane. Halteres yellow. Abdomen about 
as broad as thorax; its color blackish green, like that of the thoracic pleura; 
pile white ventrally, the more conspicuous dorsal pile white to yellowish white 
but overlying an inconspicuous, short, l)lack pile, especially medially. Genitalia 
orange-yellow, the capsule large and iirojecting. Length, 4 nmi. 

Female. — Front gradually widening from face to vertex; ratio to width of 
head in allotype 0.24 across oral margin, 0.28 at antennal base, and 0.35 at 
vertex; viewed from above, the jjosterior corners of the eyes distinctly angulated. 
Lower parts of front liluish grei-n, purplish in certain lights. Abdomen distinctly 
broader than thorax. Otherwise, excejjt sexually, as described for the male. 

Types. — Ilolotype, male, Kodaikanal, Pulney Hills, 6500'; South 
India, Nov. 9, 1953 (P. S. Nathan). Allotype, same data but May. 
1953. Paratj^pes : male, same data but Oct. 15, 1953; two females, 
same data but May 28, 1953, and May, 1953. Type in the Canadian 
National Collection. 

Sargus metallinus Falnicius 
.S'«)Y/H.s' metaUinus Fabricius, 1805, Syst. Antl., p. 258. 
Sargitu macians Walker, 1860, Proc. Linn. Soc. London, 4: 97; Brunetti, 1923, 

Rec. Indian Mus. 25: 156; James, 1948, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 98: 198 

(possible synonymy Avith i)ietallinii.s) ; James, 1950, Jour. Washington Acad. 

Sci. 40: 254. (New synonymy) 
Sargit.'i redhihen.s Walker, 1860, Proc. Linn. Soc. London, 4: 97; Lindner, 1937, 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (10)20: 375 (synonymy with macians). 
Sar</ufi concisus Walker, 1861, Proc. Linn. Soc. London, 5: 273; Brunetti, 1923, 

Rec. Indian Mus., 25: 155 (synonymy with redhihens) . 

The references cited in the above synonvmy are not intended to be 
exhaustive, but merely to give authority for the names used, for their 
synon^nny, and for the statements given in this discussion. 

Sargus mefaUwu.9, as here defined, is a very widespread and vari- 
able species, ranging from Southern China and Okinawa through 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 19r)7 27 

India to Ceylon, New Caledonia, and the Solomon Islands. Variability 
exists in color pattern, color of pile and at least one structural detail. 
Typical metallinus has the legs entirely yellow. In mactans the hind 
tibia is black at its base, and Brunetti states that this is the only way 
in which it differs from metallinus. In redhihens, all femora are 
broadly ringed with black or brown ; in concisus, according- to Brunetti, 
the brown is deeper and more extensive and the ''anterior" (fore and 
middle, by Brunetti 's usage) tibiae and the fore and hind tarsi are 
also distinctly brownish or brown. According- to Lindner, Solomon 
Islands males are mactans and females are redhihens; James has con- 
firmed this observation but has added that series from Singapore, 
India, and the Philippine Islands, in the United States National 
Museum, contain both sexes of both mactans and redhihens. Leg 
coloration, consequently, is hig-hly variable. The coloration of the 
head pile is, also, variable. In the mactans and redhihens forms, as 
well as in typical metaUinHS. the pile is usually yellow on the vertex 
and face but black or blackish on the front ; all these areas may have 
wholly or predominantly black or blackish pile, or certain males, with 
their subcontiguous eyes, may have the pile color of the front merely 
gray. The type of concisus according to Brunetti, is apparently lost 
and the specimen (named by Walker) which he described is headless; 
consequently the color of the head pile in this form is conjectural, but 
the specimen from Kodaikanal which I am referring to this form has 
the pile in all the above mentioned areas black. One quite obvious 
variable structural character is the width of the front in the male. 
In metallinus the front is commonly ver}^ narrow, its minimum width 
being much less than the diameter of the anterior ocellus; this area 
may be so narrow that the metallic coloration of the front is obscured 
or lost. In the mactans and redhihens forms the front may, likew'ise. 
be narrow, but it ma^- also broaden to as much as twice the diameter 
of the anterior ocellus, and the front is distinctly metallic. 

It is possible to recognize five more or less indistinctly defined forms 
of this species: typical metallinus, with wholly yellow legs, pale facial 
and vertical pile, and a very narrow frons in the male, widespread 
in the Oriental Region but so far not recorded for the Australian 
Region; mactans, indistinguishable from metallinus except for the 
black base of the hind tibia and a tendency toward a broader front 
in the male, in its distribution extending farther south than metallinus, 
to New Guinea and the Solomon Islands; redhihens, in which the 
femora are banded or marked with black or blackish and the hind 
tibiae are either black at the base or wholly yellow, in its distribution 
coextensive with mactans; concisus, a melanic form with predomi- 
nantly black or blackish legs and black facial and frontal pile, that 
occurs irregularly in the Oriental Region; and the unnamed form 
with white metapleura, described by James from New Caledonia. It 
is better, at our present stage of knowledge, to consider these merely 
forms, rather than subspecies, though I feel that ultimately three sub- 



28 PKOC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, XO. 1. FEBRUARY, 1957 

species can be defined: metaUinits, mactans (redhihcns, concisus) and 
the New Caledonia form, the former two intergrading and liybridizing 
in zones of contact. 

Snch a zone of contact seems to occnr in Sonth India. A series of 
eig'ht males and females from Koclaikanal, Pulney Hills, 6500', IV- 
1958, V-1953, and 28-V-1953 (Nathan; Canadian National Collection) 
are typical mefallinus but one female, same data, has the leg's entirely 
black except knees, apices of coxae, and trochanters and has the head 
pile black, and one male, same data, has black-ringed hind femora 
and black bases to the middle and hind tibiae, black vertical and 
predominantly black facial pile, and a widened front. Two males 
from Walaya'r Forest, S. Malabar, 1000', 31-VII-50 (Nathan; James 
Coll.) are typical metalUnus, but a female in the same series has black 
facial pile. Twelve males and seven females from the Nilgiri Hills, 
Singara, 3400', V-1954 (Nathan; Canadian National Collection); 
Gudalur, 3500', IV-1949, Sing-ara, 3400', V-1948, and Chirangoda, 
3500', 3-V-1950, X-1950 (Nathan; James Coll.) are intermixed typical 
metalUnus, mactans, and mactans grading toward t^edhiheyis, and 
with varying frontal width and, to an extent, head pile. A series of 
eight males and females from Ammatti, 3100', S. Coorg, V-1951, is 
comparable, with the same three variants and with the extremes of 
male frontal width present. 

Ptecticus cingulatus Loew. 
Ptecticiis cingulaUis Loew. 1855, Verli. Zool. — Bot. Yer. Wieii, 5: 143. Brunetti, 
1923, Rec. Indian Mus., 25: 143. 

The synonymy is given by Brunetti and is not repeated here. 

Specimens from South India may not trace readily through Bru- 
netti 's key, since the hind femora may be considered wholly yellow, 
the dark streak mentioned by Brunetti being very obscure or absent. 
This species is apparently abundant in some localities in South India, 
as I have seen more than a hundred specimens from Singara in the 
Nilgiri Hills. 

Ptecticus australis Schiner 
Ptecticus australis Scliiner, 1868, Novara Eeise, Dipt., p. 65; Brunetti, 1907, 
Rec. Indian Mus., 1: 113; Brunetti, 1920, Fauna British India, Diptera 
Brachycera, I, p. 79; Brunetti, 1923, Rec. Indian Mus., 25: 148. 
This species, which looks like a miniature cingulatus but is different 
structurally and in leg coloration, is also apparently common in the 
Nilgiri Hills. I have seen about 50 specimens from that area, in 
addition to the following South Indian material in the Canadian 
National Collection : 1 male, Kodaikanal, Pulney Hills, May, 1953 ; 
1 male, Yercaud, 4500', Shevaroy Hills, Dec, 1954. In the South 
Indian specimens which I have examined the hind basitarsus is black 
onlv at its extreme base; otherwise, Schiner 's description fits quite 
well. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1957 29 

Ptecticus aurobrunneus Brimetti 

Ptecticvs aiirobru7ineus Brunetti, 1920, Fauna British India, Dipt. Brachycera, 
I, p. 76; Brunetti, 1923, Eee. Indian Mus., 25: 139. 

This species was described from a unique male from Cochin State. 
1 have examined 5 males, Singara, 3400', Nilgiri Hills, Y-1948, ex 
rotting pomelo (Nathan; James Coll.) ; 1 male, same data but V-1954 
(Canadian National Collection) ; and 3 males, Kodaikanal, Pulney 
Hills, 6500', V-1953 (Canadian National Collection). These series 
agree with Brunetti 's description except for the characterization of 
the golden thoracic and abdominal pile; Brunetti says this is "dense 
though inconspicuous" on the mesonotum, but this statement depends 
on the light incidence, the pile being quite conspicuous when viewed 
from in front ; the abdominal golden pile, also, as well as the black 
patches mentioned by Brunetti, is clearlj- visible from in front, con- 
trary to Brunetti 's statement, but not from behind. The legs may be 
more extensively blackish than indicated in the original description. 
Brunetti 's statement "genitalia and vertex dark brown" is obviously 
a lapsus for ' ' genitalia and venter. ' ' One of the Kodaikanal specimens 
has the wings yellow, like the basal part of those of ivuJpii, and with 
only a little brownish along the lower apical margin. The relationship 
of aurohrnnneus and wulpii is very close; the male genitalia seem 
to be identical. 

The female of this species has not been described. A female, Ting- 
hawk, Burma, June 4, 1944 (L. C. Kuitert; Univ. Kansas Collection) 
seems to belong here, but there are no associated males. It is the size 
and general appearance of aurohrnnnens; the frons is a little broader, 
as would be expected in this sex ; the abdomen is broader, the first 
four terga wholly black, the fifth discolored brown, tlie apical segments 
rich brown as in the male. 

Ptecticus wulpii Brunetti 
Piccticus wulpii Brunetti, 1907, Eec. Indian Mus., 1: 111; 1913, Eee. Ind. Mus., 

9: 263; 1920, Fauna British India, Diptera Braehyeera I, p. 77; 1923, Bee. 

Indian Mus., 25: 139 
Ptecticus apicalis Wulp, 1885, Notes Leyden Mus., 7: 62; de Meijere, 1916, 

Tijd. Ent., 58, suppl. 70, note. Not apicalis Loew, 1855, Yerh. Zool. — Bot. 

Ver. Wien, 5: 142. 
Brunetti described this species from three males and one female 
from four localities, one of them the Nilgiri Hills. In his 1923 paper 
he stated that this species was readily recognizable "by the all black 
5th and 6th abdominal segments in conjunction with the all orange 
genitalia," and in his key he includes as an accessory character, 
couplet 5, "wing tip suffusion beginning at or immediately beyond 
discal cell." This latter statement conflicts with the Fauna of British 
India key, which separates wulpii partly on the basis of "wings clearly 
yellow up to half-way between discal cell and wing tip." 



80 PROC. ENT. SOr. AVASH., VOL. 59, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 19.')7 

I am referring' to tliis species two males from the Nilg-iri Hills, 
Singara, 3400', V-1948 (Nathan; James Coll.). In both of them, the 
infumated wing apex starts eonsiderablj^ beyond the apex of the 
discal cell ; in one of them the fifth and sixth abdominal segments are 
wholly black except for a small, unsymmetrically placed spot on each 
segment, whereas in the other the sixth seg-ment is wholly brownish 
orange dorsally and the fifth segment is black oidy at the base. 

Ptecticus cyaneus Bium'tti 
Ptecticiis cyaneus Brunetti, 1912, Rec. Indian Mus. 7: 453; Brunetti, 1920, Fauna 
Brit. India, Diptera Brachycera, I, p. 75; Brunetti, 1923, Rec. Indian Mus. 
25: 151. 

Brunetti records but two known specimens of this species, both 
females : the type from Assam, and a specimen from the Nilgiri Hills. 
I have a female, Chirangode, Nilg-iri Hills, 3500', May, 1950 (Nathan) 
that seems to be this species. The appearance is strikingly close to 
that of a large, rather robust specimen of Sargus mactans form 
concisus, but the two characters usually used to distinguish Ptecticus, 
namely the strong projection of the second antennal segment inwardly 
into the third and the absence of a strap-like prolongation on the 
lower (thoracic) squama, hold for this species. The venation is not 
very unlike that of S. mactans, and the anterior ocellus, as in most 
species of Sargus, is far removed from the hind pair. A striking 
character is the slender form and elongation of the hind tarsus, which 
is 1.5 as long as the hind tibia, the greater part of the length being 
in the basitarsus, which is seven-eighths the length of the tibia. 

This species is probably best retained in Ptecticus, but it is obviously 
an intergrade between this genus and Sargus: whether by convergence 
or phylogenetic relationship is a matter of speculation. It is note- 
worthy that the second antennal segment of Sargus mactans may be 
convex inwardl}', but not strongly prolonged, as in P. cyaneus. Sargus 
gemmdfer Fabricius, which Brunetti refers to Ptecticus in the "Second 
Revision" (1923) though not in the Fauna of British India, belongs 
as clearly in Sargus as does S. mactans. 



References 

Brunetti, E., 1920. The Fauna of British India. Diptera, Brachycera. Vol. I. 
Pp. X + 401. London. 

, 1923. Second revision of the Oriental Stratiomyidae. Rec. Indian 

Mus. 25: 45-180. 

James, Maurice T., 1950. The Stratiomyidae (Diptera) of New Caledonia and 
the New Hebrides with notes on the Solomon Islands forms. Jour. Wash- 
ington Acad. Sci. 40: 248-260. 



PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, lOoT 31 

MITES FOUND ON MICE OF THE GENUS PEROMYSCUS IN UTAH. 
II. FAMILY HAEMOGAMASIDAEi 

( AcAKlXA ) 

DoRALD M. Allrei), Ecolof/lrti} Brsearcli, Universily of Utah, Dugivay. 

To the present time there are few publications which deal specifi- 
eally with mites eollected in lUah. Doane (1916) published on phyto- 
phagous mites attacking i-rops. A check-list of phytophagous and 
predaceous mites was published by Knowlton and Ma (1950). Other 
notes on plant mites have been published by Davis and Knowlton 
(1954) and Knowlton (1955). Keegan (1953) was the first to publish 
on parasitic mites from TTtah. He listed host records of mites belong- 
ing to 12 species of seven genera which were taken from 95 individual 
rodents representing 14 species of nine genera. Included with the 
95 rodents were one specimen of Peromyscus truei, five P. crinitns, 
and 20 P. ynaniculatKs. The collections were restricted to Tooele and 
Juab counties in Utah. Allred and Beck (1953) made a study of 
the mites obtained from nests of wood rats in Utah. Most of the 6000 
mites collected during that study were identified only to family. 

This paper is the second of a series (Allred, ms.) which deals with 

(1) the kinds of mites found on mice of the genus Peromyscus in Utah, 

(2) their degree of host specificity. (3) their geographic distribution 
within the territorial limits of Utah as determined by their occur- 
rence on mice of the genus Peromyscus, and (4) other biological 
aspects pertaining to the mites. 

Brevisterna utahensis (Ewing), 1933 
(Figures 2.5, 28, 29, 30, 31) 

Ewiiig (1933) described B. utahensis from a single female collected from a 
wood rat, Xeotoma lepida, from Salina, Sevier County, Utah, March 21, 1929, 
by J. S. Stanford. Mites taken in the present study differ somewhat from the 
discussions of Ewing (op. cit.) and Keegan (1949). These mites possess a 
dorsal plate which is narrower and more pointed than was indicated by Ewing 
nnd Keegan. The paired anal setae are situated behind the anterior level of the 
anus rather than at the anterior level. The numbers of accessory setae of the 
genitoventral plate are 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, .") and 6 in seven specimens examined. In 
specimens examined by Keegan, the numbers of setae vary from eight to eleven. 
Specimens in this study have two small pairs of accessory metapodal plates. These 
differences probably are within the limits of specific variation. 

This species has been collected from wood rats and their nests in 
Arizona, California and Utah. Keegan (1953) listed collection rec- 
ords from a grasshopper mouse, Onychomys leucoga^ter. a wood rat. 



'Part 2 of an abstract from a thesis for the PhD degree. University of Utah, 
June, 1954. This work supported (in part) by a research grant awarded to the 
Brigham Young University by the Microbiological Institute, National Institutes 
of Health, United States Public Health Service. 



32 PKOC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 59, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1957 

Neotoma sp., and nests of wood rats from Utah. Allred and Beck 
(1953) found this species in wood rat nests from Juab and Utah 
counties. Brevisterna utahensis probably is state-wide in distribution. 
It is known to occur at elevations between 2500 and 5000 feet in the 
Lower and Upper Sonoran life zones. 

Only seven females were collected from white-footed mice in this 
study. These mites are associated more commonly with wood rats 
and their nests than wdth mice of the genus Peromyscus. It is likely 
that infestations of mice accidentally occur when mice wander into 
wood rat houses. These mites were collected from grasshopper mice 
and from wood rats and their nests in Utah during June, August. 
October and November. In this study, mites were found on mice 
only during April and June. One of the four times that it was col- 
lected, B. utahensis was the only kind found on its host. At other 
times, it was associated with the following species the number of 
times indicated:: Hirstionyssus spp., 3; Euhrachylaelaps hollisteri, 
2; Haemolaelaps glasgowi, 1; Derynanyssus sp., 1. 

Euhaemogamasus ambulans (Thoiell), 1872 
(Figures 17-24, 26, 27, 31) 

This species was described from mites from Europe. Specimens from North 
America are extremely variable with regards to the numbers of setae and the 
length-width ratios of the sternal shield. Keegan (1951) discussed these varia- 
tions and syuonymized several species with E. ambulans. With one exception, 
the mites collected in this study agree with Keegan 's redescription. The differences 
in the numbers of setae and the shape of the sternal plate occur within the limits 
of variation of western specimens. However, a single female collected in this 
study in Utah differs from typical E. ambulans in the length-width ratios of 
the tarsi, and the middle pair of sternal setae are barbed. 

Accordng to Keegan (op. cit.), E. ambulans has been taken from 
birds and mammals at many localities in the northern hemisphere. 
In North America, mites have been collected in Alaska and Canada, 
and in most states from California to New York. Keegan (op. cit.) 
reported records of this species from a wood rat, Neotoma cinerea, 
collected in Logan Canyon, Cache County, Utah in July, 1933. Allred 
and Beck (op. cit.) found this species in wood rat nests collected 
in Juab and Utah counties in October and November, 1951. These 
mites probably are statewide in distribution in Utah at elevations 
between 6000 and 10,000 feet. They are known to occur principally 
in the Transition and Canadian life zones. 

In Utah, E. ambulans probably is associated with wood rats, Neo- 
toma spp., and squirrels, Citelliis spp., and occurs most frequently 
in high mountain areas. In this stud.v, these mites were found only 

Euhaemogamasus barberi: Fig. 1, dorsal plate of female showing density of 
setae. Euhaemogamasus oudemansi (typical) : Fig. 4, dorsal plate of female 
showing density of setae; fig. 7, anal plate of female; fig. 8, genitoventral plate 
of female; fig. 12, left peritreme of female. Euhaemogamasus oudemansi (vari- 



PROO. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1957 



33 




ant): fig. 2, dorsal plate of female showing density of setae; fig. 3, genitoventral 
plate of female; fig. 5, anal plate of female; fig. 13, sternal plate of female; 
fig. 15, ventral view of left eomicula of female. Ischyropoda armatus: Fig. 6, 
sternal plate of female; fig. 9, chelicera of female; fig. 10, ventral view of left 
tarsus III of female; fig. 11, ventral view of left tarsus II of female; fig. 14, 
anal plate of female; fig. 16, genitoventral plate of female. 



34 PKOC. KST. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 59, NO. 1, FKHRUARY, 1957 

on male mice. It is likely that the male miee wander more extensively 
than do the females, possibly beeomino- infested when they enter the 
nests or houses of other animals such as wood rats and squirrels. 
Eighteen female mites M^ere collected from 18 mice in May, June, 
July and Aujiust. Infestation of mice during- these months only may 
be "attributable to the wandering habits of the mice or the mites 
during- the sunnner. 

Four of the 18 times that it was collected, E. amhulaus was the 
only mite found on its host. At other times, it was associated with 
the following species the number of times indicated: Haemnlaelups 
glasgowi, 11 ; If. megaventraUs, I; Tronihicula harperi, 2; Euhra- 
chylaelaps dehilis, 5; Lschyropoda armatus, 2; Hirst iomjssm sp., 1; 
Bdellonyssus sp., 1; Poecilochirus sp., 1; Hypoaspis sp., 1; Ascaidae 
sp., 1; Gamasolaelaptidae sp., 2; Pachylaelaptidae sp., 1; Parasitidae 
sp., 1. 

Euhaemogamasus barberi (H\viii<j), 1H2.1 
(Figures 1, .^1 ) 
Ewing (l!t2r)) dfsi-rihed E. harheri from two fcmak's taken from a "nest of 
small mammal'' from Maryland, and E. microti from two females taken from 
a meadow mouse, Microtus jyennnylv aniens from New York. Keegan (1951) 
synonymized these two species as E. harheri. The single female taken in this 
study is similar to Keegan 's redeseription. However, specimens examined by 
Keegan all have over 100 setae on the genitoventral shield; the mite from Utah 
has only 67. 

Mites of this species commonly are associated with rodents that 
live in meadows or marshy areas, such as meadow mice and shrews. 
According to Keegan (op. cit.), this species is known only from 
eastern United States and southeastern Canada. The collection in 
Utah considerably extends its range westward. The ndte was taken 
from an immature female mouse from Diamond Fork Canyon, Utah 
County in June, 1951. The mouse was trapped in a grove of cotton- 
wood trees by a small stream w'here grasses and wdllow^s formed a 
marshy area. 

The following species were found on the same host with E. harheri -. 
Euhrachylaelaps dehilis, Hirstionyssus occidentalis, and Haemolaelnps 
glasgowi. 

Euhaemogamasus oudemansi (Hirst), 1914 
(Figures 2-.'), 7. S, 12, IH, 15, 8]) 

Five females of this species were collected in this study. All of these differ 
slightly from Keegan 's (1951) redeseription. One differs by having a genito- 
ventral plate which is not as bulbous and expanded as described by Keegan. 
The plate extends only half, the distance between coxae IV and the anal shield 
in contrast to more than two-thirds the distance as discussed by Keegan. On the 
specimen from Utah, the length-width ratios of the tarsi are: leg I, 6:1; leg 
IT, 4.5:1; leg III, 4.5:1 ; leg IV, 6.():1. In Keegan "s discussion these ratios are: 



PROC. ENT. S0(\ WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1957 3,J 

leg 1, 8:1; leg II, 6:1; leg III, 7:1; leg IV, 9:1. The dorsal plate is not as 
broad anteriorly as Keegan illustrated, and covers considerably less dorsal surface. 
The arrangement of the pores on the dorsal plate varies slightly. Keegan did 
not mention the third pair of pores which occurs on tlie sternal shield. These 
are located on the most posterior edge of the plate. He illustrated the second 
pair of pores as being closer to the second sternal setae than to the third setae. 
In the specimen from Utah, the second pores are midway between the second 
and third sternal setae. 




E uhae mogamasus amhulans (typical) : Fig. 19, dorsal plate of female showing 
relative density of setae; fig. 21, sternal plate of female; fig. 22, genitoventral 
plate of female; fig. 26, anal plate of female. Euhaemogamasus amhulans (vari- 
ant) : Fig. 17, sternal plate of female; fig. 18, dorsal plate of female showing 
relative density of setae; fig. 20, ventral view of chelicera of female; fig. 23, 
ventral view of left cornieula of female; fig. 24, tectum of female; fig. 27, right 
peritreme of female. Brevistcrna utahetusis- : Fig. 25, dorsal plate of female; 
fig. 28, genitoventral plate of female; fig. 29, sternal plate and presternal area 
of female; fig. 30, anal i)late of female. 



36 PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOU 59, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1957 

In the other four mites, the dorsal plate is broader anteriorly than posteriorly 
and covers more of the dorsal surface than Keegan illustrated, and there are 
seven pairs of pores instead of six. The terminal portion of the cornicula is 
more pointed than Keegan shows in his illustrations, and the genitoventral plate 
is not as bulbous. The posterior invagination of the sternal plate is very broad, 
although this width varies between specimens. Further collections and study 
may indicate that these differences are specific variations. 

Keegan (op. eit.) designated this species as a facultative parasite 
of cosmopolitan distribution. The type specimens were taken from 
wild rats. More recent collections have shown hosts of many kinds 
from many areas. In Utah, Allred and Beck (1953) found this species 
in wood rat nests. These mites probably are state-wide in distribution. 
They are known to occur at elevations from 2500 to about 10,000 
feet in all of the life zones from the Lower Sonoran to the Canadian. 

These mites are not frequently found on mice of the genus Pero- 
myscus. They probably are restricted to the nest, or are consorts 
of animals of other species. Two of the mites collected each contained 
one egg. These eggs were in a ''granular" stage of development and 
were of large size, occupying almost one-half the space of the idiosoma. 
The mites were collected from mice in March, April, May and July. 

Mites of the following species were found on the same hosts with 
E. oiideniansi: Euhaemogamasus ambulmis, Haemolaelaps glasgowi, 
Euhrachylaelaps dehilis, Parasitidae sp., and Pachylaelaptidae sp. 

Haemogamasus alaskensis Ewing, 1925 

Ewing (1925) described this species from a single female taken 
from a mouse of the genus Microtus from Alaska. Keegan (1951) 
redescribed H. alaskensis from specimens taken from animals of 
several species and genera from the United States, Canada and Alaska. 
In the same paper (op. cit.) he listed records from shrews of the 
species Blarina hrevicanda (probably Sorex vagrans) taken at Mor- 
gan, Morgan County, Utah in August and September, 1932. 

In this study a single female mite of this species was collected from 
Peromyscns sp. in Millereek Canyon, Salt Lake Countv in September, 
1948. 

Ischyropoda armatus Keegan, 1951 
(Figures 6, 9-11, 14, 16, 31) 

Type specimens of this species were collected in California and Arizona from 
a pocket gopher, Thomomys sp., kangaroo rats, Dipodomys sp., and a wood rat, 
Neotoma sp. The mites collected in this study in Utah agree with Keegan 's 
(1951) description of the type. They differ in the dimensions of the plates and 
arrangements of the setae, but these characters are within the limits of varia- 
tion of the species. 

Rodents of many kinds serve as hosts for these mites. These include 
pocket gophers, kangaroo rats, wood rats, squirrels and native mice. 
These mites have been found in Arizona, California, Colorado and 



PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 59, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1957 




rig. 31. Collection localities of E. mnhulans, E. barberi, E. oudemansi, I. 
armatus, E. alasl-rn.sis, and B. utahensis in Utah. 



New Mexico (Keegaii, op. cit.). Iveegan (1953) records the occur- 
rence of these mites in Utah from two kinds of kangaroo rats, Dipod- 
omys ordii and D. microps, pocket mice, Perognathus parvus, and 
grasshopper mice, Onychomys leucogasier. In Utah, mites of this 
species probably are state-wide in distribution. They occur principally 
at elevations between 3000 and 6500 feet in the Upper Sonoran and 
Transition life zones. 

Three male and 27 female mites of this species were collected from 
11 mice during the periods from May through September, and in 



38 PROc. Kxr. soc. wash., vol. 59, xo. 1, February, li*.!? 

Xoveinber. The greatest numbers were taken in May. During the 
five-year period, they were collected only in 1952 and 1953. Six of 
the n times that it was collected, /. armatns was the only kind 
found on its host. At other times, it was associated with mites of 
the following species the number of times indicated: Bdellomjssus 
hacoti, 1 ; Haemola,elaps glasgoivi, 6 ; H. megaventralis, 1 ; Euhrachy- 
laelaps circviaris, 1 ; E. dehilis, 2; Hirstionyssus spp., 4; Dermanyssits 
sp., 1 ; Euhai'mogamasus amhulans, 1 ; Pachylaelaptidae sp., 1 ; Anten- 
nophoridae sp., 1. 

Discussion 

Most mites are not so host specific that their geographic distribu- 
tion is determined entirely by the range of their host. Nevertheless, 
mites of some species were associated more frequently with one 
kind of mouse than with another, such as Euhaemogamasus amhiilam 
and Ischyropoda armatus which were found most frequently on 
Peromyscus maniculatus. Mites of these species apparently occur 
only in the Middle Rocky Mountain Faunal Area (see Durrant, 
1952:480), yet their deer mouse host is state-wide in distribution. 

In the Upper Sonoran and Transition life zones in Utah, mites 
are active usually from May through September; this applies to 
Ischyropoda armatus. In the Lower Sonoran Life Zone and areas 
of the Upper Sonoran where climatic conditions approach those of 
the Lower Sonoran, mites are most active during the period from 
May to July. This applies to Euhaemogamasus oudemansi, found 
most commonly in these areas. Mites of the species Euhaemogamasus 
amhulans generally occur only at the higher elevations in the montane 
forest areas where they were most commonly found during the period 
from June through August. 

Population cycles of mites occur independently of one another 
in different geographic localities and may act as barriers which allow 
subspecies to develop rapidly. Mites of the species Ischyropoda 
armatus are both northern and southern in distribution, and may 
be divided into two groups on the basis of seasonal activity. The 
northern mites were commonly found on mice during the period 
from May through November, whereas the southern mites were found 
only from May through July. 

Although the numbers of mites of this family that were collected 
from Peromyscus are not large, they were sufficient to indicate cer- 
tain trends in seasonal population fluctuations and geographic dis- 
tribution. However, it is evident that these species are not regularly 
associated with mice of the genus Peromyscus in Utah. Further 
collections of other animals may disclose the preferred hosts, although 
it is possible that many of these species, such as Brevisterna utahensis, 
are primarily nest dwellers, and get onto the host only to feed. 



PKCC. EXT. sec. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 11K")7 3!) 

TABLE I. Checklist and host correlation of the numbers and kinds of mites of 
the family Haemogamasidac taken from each of four species of PeramyscHs. 
No mites of this family were found on Peromyscus boylii. 

No. Mites Taken From Each Peromyseus Species 
Species of Mite P- crinitus P. eremicus P. maniculatus P. tntei 

Brevisterna utahensis 4 2 1 

Knhaemogamasus ambiilaiis 17 
Eiihaemogawasus sp. near 

ainbulanii 1 

Eitharmogama.sus barberi 1 

Eiihat nwfnimasu.s oudemansi 1 3 
Eitha(moflama.su.s sp. near 

oitdeiniuansi 1 

Haemogania.sus alaskensis 1 

Ischyropoda armatus 28 2 



References 

Allred, Dorald M. Mites found on mice of the genus Peroiny.scii.s in Utah. I. 

General Infestation. (Unpublished manuscript.) 
Allred, Dorald M. and D. Elden Beck, 1953. Mite fauna of wood rat nests in 

Utah. Proc. Utah Acad. Sci., Arts and Letters 30:53-56. 
Baer, J. G., 1951. Ecology of animal parasites. Univ. IIT. Press, Urbana, Illinois. 

224 pp. 
Davis, Donald W. and George F. Knowlton, 1954. Controlling spider mites. Utah 

State Agric. College, Ext. Circ. No. 211, 4 pp. 
Doane, R. W., 1916. Notes on mites attacking orchard and field crops in TTtah. 

Science 46(1182) :192. 
Durrant, Stephan D., 1952. Mammals of Utah. Univ. Kansas Publ., Mus. Nat. 

Hist., Lawrence, Kansas, Vol. 6, 549 pp. 
Ewing, H. E., 1925. New mites of the parasitic genus IlaemofjaiuasKs Berlese. 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 38:137-144. 
, 1933. New genera and species of parasitic mites of the superfamily 

Parasitoidea. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 82(30) :1-14. 
Keegan, H. L., 1949. EuJiaemogamai^iis utahensi.s Ewing, 1933, redescribed as 

type species of new genus BrivL'^terno (Acarina: Laelaptidae ). Trans. Amer. 

Micro. Soc. 68(3) :222-227. 
, 1951. The mites of the subfamily Haemogamasinae (Acari: Laelap- 
tidae). Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 101(3275) :203-268. 
, 1953. Collections of i)arasitic mites from Utah. The Great Basin 



Nat. 13(1-2) :35-42. 
Knowlton, George F., 1955. Celery and potato field insects of I'tah — Part III. 

Utah State Agric. College, Mimeo. Series 416, 17 pp. 
, 1955. Some insects of Utah— 1954. Utah State Agric. College, 

Mimeo. Series 135, 13 pp. 
and S. C. Ma, 1950. Some Utah mites — 1949. .lour. Kansas Ent. 

Soc. 23(2) : 74-76. 



40 PROO. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 59, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1957 

TAXONOMIC NOTES ON NORTH AMERICAN APION 

(COLEOPTERA, CX-TKCULIONIDAe) 

The complete reference to the following species may be found in 
Wagner, 1912, Genera Insectorum, fasc. 130, Apioninae, or Wagner, 
1911, Junk Coleopterum Catalogus, pars 6, Apioninae. 
Apion arizonas Fall (1898) = A. segnipes morrisoni Wagner (1911). Neio 

synrniymy. 
Apion disparatum Sharp (1890) = A. nasutum Fall (1898). New synoiiymy. 
Apion disparipes Fall (1898) = A. brunneotibiale Wagner (1912). New 

synonymy. 
Apian erythropterum Sharp (1890) = A. pyriforme Smitli (1884), nee. Kirsch 

(1874), new synonymy. A. falli Wagner (1909), new synonymy. 
Apion hastifer Sharp (1890) = A. poeticxim Sharp (1890). Neiv synonymy. 
Apion luteirostre Gerstacker (1845) = A. acarinum Sharp (1890) ; A. argentinum 

Beguin-Billecoeq (1909); A. cydoniae Bondar (1950). New synonymy. 
Apion plenriticum Sharp (1890) = A. fraudulenium Sharp (1890). New 

synonymy. 
Apion punctulirostre Sharp (1890) = A. spectator Sharp (1890). Netc synonymy. 
Apion simile Kirby (1811) = A. snperciliosum Gyllenhal (1813) ; A. triste 

Germar (1817); A. lanuginosum Walsh (1867), nee Gerstacker (1854), new 

synonymy; A. walshii^m\i\\ (1884), new synonymy; A. vicinum Smith (1884), 

new synonymy ; A. eppelsheimi Faust (1887). 

Apio7i fraiernuni Smith (1884) is a good species and is distinct 
from A. griseum Smith (1884) with which it has been synonymized 
by Fall (1898). Lectotype of A. fraternum is hereby designated as 
the female specimen labeled Columbus, Texas, U.S.N. M. Cat. No. 1252. 
Lectoparatypes are in the J. L. Leconte collection. Lectotype of A. 
griseum is here designated as the male specimen labeled New Jersey, 
U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 1253. 

A. fraternum Smith is the more abundant and widely spread species 
of the two. The larvae develop in beans of the genus Sfrophostyles; 
series were examined that were reared from seed pods of ♦S'. helvola 
and A. umhellata. A. griseum Smith occurs along the Atlantic sea- 
board from New York to Florida. It has been reared from the seeds 
of PJiaseolus polystachys. 

The following summarizes the principal distinguishing characters : 
A. grise^im Smith, front tibia of male with an elongate, flattened, polished, 
striate area on inner anterior face extending one-half length of tibia ; beak of 
female in dorsal view parallel sided in apical third. A. fraternum Smith, front 
tibia of male with slight flattened area on inner anterior surface devoid of scales, 
but not polished and at most feebly striate, extends not more than one-third 
length of tibia ; beak of female in dorsal view distinctly expanded at tip. 

— D. Ct. Kissinger, Depart mod of Entomology, University of Mary- 
Ian ft. College Park. 



PBGC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 1, FEBRUAEY, 1957 41 

SOLUBEA BERGROTH, 1891, A SYNONYM OF OEBALUS STaL, 1862, 

AND 
A NOTE CONCERNING THE DISTRIBUTION OF O. ORNATUS (SAILER) 

(HEMIPTEBiA., PeNTATOMIDAb) 

E. I. Sailer, Eniomology Research Branch, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

Washington, I). C. 

Dr. W. E. China of the British Museum has brought to my attention 
the fact that Oebalus Rafinesque 1815 was and still is a nomen nuckim. 
Hence Bergroth's 1891 proposal of Soluhca as a new name for Oebalus 
Stal, 1862, was without justification and Soluhca Bergroth must be 
treated as a synonym of Oebalus Stal. 

This change of generic name is of importance since the economically 
important rice stink bugs are involved. Fortunately, the name Soliibea 
did not come into general use in economic literature until after 1920, 
though it became established in taxonomic literature 15 years earlier. 

In the following check list of trivial names that must now be placed 
under the generic name of Oebalus, those names currently recognized 
as valid are in bold face type and synonymous names are in italics. 
The genus in which the trivial name was originally described is shown 
in brackets. 

Check List of Trivial Names Assigned to the Genus Oebalus 

augur (Say), 1831 [Pentatoma] = pugnax (F.) 

exigua (Berg), 1891 [Mormidea] = poecilus (Dallas) 

5reo<7rop/tfco (Guerm-Mene\alle), 1857 [Pentatoma] (preoccupied) = insularly Stal 

grisescens (Sailer), 1944 [Solubea] New combination. 

guerini (Lethierry and Severin), 1893 [Mormidea] (new name for geographica 

G.-M.) = insularis Stal 
inscriptus (Fabricius), 1803 [Ciniex] = ypsilon-griseus (DeG.) 
insularis Stal, 1872 [Oebalus] 

linki (Heidemami), 1917 [Mormidea] New combination 
litteratus (Gmelin), 1789 [Cimex] = ypsilon-griseus (DeG.) 
mexicanus (Sailer), 1944 [Solubea] New combination 
omatus (Sailer), 1944 [Solubea] New combination 
orthocantha (Palisot de Beauvois), 1805 [Pentatoma] = pugnax (F.) 
poecilus (Dallas), 1851 [Mormidea] New combination 
postposita (Bergroth), 1914 [Solubea] = poecilus (Dallas) 
pugnax (Fabricius), 1775 [Cimex] 

rufescens Haglung, 1868 [Oebalus] = poecilus (Dallas) 
similis Kuhlgatz, 1902 as variety of insularis [Oebalus] = poecilus (Dallas) 
torridus (Sailer), 1944 [Solubea] as subspecies of pugnax — pugnax torridus 

(Sailer) New combination 
typhoeus (Fabricus), 1803 [Ciniex] = pugnax (F.) 
vitripennis (Burmeister), 1835 [Cimex] = pugnax (F.) 
ypsilon-griseus (DeGeer), 1773 [Cimex] 
ypsilonoides Berg, 1879 [Oebalus] = ypsilon-griseus (DeG.) 



42 



PROC. ENT. SOl'. AVASH., VOL. 59, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1957 



Except for Rafinesque, 1815, references to the literature mentioned 
above may be found in Sailer, R. I., 1944, The Genus Solubea (Heter- 
optera: Peutatomidae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 46(5): 105-127. The 
reference to Rafinesque 's work is as follows : Analyse de la Nature, ou 
Tableau de I'Univers et des Corps Organises. Palerme, 1815, page 140. 
(See Complete Writings of C. Z. Rafinesque on Recent and Fossil 
Conchology, edited by Wm. G. Binney and G. W^. Tryon, Jr., Bailliere 
Brothers, New York, 1864, 96 pages.) 

At the time I described or^iatu^ it was known from the islands of 
Puerto Rico and Hispaniola, where the species is common. In addition, 
I reported three specimens from Cali, Colombia, which I thought 
might have been mislabeled, since I had no other records from either 
Central or South America. Subsequently, specimens of ornatus were 
sent to me from a locality 47 kilometers from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 
along the highway to Sao Paulo, where they were collected by Dr. 
Petr Wygodzinsky on November 12, 1943. 

The discovery of ornatuii so far south in Brazil raises a question 
concerning the identity of Mormidea exigua Berg. Using Berg's de- 
scription and the distribution of poecilus as guides, I concluded that 
exigua could be only a synonym of poecilus. Since poecilus and orna- 
tus can be distinguished only by differences found in the male and 
female genital structures, the certain identity of exigua must be 
decided by an examination of the genitalia of the type specimen. 
Should these prove identical with ornatus (Sailer, 1944), this name 
wdll fall as a synonym of exigua Berg, 1891. 




RESEARCH . . . key to the future 

Diamond Alkali recognizes the importance of research 
and salutes the men and women whose continuing efforts 
to unlock the doors of knowledge promise a brighter 
future for humanity. As evidence of this belief, the staff 
and facilities of the Diamond Research Center again are 
being expanded. We will welcome requests for co-oae-?- 
tion on research and development projects. 



PIAMOMD 



DIAMOND ALKALI COMPAMY 

Cleveland 14, Ohio 



PROO. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, XO. 1, FEBKUARY, ltl.")7 



43 




NORMAN EUGENE McINDOO 

1881-1956 



The profession of entomology lost a valued and highly respected 
member with the passing of Norman Eugene Melndoo on September 7, 
1956, while hospitalized at the Washington Sanatarium, Takoma Park, 
Maryland. Previous to his death, due to slowly failing heart action, 
he had been partially incapacitated by a stroke for a considerable 
period. 

Dr. McIndoo was born at Lyons, Indiana, April 11, 1881. After 
completing his early education, he entered the University of Indiana 
from which institution he received a degree of A.B. in 1906. Follow- 
ing his graduation, he taught in high school in Wisconsin, 1906-08. 



44 PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 59, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1957 

He then reentered the University of Indiana and received an A.M. 
degree in 1909. As a Harrison fellow, he matriculated in the same 
year at the University of Pennsylvania and was awarded the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy in Zoology in 1911. In addition to the foregoing 
educational pursuits and practices, Dr. Mclndoo assisted at the Uni- 
versity of Indiana, 1905-06, and in the summer of 1905 collected blind 
fishes in caves of western Cuba as well as other fishes indigenous to 
the fresh and salt waters of the island. He also attended the Biological 
Station of the University of Indiana, the Woods Hole Biological Sta- 
tion, the George Washington University, and the United States De- 
partment of Agriculture Graduate School. 

Dr. Mclndoo 's later interests in and researches on the sense organs 
and responses of insects to various stinuili were largely initiated by 
his studies at the University of Pennsylvania which resulted in the 
publication of his thesis entitled "The Lyriform Organs and Tactile 
Hairs of Araneads. ' ' 

The Bureau of Entomology of the United States Department of 
Agriculture appointed Dr. Mclndoo to its staff in 1911 and assigned 
him to the Division of Fruit Insect Investigations. After serving in 
this and other divisions for a period of 34 years, he retired as a senior 
entomologist in 1945. During his long and distinguished career, Dr, 
Mclndoo 's researches received world-wide recognition, particularly in 
the field relating to the olfactory and other sense organs of insects 
belonging to the orders Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, 
Diptera, and Orthoptera. He developed the well-known Mclndoo 
olfactometer, which instrument was extensively used in his studies on 
insect attractants and repellents. 

In addition to Dr. Mclndoo 's researches in the science of osmics, he 
made extensive investigations of derris, cube, and other rotenone-bear- 
ing plants to evaluate their usefulness for the destruction of insect 
pests. 

Dr. Mclndoo was the author or coauthor of 84 publications and was 
particularly adept in making detailed pen and ink drawings to illus- 
trate the text. 

Dr. Mclndoo was a past president of the Entomological Society of 
Washington, a fellow in the Entomological Society of America, and a 
member of the American Society of Zoology and of the Insecticide 
Society of Washington. In addition, he participated actively in many 
civic organizations of the Washington area. 

Dr. Mclndoo will always be remembered as a modest man, a con- 
scientious worker and a gentleman in every respect. He will be greatly 
missed by all who had the good fortune to know and associate with 
him. He is survived by his widow, Emma P. Mclndoo, two children, 
Thomas M. and Mary, and two grandchildren. 

E. H. SIEGLEE 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 1, FEBRUAJIY, 19.")7 4.) 

SOCIETY MEETING 

The 657th regular meeting of the Entomological Society of Washington was 
held on Thursday, November 1, 1956, in room 43 of the U. S. National Museum. 
Tliere were 54 members and 52 visitors present. President E. A. St. George called 
the meeting to order at 8:00 p.m. and the minutes of the previous meeting were 
read and approved. 

The following new members were elected: 

Fred A. Morton, Entomology Branch, Office of the Chief of Engineers, Depart- 
ment of the Army; Dr. Lafc B. Edmonds, Engineering Kesearch and Develop- 
ment Laboratory, Fort Belvoir, Va. ; Willmm L. Doivnes, Jr., Insect Identification 
and Parasite Introduction Section, U. S. National Museum, Washington 25, D. C. ; 
Robert F. Travis, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Plant Industry Station, Belts- 
ville, Md.; John Knox Clagctt, 6909 Carlcton Terrace, College Park, Md. ; and 
Max W. McFadden, 2040 Eye St. N.W., Washington 6, D. C. 

F. W. Poos, in behalf of the nominating committee, reported on the proposed 
officers for 1957. (Note: Officers for the year 1957 are presented on the inside 
front cover. — Ed.) President St. George thanked Dr. Poos for presenting the 
report in behalf of chairman W. H. Anderson, and thanked the committee, of 
which the third member was W. D. Eeed, for preparing the slate of nominations. 

Some corrections offered by members to the proposed constitutional change 
presented at the previous meeting were discussed by President St. George. Voting 
on the proposals was deferred until the annual meeting in December, because of 
the large number of visitors present. 

Randall Latta brought greetings to the Society from the American Entomologi- 
cal Society, which he addressed at its regular meeting in the Academy of Natural 
Science in Philadelphia in September. 

H. H. Stage exhibited a pendant of amber containing several fossilized insects. 

W. E. Bickley announced that the "woolly-bear" prediction this year was for 
a mild winter, and that tliis is to be his final observation on the subject. Presi- 
dent St. George recalled seeing the statement that woolly-bears are unreliable 
forecasters. 

■ R. H. Foote exhibited "Aiiuatic Insect.s: of California," edited by Robert L. 
Usinger. Jerome G. Rozen reviewed "A Revision of the Genus Pselaptrichns 
Brendel," by Robert O. Schuster and Gordon A. Marsh, and "A Classification 
of the First-Instar Larvae of the Meloidae," by J. W, MacSwain. 

C. F. Rainwater gave a note on the status of the Mediterranean fruit fly pre- 
pared by the Plant Pest Survey Section. In Florida 11 new infestations were 
found during September in known infested counties. The last infested county 
was Osceola found two months ago. By the end of September, 168 infestations 
were known in 27 counties. There were 38,825 traps in the field, 36,000 in 39 
counties in Florida. The remainder were in Alabama, California, Georgia, Louisi- 
ana, Mississippi, and Texas. No flies have been found outside of Florida. A 
total of 3,853,674 acres have been treated with bait spray and 26,673 acres have 
received surface treatment with gnnuilar insecticides. 



46 PROC. KXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, .\0. 1, FEBRUARY, li*.")? 

Of the area treated by aircraft with bait spray, 1,331,73.3 acres were cov- 
ered under Federal contract and 2,249,270 acres under State contract. Aircraft 
Avas used to treat 3,167 acres with granular insecticides, and ground equipment 
to spray 17,442 acres with bait spray and 22,446 acres with granular insecticide. 
Treatment is still being applied to 246,000 acres, which is a reduction of some 
(>5 percent from the original spray area. The fly has exhibited a marked ability 
to build up rapidly when controls have not been properly timed. On September 
26 certification was waived on all regulated vegetables produced in all Federally 
regulated counties except Pinellas. (Speaker's abstract.) 

The principal paper of the evening, "Malm-ia Control Problems in IndoChina," 
was given by Harry H. Stage, Malaria and Vector Control Specialist (until retire- 
ment October 31, 1956), International Cooperation Administration, Vietnam. 
Dr. Stage introduced Dr. Louis Williams, Jr., Pan American Sanitary Bureau, 
regional office of the World Health Organization. 

The problems encountered in efforts to control malaria in Indochina are many 
and varied. Some of them are concerned with lack of trained personnel. Such 
problems can be resolved, although that requires time and local interest. Others 
are more complicated because they are closely associated with the very life of 
the people — their habits, their ideology, and their security. These latter prob- 
lems do not yield easily to western ideas of organization and management, and 
they should not be subjected completely to our kind of logic. Rather, we for- 
eigners must bend to unaccustomed lines of approach and emphasis. These latter 
])roblems — indefinite, in some cases unmentionable — are no less vital to us who 
undertake a disease-control project than problems having to do with the insect 
vector itself. In Vietnam the problem is especially complicated because there 
;ire some 700,000 tribal Indonesians living in remote mountain areas and who 
contribute little to the economy of the country. The Vietnamese are therefore 
inclined to disregard them iiu health programs and social welfare. The problems 
of military insecurity, transportation, trained personnel, and customs, require 
special consideration and thought. The problems having to do with finances are 
not those involved in inadequacy of funds ; rather, they are concerned with pro- 
cedures for getting the money to the end point. The steps are nmny and tor- 
tuous, and sometimes there are leakages enroute. There are 22 species of An- 
opheles, probably only three of which, A. mininntf:, A. jeyporiensift, and A. sun- 
(Kacufi, are effective vectors. These have very definite habitat requirements, 
however, and so cause a "spotted" incidence over the nation. Emphasis should 
be placed on one of the greatest problems — and weaknesses — in the Indochinese 
Malaria Control Programs, that of inadequate supervision. Without it anopheline 
resistance will be promoted and this in turn will make the task of eventual ma- 
laria eradication difficult indeed. (Speaker's abstract.) 

Dr. Stage's slides Avere an excellent complement to his talk, wliich was fol- 
lowed by questions and comments by Doyle Reed, Margaret Walton, Louis Wil- 
liams, Reece Sailer, and others. 

Two new members were introduced, Lafe Edmonds and Fred Morton. The 
visitors introduced Avere Frederico and Anna Lane of Brazil, Major Tibor Lepes 
of Yugoslavia (where his name would be given as Lepes Tibor), Mrs. Stage, Mrs. 
Tjucie C. Timberlake, and Dr. J. Bonne-Wepster, of the Netherlands. The meet- 
ink adjourned at 9:48 p.m. — KbljjIe O'Neill, Secording Secretary. 



PBOO. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, lOf)? 



47 



A Cyanamid Report 



Resistance 



Resistance to chlorinated hydrocarbon type 
insecticides has been proven or suspected in : 



cockroaches 

mosquitoes 

Colorado potato beetle 

dog and cat fleas 

bed bug^s 

codling motb 

leafboppers 



house flies 
flea beetles 
cotton boll wreevil 
body lice 
lygus bugs 
cotton leaf •worm 
dog ticks 



Many researchers have found malathion to be 
a capable replacement for the chlorinated 
hydrocarbons and have made recommendations 
for its use. If you have a "resistance" problem 
in your area, you might well consider malathion 
for your 1957 research schedule. 



C YA. JSTA JWr I X> 



Developers and producers of malathion and parathion 



Write for 

particular 

technical 

information 



AMERICAN CYANAMID COMPANY 

Agricultural Chemicals Division 

Insecticide Research 

30 Rockefeller Plaza, N. Y. 20, N. Y. 



Pyrenone 



* 



HELPS TO PRESERVE 
PRINCIPLE OF NATURAL CONTROL 



Jtyrenone quickly kills destructive, annoy- 
ing and disease-carrying insects. 

In the absence of sunlight, it remains effective 
for long periods of time. In fact, a single application 
of Pyrenone protects stored grains from insect at- 
tacks for an entire storage season. 

On growing crops Pyrenone kills the accessible 
stages of insects fast — even between showers of 
rain. Yet natural factors of rain and sunlight do not 
permit Pyrenone to form long-lasting residues. Be- 
cause long-lasting residues are not present, the newly 
emerging parasites and predators are free to com- 
plete their life cycles and to continue to parasitize 
or feed upon destructive insect pests. 

This means that Pyrenone is completely com- 
patible with the natural control of crop-destroying 
insects. 

'Reg. U.S. Pat. Off.. F.M.C. 




FAIRFIELD CHEMICAL DIVISION 

Food Machinery and Chemical Corporation 
1701 Patapsco Avenue • Baltimore 26, Md 



BRANCHES IN PRINCIPAL CITIES 



k 



w 



In Canada: Natural Products Corporation, Toronto and Montreal 



GREAT 
INSECTICIDES 




CONTROL THESE INSECTS 

CHLORDANE: Ants, Armyworms, Blister Beetles, Boxelder Bug, Brown Dog Tick, 
Cabbage Maggot, Carpet Beetles, Cattle Lice, Chiggers, Cockroaches, Crickets, 
Cutworms, Darkling Beetles, Dog Mange, Earwigs, Fleas, Flies, Grasshoppers, 
Household Spiders, Japanese Beetle Larvae, Lawn Moths, Lygus Bugs, Mole 
Crickets, Mosquitoes, Onion Maggot, Onion Thrips, Plum Curculio, Sarcoptic 
Mange, Seed Corn Maggot, Sheep Ked, Silverfish, Sod Webworms, Southern 
Corn Rootworm, Strawberry Crown Borer, Strawberry Root Weevils, Sweet 
Clover Weevil, Tarnished Plant Bug, Termites, Ticks, Wasps, White Grubs, 
Wireworms . . . and many others. 

HEPTACHLOR: Alfalfa Snout Beetle, Alfalfa Weevil, Ants, Argentine Ant, Army- 
worms, Asiatic Garden Beetle Larvae, Black Vine Weevil, Root Maggots, Clover 
Root Borer, Colorado Potato Beetle, Corn Rootworms, Cotton Boll Weevil, 
Cotton Fleahopper, Cotton Thrips, Crickets, Cutworms, Egyptian Alfalfa Weevil, 
European Chafer, Eye Gnats, False Wireworms, Flea Beetles, Garden Web- 
worm, Grasshoppers, Japanese Beetle, Leaf Miners, Lygus Bugs, Mormon 
Cricket, Mosquitoes, Narcissus Bulb Fly, Onion Maggot, Onion Thrips, Rapid 
Plant Bug, Rice Leaf Miner, Salt Marsh Sand Fly, Seed Corn Maggot, Spittle- 
bug, Strawberry Root Weevils, Strawberry Rootworms, Sugar Beet Root Mag- 
got, Sweet Clover Weevil, Tarnished Plant Bug, Tuber Flea Beetle, Western 
Harvester Ant, White Fringed Beetles, White Grubs (June Beetles), Wireworms 
...and many others. 

EN D R I N : Budworms, Cabbage Worms, Cotton Boll Weevil, Cotton Boll worm, Cot- 
ton Fleahopper, Fall Armyworm, Grasshoppers, Hornworms, Leafworms, Rapid 
Plant Bug, Spiny BoUworm, Sugar Beet Webworm, Tarnished Plant Bug, Thrips. 

WRITE FOR FULL PARTICULARS 






General Offices and Laboratories 
330 East Grand Avenue, Chicago 11, II 



Foreign Division 

350 Fifth Avenue, New York 1, N. Y, 



i ' i ^TO^ 



RCPRESENrATIVCS 



P R I N C I f A I 



CITIES 




QUALITY INSECTICIDES 



Preferred by Home Owners, 
Food Processors and Dairymen 

QUICK ACTION GULFSPRAY (Liquid) 

A "space spray" for quick knockdown and kill of many 
kinds of flying and crawling insects. Contains 0.10% Pyre- 
thrins, 0.12% Piperonyl Butoxide, and 0.75% Methoxychlor. 

GULFSPRAY AEROSOL BOMB 

Gulf's carefully researched formula provides quick knock- 
down action and high kill. Contains 0.25% Pyrethrins, 1% 
Piperonyl Butoxide, and 2% Methoxychlor. 

GULF MOTH PROOFER (Bomb) 

An easy-to-use pressurized spray for protecting woolens 
against moth and carpet beetle damage. Contains 3% DDT 
and 3% Perthane. 

GULF ANT AND ROACH BOMB 

A convenient pressurized spray containing contact and resid- 
ual insecticides for killing ants and cockroaches. Contains 
0.08% Pyrethrins and 2% Chlordane. 

SPECIAL GULFSPRAY (Liquid) 

A superlative-quality insecticide specially formulated for 
use where foodstuffs are processed, stored, served, and sold. 
Contains 0.25% Pyrethins and 0.20% Piperonyl Butoxide. 

GULF LIVESTOCK SPRAY 

Long proven formula with effective insect- killing power and 
repellent properties. Contains 0.07% Pyrethrins and 0.19% 
Piperonyl Butoxide. 

GULF OIL CORPORATION 

GULF BUILDING, PITTSBURGH 30, PA. 



^OL. 59 



APRIL 1957 



NO. 2 



PROCEEDINGS 



of the 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

. WASHINGTON 




U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 
WASHINGTON 25, D. C. 

PUBLISHED BIMONTHLY 



CONTENTS 

ALLEED, D. M. — A New Species of Mite, Hirstionyssus bisetosus, from the 
Nests of the Desert Wood Rat, Neotoma lepida lepida Thomas (Acarina, 
Dermanyssidae) , 83 

ABNAUD, P., JR. — A Bibliographical Note on Ceratopogon yezoensls 
Matsumura. (Diptera, Heleidae) 82 

LAMORE, D. — The Spider, Conopistha trigona Hentz, Family Theridiidae, 
as a Commensal of Allepiera lemniscata Walckenaer, Family Argiopidae, 
in Prince George's County, Maryland .— 79 

SLATER, J, A., and HTJRLBUTT, H. W. — A Comparative Study of the 
Metathoracic Wing in the Family Lygaeidae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) 67 

SNYDER, T. E. — A New Rugitermes from Bolivia (Isoptera, Kalotermidae) 81 

STEYSKAIi, G. C— The Date of Publication of Bezzi's Studies in Philip- 
pine Diptera, II ^ 90 



SUMMERS, F. M. — American Species of Ledermuelleria and Ledermuelleri' 
opsis. With a Note on New Synonymy in Neognathus (Acarina, Stig- 
maeidae, Caligonellidae) 



WILLIAMS, R. W. — Observations on the Breeding Habits of Some Heleidae 
of the Bermuda Islands (Diptera) 

PREPUBLICATION NOTICE . 

BOOK REVIEW ^ 

SOCIETY MEETING 



49 

61 
66 

80 
90 



THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 

Organized March 12, 1884 

Regular meetings of the Society are held in Room 43 of the U. S. National 
Museum on the first Thursday of each month from October to June, inclusive, at 
8 P.M. Minutes of meetings are published regularly in the Proceedings. 

MEMBERSHIP 

Members shall be persons over 18 years of age who have an interest in the 
science of entomology. Annual dues for members are $4.00; initiation fee is 
$1.00 (U. S. currency). 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

Published bimonthly beginning with February by the Society at Washington, 
D. C. Members in good standing are entitled to the Proceedings free of charge. 
Non-member subscriptions are $5.00 per year, both domestic and foreign (U. S. 
currency), payable in advance. AU remittances should be made payable to The 
Entomological Society of Washington. 

The Society does not exchange its publications for those of other societies. 

All manuscripts intended for publication should be addressed to the Editor.^ 
Acceptable papers submitted by members will be published in the order received 
and will be given precedence over those by non-members. Immediate publica- 
tion may be obtained at a cost to the author of about $10.00 per printed page, 
plus cost of all engraving. Titles of papers should be concise but comprehensive 
and should indicate the systematic position of the subject insect. By-lines should 
indicate present mailing address of the author and his organizational affiliation, 
if possible. Citations in the text of papers longer than one printed page should 
be by author and date and should refer to a list of concluding references in 
which author, year, title name of publication, volume and page are given in 
that order. In shorter articles references to literature should be included in 
parentheses in the text. 

Proportions of full-page illustrations should closely approximate 4-5/16 x 6" 
(26 X 36 picas) ; this usually allows explanatory matter to appear on the same 
page. Cost of illustrations in excess of that for one full-page line cut will be 
borne by the author. 

Reprints of published papers may be obtained at the following costs plus 
postage and insurance, provided that a statement of the number desired ac- 
companies the returned proofs: 

S pp. 4 pp. 8 pp. 12 pp. 16 pp. Covers 

50 copies _ $2.00 $3.00 $5.00 $5.60 $6.25 $4.00 

100 copies 2.50 3.80 6.00 7.20 8.25 4.75 

Additional copies per 100 1.00 1.15 2.00 2.60 3.15 1.50 

Purchase of reprints by institutions whose invoices are subject to notarization 
or other invoice fees will have the cost of such fees added to the purchase price. 



iMiss Alice V. Renk, Entomology Research Division, ARS, U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, Room 3151, South Building, Washington 25, D. C. 

Entered as second-class matter at the Post Office at Washington, D. C. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Entomological Society of Washington 

VOL. 50 APRIL 1957 XO. 2 



AMERICAN SPECIES OF LEDERMUELLEEIA AND 

LEDERMUELLERIOPSIS, WITH A NOTE ON NEW SYNONYMY 

IN NEOCtNATHUS 

(AcARiisrA, Stigmaeidae, Caligonellidae) . 

F. M. Summers, University of California, Davis 

The mites that Oudenians (1923) referred to his <>'einis Lcdi rinuel- 
leria comprise a homogeneous group of stigmaeids having globate 
bodies almost completely encased in an ornamented exoskeleton. They 
occur as thinly dispersed inhabitants of ground litter, leaf mold, moss, 
and meadow land. Three of the four LedermueUeria species and the 
one species of Ledcrmuelleriopsis collected princijially in California 
are species described from Europe. Redescriptions of the named 
species are needed because existing descriptions do not clearly indicate 
their distinguishing features. 

A distinctive feature of these two genera is the extensive encase- 
ment of the hysterosoma by one (LedermueUeria) or two (Leder- 
muelleriopsis) dorsal plates. These plates constitute a carapace-like 
covering over the entire dorsum and sidewalls of the hysterosoma. The 
humeral (scapular) plate on each side is displaced to a pleuro-ventral 
position. 

LEDERMUELLERIA Oudemans 

Lcdermiilleriu Oudemans, 1923, Ent. Ber. 6(130) :150. 

Globate, red or straw-colored mites with stubby legs and moutliparts. Palpus 
•l-segmented, thickset, longer than extended chelicera by two distal segments; 
overall length not greater than combined lengths of genu, tibia, and tarsus of 
leg I. Primary claw of palptibia well-developed, with a very small accessory 
claw anchored medially at its base. Palptarsus a slender cylinder, equal to or 
slightly longer than primary claw; equipped with five acicular setae, a peglike 
sensillum, and a stubby, trifid sensillum at its apex. Chelicerae independently 
movable, \\itli retractile stylets much shorter than inflated basal segments. Idio- 
soma arched dorsally, its posterior end with a shallow sulcus which delimits a 
' ' caudal protuberance, ' ' on the inferior surface of which is located a pair of 
ano-genital valves. Dorsum almost Avholly shielded with three sculptured plates: 
one covering propodosoma, one covering hysterosoma to lateral margins of venter, 
and one caudal plate covering posteriormost protuberance and part of ventral 
opisthosoma. Humeral (scapular) plate large, triangular, displaced ventrally 
with apex intruding between coxae II and HI. All of these plates tessellated 
or uniformly dimpled. Two or four sternal plates; the two between opposite 



50 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 2, APRIL, 1957 

coxal groups on propodosoma may unite in niidventral line to form a single 
" prosternum " ; the two on metapososoma may be separate or joined into a 
"metasternum." Sternal and genital plates delicate, not usually sculptured. 
Eyes: apparently one on each side with a clearly discernible refractile body. 
TAventy-six dorsal setae, including two ventrally displaced humerals and four on 
caudal plate. Ventral setae simple, four to six pairs, not including three pairs 
on anal portion of ano-genital valves. Anal and genital apertures not separated 
externally. Setae and special sensilla of appendages closely follow pattern described 
for Stigmaeidae (Grandjean, 1944) with but minor variations between species. 
Empodia I to IV each with three pairs divergent, capitate tenent hairlets. 

Ledermuelleria segnis (Koch) 

(Figs. 1-4) 

CaUgonus stgnis Koch, 1836, Deutschlands Crustaceen, Myriapoden und Arachni- 

den, Ease. 5, No. 10. 
Eap}iignathus ruber Koch, 1842, Uebersicht des Arachnidensystems 3(3) -.'^G, 

PI. V, Fig. 38. 
Baphignathus p-iger (Schrank). Berlese, 1885, Acari, Myriapoda et Seorpiones 
hucusque in Italia Eeperta. Ordo Prostigmata, Ease. XXII, No. 1, PI. 84. 
Ledermiilhria i^egnis (Koch). Oudemans, 1923, Ent. Ber. 6(130) :150. 

The mite desc-ribed by Koch (1836) as Caligonus segnis is a distinc- 
tive species, such that his fig-iire of this species permits recognition 
beyond reasonabk^ doubt. Also described and illustrated in the same 
monograph were Caligonus piger and C. ruler. The nomenclature of 
these three species became confused in Koch's synoptic work of 1842. 
This time he illustrated C. segnis but applied to it the name Raphig- 
nathus ruber (Fig. 28). In like manner, another mite which he first 
named C. ruber is again illustrated but under the name of C. piger. 
At a later date, Berlese (1885) redescribed the animal here considered 
to be conspecific with C. segnis, but he called it Baphignathus piger 
(Schrank). Sample specimens of this mite from California were sent 
to Dr. G. Lombardini, Florence, Italy, who found them to be identical 
with specimens identified by Berlese as B. piger (Schr). 

The synonymy of the three species as g:iven by Oudemans (1923) 
does not clarify the nomenclature. According to Oudeman's belief, 
Caligonus ruher Koch belongs in the genus Nicoletiella (= N. cornufa 
Can. et Fanz.). Another complication appears in Podaia. Acarus 
ruher Schrank, 1776 (= A. ruhens Schr., 1781) was made the type 
of Podaia by Oudemans (1923). Oudemans also believed that A. 
ruhens Schr. =: Caligonus piger Koch. Although Podaia is a aenus 
of doubtful status at the present time, it is clear that Schrank 's figure 
of Acarus ruher (1776) does not depict a species which should be 
inchided in Ledermuelleria. 

Female. — Sculpturing of dorsal plates appears as numerous, deeply indented 
pits, oval to circular in outline, closely and evenly spaced, of uniform size ; each 
approximately 11 /jl in diameter. Lining of each pit coarsely granular. Dorsal 
setae bowed or oirved, sickle-like, with alveoJi on elevated tubercles; all denticu- 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 2, APRIL, ly.jT 51 

late, with serrations bilateral ; axes tapering to finely pointed tips. Tubercles 
of first dorso-medians (vertieales) located forward, in an inferior position on 
part of propodosoma overhanging clieliceral bases. Setae of dorso-median rows 
as long or longer than distance between alveolus of any one and that next behind ; 
second dorso-median setae (adjacent to eyes) slightly longer (ca. 75 m) than 
others on propodosoma but not longer than dorso-medians on hysterosoma; four 
shortest on caudal plate. Two sternal plates of propodosoma eontinous across 
mid-ventral line to constitute a prosternum. Sternal plates of nietapodosoma 
incompletely fused in mid-ventral line. Genital plate not distinctly separated 
from caudal plate surrounding ano-genital area. Genital plate expanded to cover 
a broad area of opisthosoma close behind sternal plates of metapodosoma, bearing 
but one pair of widely spaced genital setae. Genu I bears three setae of common 
type plus a minute spiniform sensillum (epine k of Grandjean) ; corresponding 
sensillum absent on genu II ; each genu III and lY has Imt one seta of common 
type. Measurements (10$$): idiosoma, 300 fi long, 2.")(l /i wide; leg I, 170 ft 
from base of trochanter to tips of claws. 
Male. — Not observed. 

Collection Data. — Green Valley, Solano County, Calif., Dec. 1, 1948 
(H. E. Cott and S. F. Bailey), ex manzanita leaf mold. Mount Diablo, 
Contra Costa County, Calif.,' Dee. 30, 1948 (H. E. Cott and S. F. 
Bailey), ex manzanita leaf mold. Smithfield Canyon, Utah, Mar. 16, 
1949 (G. F. Knowlton and Shi-Chun Ma), ex maple leaves. Cobb 
Mountain, Lake County, Calif., May 5, 1950 (W. J. Wall and S. F. 
Bailey), ex oak and pine leaf mold. Torrey Pines Park, San Dieyo 
County, Calif., Dec. 28, 1950 (R. M. Bohart), ex pine leaf mold. 
Auburn, Calif., Mar. 11, 1951 (E. I. Schlinger), ex pine leaf mold. 
Quiney, Calif., Forest Ran<ie and Experiment Station. Apri. 1, 1951 
(F. M. Summers), ex manzanita leaf mold. Altadena, Calif., Dec. 
24, 1951 (E. I. Schlinger), ex leaf mold, Qtiercus agrifolm. Mount 
Pinos, East Ventura County, Calif., May 2, 1952 (S. F. Bailey), ex 
manzanita leaf mold. Said Valley, Lassen County, Calif., July 30, 
1952 (W. C. Bentlinck), ex ground litter. 

Ledermitelleria clavata (('.in. e Fauz.i 

(Figs. 5-Q) 

Caligonus clavatus Canestrini e Fanzago, 1876, Atti d. Soc. Veneto-Trentina di 

Sei. Nat. 5 (1) : 135. Id., 1877, Atti B. Inst. Veneto di Sci. Lett, ed Arti 

4 (5) : 1.54, PI. 4. 
EapJdgnathus clavatus, G. Canestrini, 1889, Ibid. 7 (ser. 6) : 508, PI. 11, Figs. 

41, 43. A. Berlese, 1885, Aeari, Myr. et Scorp. Ital., Fasc. XXII, No. 2, 

PI. 86, Figs. 1-8. 
[?] Eaphignaihus .^phagneti Hull, 1918, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Northumberland, 

Durham, NeAvcastle-upon-Tyne 5:30, PI. 3, Figs. 70-72. New Synonymy. 
Ledermulleria clavatus, Oudemans, 1923, Ent. Ber. 6 (130) : 151. 

Female. — Dorsal plates sculptured with pits or dimples so closely set that their 
elevated margins are polygonal in outline, producing a netlike appearance. Lining 
of pits membranous, appearing as a circular depression in center of each polygon. 



.")'_' PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 2, APRIL, 1957 

Dorsal setae stubby, bayonet-like, evenly tapered from base to greatest thickness 
near tips; bluntly pointed; axial core differentiated from hyaline sheath, the 
latter showing few incipient denticulations. Setae of dorso-median rows much 
shorter tlian distance between alveolus of any one and that next behind, their 
alveoli not on conspicuous tubercles. First dorso-median pair (verticales) on 
upper surface; second dorso-median pair (nearest to eyes) longer (60 (j.) than 
others on propodosoma; shortest of dorsal setae about two-thirds the length of 
the longest ones. Plates on venter of idiosoma, integumental covering of gnatho- 
soiira and basal segments of legs faintly show sculpturing as on dorsum. Tavo 
sternal plates of propodosoma and two of metapodosoma not united with each 
other across mid-ventral line. Genital plate discrete, narrow, its anterior margin 
semi-circular; Avith three pairs subequal setae bordering genital area. Caudal 
protuberance pendant beneath opisthosoma, its hindermost margin not visible 
from above. Each genu I and II has three setae of common type plus a minute 
spinif orm sensillum ; each genu III and IV has but one seta of common type. 
Measurements (3 $ 5 ) : Idiosoma, 430 /x, long, 340 /n wide; leg I, 210 /x from 
base of trochanter to tips of claws. 
Male. — Not observed. 

Collection Data. — Millie Spring, Allen Canyon, Utah, July, 1950 
(G. F. Knowlton and S. L. Wood), ex moss. Garden City, Utah, Mar. 
16, 1950 (G. F. Knowlton and Shi-Chun Ma), ex poplar humus. 

Ledermuelleria pectinata (Ewing) 

(Figs. 7-8) 
Baphygnathus pectinaius Ewing, 1917, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 37:151, 

PI. I, Fig. 23. 
Ledermulleria pectinatus, Oudemans, 1923, Ent. Ber. C (130): 152. 
Etistigmaeits grannlosus Willmann, 1951, Sitzungsb. der Osterr. Akad. Wissensch., 
Mathem.-naturw. KL, Abt. I, 160 (1-2) : 137, Fig. 20. New Synonymy. 

Female. — Dorsal plates sculptured as in L. segnis, with pits oval to circular 
in outline, evenly spaced, of uniform size, each 7 to 9 ^ in diameter. Lining of 
each pit coarsely granular. Dorsal setae short (to 27 fj. long), straight or slightly 
curved, club-shaped, with numerous whorls of coarse spinules. Alveoli set in small 
tubercles. Sternal plates comprise an integral prosternum and an integral metas- 
ternum; prosternum covers sternal area to base of gnathosoma. Genital plate 
well-separated from caudal plate widest at its anterior third, narrowed behind 
to Avidth of ano-genital valves; with three pairs genital setae as illustrated, 
Caudal protuberance sub-terminal, tip visible from above. Each genu I and II 
has three setae of common type plus a minute, spinif orm sensillum ; each genu 
III and IV has but one seta of common type. Measurements (4$ $ ) : Idiosoma, 
310 fi long, 230 fi wide; leg I, KiO /j. from base of trochanter to tips of claws. 

Male. — Not observed. 

Collection Z>aia.— East Layton, Utah, Oct. 19, 1949 (G. F. Knowlton 
and Shi-Chun Ma), ex oak leaves. Mount St. Helena, Napa County. 
California, May 10, 1951 (S. F. Bailey), ex manzanita leaf mold. 

The species here identified as L. pectinata (Ewinp) is identical with 
the type specimen in the U.S. National Museum. However, it appears 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, XO. 2, APRIL, 19.17 .")3 

that it may be one of G. Canestrini's (1889) species, possibly that 
which he named Raphignathus anauniensis. The suspected synonymy 
'•annot be further clarified at the present time. 

Ledermuelleria lacuna, n. sj). 
(Figs. 9-10) 

Fi male. — Dorsum of propodosonia Avitli three plates : an extensive median 
plate having three pairs of setae and two small lateral plates, one on each side, 
each with one seta. Lateral plates of propodosonia overlie the ventrally displaced 
humeral plates. Dorsal plates sculptured Avith very shallow dimples best observed 
in profile at curved margins but not readily apparent in face view on middle of 
dorsum. Dorsal setae acicular, faintly denticulate ; second dorso-median pair 
(near eyes) longest of body setae (48 n) , approximately twice as long as shortest 
pair next nearest to eyes. Venter mostly unarmored, integument striated. Two 
sternal plates on propodosonia and two on nietapodosoma occur as narrow flanges 
adjoining opposed eoxal groups, hindermost pair with net-like sculjituring (prob- 
ably noticed only because iodine in mounting medium stained these plates of 
type specimen in an unusual manner). Genital plate small, narrow, front margin 
truncate, with three pairs of genital setae. Caudal protuberance sub-terminal, 
posterior tip visible from above. Genu I bears three setae of common tyi)e plus 
ri minute spiniform sensillum ; genu II similarly equipped; no setae present on 
genua III and IV. Measurements (type 9): idiosoma. 2Sfl n long, 2(i0 fx. wide; 
log I. ISO i-i from base of trochanter to tips of claAvs. 

Malr. — Not observed. 

Holoty})e. — Female, Bassetts. Sierra County, California, Aut>-. 21. 
1952 (S. F. Bailey), ex sweepings from Lilliacese and willow. Type 
specimen deposited in the U. S. National Museum, No. 2226. 

The distinctive characters of this species are: (1) simple architec- 
ture of the dorsal setae, (2) presence of two small lateral plates, one 
on each side of the larpe median propoclosomal plate, (3) feeble 
dimpling on the median regions of the dorsal skeleton, and (4) absence 
of setae on genua III and IV. The description is based on a single 
adult specimen which is slightly folded on the left side. The characters 
ascribed to the species are also evident on two deutonymplhs obtained 
from the same sample. 

LEDERMUELLERIOPSIS Willmann 

LrdrrnuiUeriopsis Willmann, 19o3, Sitzungsb. der Osterr. Akad. Wissensch., 
Mathem.-naturw. Kl., Abt. I, 162(6) :487. 

This genus was created by AVillmann (1951) to accommodate two 
new Austrian species. L. triscutafa and L. pliimosa. The genus and 
first named species, L. friscutata, were not formally described until 
1953. L. friscnfata was designated as genotvpe in the later publication 
aVillmann, 1953). 

The diagnostic feature of TjdoinuelJoi'opsis is the presence of a 



.54 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. -, APKIL, 1937 

dorsal suture across the mid-seetion of the hysterosoma. The two 
hysterosomal plates separated by this suture are about equal iu size, 
aud each bears three pairs of setae. 

Ledermuelleriopsis plumosa Willniann 
(Figs. 11-15) 
LedermiiUeriopsis plumosus Willmaiiii, 1951, Stitzungsb. der Osterr. Akad. Wis- 
sensch., Matliem.-iiaturw. Kl., Abt. I, 160 (1-2) :140, Fig. 24. 

Female. — Dorsal plates with shallow, rounded dimples or pits closely resembling 
those described for Lederimielleria pectinata. Dorsal setae very short (12-25 /x). 
24 of which are clavate, with numerous whorls of coarse spinules; 2 scapular 
setae acicular, firmly plumose, length equal to longest of other dorsal setae. 
Sternal plates comprise an integral prosternum and an integral metasternum; 
prosternum occupies venter to base of gnathosoma. Genital plate covers opistho- 
soma almost to metasternal plate, widest in front, with 3 pairs of genital setae. 
Caudal protuberance terminal, well-exposed to vieAV from above. Each genu 
I and II has 3 setae of common type plus a minute spiniform sensillum; each 
genu III and IV has but one seta of common type. Measurements (9 9 5^: 
Idiosoma, 270 fx long, 190 fi wide; leg I, 150 m from base of trochanter to tips 
of claws. 

Male. — Closely resembles female in size and proportions of ganthosoma and 
legs; idiosoma slightly .smaller in size, more tapered from shoulders to caudal 
protuberance. Dorsal setae finely plumose, slender, not noticeably clavate; three 
posterior pairs longer (27 fi) than other dorsals. Genital and caudal plates 
evidently not separate — this composite plate covers caudal protuberance and 
entire venter of opisthosoma to margin of metasternum. Two pairs of genital 
setae, posterior pair approximately twice as long as anterior pair. Anus terminal, 
overlying genital aperture immediately beneath. Three pairs anal setae closely 
clustered on anal valves ; two most dorsal pairs diminutive, spurlike, both pairs 
situated on one pair of ' ' paranal ' ' papillae ; third pair longer, acicular, located 
below and external to bases of papillae. Intromittent organ observed only in 
retracted condition, within body ; it comprises a slender, sinuous, slightly tapered 
tubular or grooved sclerite, with proximal end between bases of coxae IV; distal 
tip associated with or ensheathed by an expanded, barblike plate as illustrated 
(Fig. 12). Posterodorsal wall of genital atrium provided with paired sclerites in 
juxtaposition, each of which has an upwardly directed, toothlike apodeme. Chae- 
totaxy and sensilla of legs I-IV essentially as in opposite sex, except that each 
tarsus bears an additional specialized sensillum ; this ' ' male tarsal organ " ' 
("grand solenidion male," Grandjean, 1944) is conspicuously long, inflated, 
cross-striated, arising above near proximal end of each tarsus. Male tarsal organ 
longest on tarsus I (38 fi) , slightly shorter but similar on successive tarsi. 
Measurements (2 $ $ ) : idiosoma, 240 fi long, 150 fx wide; leg I, 140 /j. from 
base of trochanter to tips of claws. 

Collection Data.— Nine females, tw^o males, Alturas, Modoc County. 
California, Oct. 11, 1952 (E. I. Schlinoer), ex juniper leaf mold. 
Insofar as this is the first description of the male, one of the male 
specimens has been deposited in the collection of the U. S. National 
Museum. 



proc. ent. soc. wash., vol. 59, no. 2, april, 1957 55 

New Generic Synonymy in the Oaligonellidae 

Dr. Carl Willman, Bremen, Germany, was kind enough to call to 
the author's belated attention a description of Neognathus Willmann, 
1952, which antedates an identical genus, Stigmagtiatkus, proposed 
by Summers and Sehling-er (1955). The latter is therefore a synonym 
of Neognathus, and the status of the several species is as follows : 

Genus NEOGNATHUS Willmann 
Neognathus Willmann, 1952. Yerofftl. Inst. Meeresforsch. Bremerhaven 1:162-63, 

PI. 28, Fig. 19. 
Stigmagnathus Summers and Selilinger, 1955. Hilgardia 23(12): 546. New 

Synonymy. 
Species. — iV. insolitu-s Willm. 1952, type species by original designation. 
N. spectabilis (Summ. and Sclil.), 1955. New Combination. 
2V. terrestris (Summ. and Schl.), 1955. New Combination. 

Eeeerences 
Berlese, A. 1882-93. Acari, Myiopoda et Scorpiones hucusque in Italia Reperta. 

Ordo Prostigmata (Trombidiidae). Patavii. 
Canestiini, G. 1889. Prospetto dell 'Acarof auna Italiana. Fauiiglia dei Tetrany- 

chini. Atti d. reale 1st. Ven. d. Sci., Lettre ed Arti (ser. 6) 7: 491-537. 
and Panzago, F. 1876. Nuovi Acari Italiani. Atti d. Soc. Veneto- 

Trentina di Sci. Nat. 5 (1) : 135. 
Ewing, H. E. 1917. New Aearina. Part II. — Descriptions of new species and 

varieties from Iowa, Missouri, Illinois. Indiana, and Ohio. Bull. Amer. Mus. 

Nat. Hist. 37: 149-172. 
Grandjean, F. 1944. Observations sur les acariens de la Famille des Stigmaeidae. 

Arch. Sci. Phys. et Nat. 26 (5) : 103-131. 
Hull, J. E. 1918. Terrestrial Acari of the Tyne Province. Trans. Nat. Hist. 

Soc. Northumberland, Durham, and Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 5 (n. ser.) : 13-88. 
Koch, C. L. 1835-44. Deutschlands Crustaceen, Myriapoden und Arachniden. Heft 

1-40. Regensburg. 

1842, Uebersicht des Arachnidensystems. III. Heft, III. Abt. Nurn- 

berg. 

Oudemans, A. C. 1923. Acarologischcn Aanteekeningen LXXI. Ent. Ber. Neder- 

land. Ent. Vereen. 6(130): 145-155. 
Sclirank, Franz von Paula 1776. Beytrage zur Naturgeschichte. Beith, Augsburg. 

1781. Enumeratio Insectorum Austriae Indigenorum. Augustae 

Vindelicorum. 

Summers, F. M., and Schlinger, E. I. 1955. Mites of the family Caligonellidae 

(Aearina). Hilgardia 23(12): 539-561. 
Willmann, C. 1951. Untersuchungen ueber die terrestrische Milbenfauna im pan- 

nonischen Klimagebiet Osterreichs. Sitzungsb. der Osterr. Akad. Wissensch.,. 

Mathem.-naturw. Kl. Abt. I, 160(1-2): 91-176. 
• 1952. Die Milbenfauna der Nordseeinsel Wangerooge. Yerofftl. Inst. 

Meeresforsch. Bremerhaven 1: 139-186. 
1953. Neue Milben aus den ostlichen Alpen. Sitzungsb. der Osterr. 



Akad. Wissensch., Mathem.-naturw. Kl., Abt. I, 162 (6) : 449-519. 



56 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 2, APRIL, 1957 




Ledermuellcria segnis. Fig. 1, Ventral aspect of female; fig. 2, right palpus; 
fig. 3, dorsal surface; fig. 4, first leg of right side. (Millimeter scale applicable 
only to the two large figures.) 



PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 59, NO. 2, APRIL, 19o7 



57 




Ledermuelleria clavata. Fig. 5, Venter ; fig. 6, dorsum of female. 



58 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 2, APRIL, 1957 




LcdcnnucUcria pectinata. Tig. 7, Venter; fig. 8, dorsum of female. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 2, APRIL, Ittfj? 



59 



I 

{ 











nmri\\ 



LedermuelUrm lacuna n. sp. Fig. 9, Venter; fig. 10, dorsum of female. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 2, APRIL, 1957 




LedcnnucUeriopsi^ plumosa. Fig. 11, Right leg I of female; fig. 12 opistho- 
soma of male drawn from above; fig. 13, right tarsus I of male; fig. 14. dorsum 
of female; fig. l^, venter of female. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 2, APRIL, IG.^i? 61 

OBSERVA.TIONS ON THE BREEDING HABITATS OF SOME HELEIDAE 
OF THE BERMUDA ISLANDS (DIPTERA)i 

Roger W. Williams- School of Public Health and Administrative Medicine, 
Columbia University, New YorTc, N. Y. 

As indicated by Wirth and Williams (1956) only two species of 
Heleidae had been reported previously from the Bermuda Islands. 
These were Pterohosca fusicornis (Coquillett), called Ceratopogon fur 
by Johnson (1913), and an unknown species he designated as Cera- 
topogon sp. 

During June and July 1955, light-trap and recovery-cage studies 
were conducted in each of the several parishes (see Williams 1956 for 
map giving exact location of each study area) and breeding habitats 
were observed. 

Four recovery cages, modified from that described by Dove et al. 
(1932) in that they had a solid wooden top instead of a muslin top 
covered by hardware cloth, trapped the majority of positively photo- 
tropic insects that emerged from the 4-square-foot area of soil covered 
bj^ each cage. Two cages were placed in each of 15 trapping areas 
for a period of 1 week and then moved to the next trapping locale. 
Most of the cages were placed at the edge of ponds and the margins 
of marsh drainage ditches. If possible the 2 cages were placed in a 
single trapping area in different types of habitats with different flora. 
The jars from the recovery cages and light trap were examined daily 
for heleids. 

A Beckman pH meter was used for determining the pH of soil 
samples from each area studied (the figures in Table I represent an 
average of three readings from each area) and a set of hj'drometers 
calibrated for determining the salt content of water at 15.4°C. was 
used for ascertaining the salinity of the water from each habitat. 
These w^ater samples were cooled to about 12° C. in a large cold- 
storage room, brought outdoors, and as they warmed up to 15.4° the 
readings were taken. Soil temperatures were determined at each area 
studied. 

In some areas the use of a solid top on the recovery cages increased 
the temperature of the soil covered by a cage as much as 8°C. over 



^Contribution No. 227 of the Bermuda Biological Station. This study ^yas 
supported by a National Science Foundation grant-in-aid and a Childs Frick 
Fellowship granted by the Bermuda Biological Station for investigations on the 
Culicoides of the Bermudas. 

~1 wish to express my sincere thanks to Dr. Wm. Sutcliffe, Jr., director of the 
Biological Station for his kind assistance; to members of the Bermuda Agri- 
culture Experiment Station — Gordon R. Groves, director; Idwal Wyn Hughs, 
assistant director ; J. Hubert Jones, assistant horticulturist ; and C. A. Baker, 
horticulturist — for their helpful assistance in transporting equipment and identi- 
fying plants; and to Dr. W. W. Wirth, entomologist. Entomology Research 
Division, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C, for his identifica- 
tion of previously described species of heleids and for ascertaining that other 
species were new to science. 



62 



PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 59, NO. 2, APRIL, 1957 






be 



w 



J^Q 



* 53 2 
ft'"' 






1 


oi 


S 


o 






s 


^ 


;i; 


OJ 


<D 


m 






^ 


m 


l. 


3 


It 


^ 


a. 


Ph 


a< 


"So 




3 








in 
02 


S 


o 

o 




^ 





<^ .:. 5^ ? 

? ?? !^ ^ 

"~ _ S- 03 

r -^ S =« 

e S e . 

S " S T3 

■feS ^ § 

Pq 






^ 




^ 


■^ 




=« 


1 




+j 


'S 


oc 


.^ 


-5 




^ 


^ 


rS 


§ 






^u- 


rO 


e 




CO 


e 
^ 


1^ 


S 




o 




^ 


IJj 


i 


'^ 


■^ 








"^ 


§ 




6C5C) 



~S be 



If 4 



2^m 



I |2 







~ be 


'K' '^ 


^' a: 












5^ 1- 


■5 S* 




=5 'CJ 




i^ 




rC o 


Q. 





s 


p 


Hi 


s 


"S 


•rH 








'^ 



« be 

" e oj 






-^ 



03 ^ 

S 5 






"* OS f« 



Pq O 



^ ^ s 

^ =0 s~ 



S » 2 ^^ 



PROC. ENT. SOO. WASH., VOL.. 59, NO. 2, APRIL, 1957 



63 



Oli- 









«j s ^ 






.S'S 



? 5j~ 









S S I -4-^ 



S "-s 







QJ 


s 


b 






!■ 


S 


b£ 


(Zl 


cc 


o 


_C 


> 


'ctf 






QO 



-I- H 



S.2 s 



^ ^ 






iii OCiCl *^ fen 






bo 0} 



la. 



o « ' 



C CS ? i 



Ph =0 






0,0 



2 iJi 



Cfc. 



cs o 



=8 



-^•l 





O fin 




t- cs 


,C 


'% 


a "S 


S 
S 


CS 



«^ 



lis 

(2 f5 cj Cj E^ 



cc 13 






'I * ^ 



S 8S 

05 fel 



C5 C^' Q Ci fen 



cS 


■*± 


Sfi 


M 


QJ 


t) 


be 


rH 


cS 


^ 


C 


Ph 




03 











•2. 1 






6 



ij <to ~ 

T tj a- 
. .. o 



64 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 2, APRIL, 1957 



?^e: 



« 


e e 




^ '« 


10 

■to 


§s 






H a: 






g 


^ 


a 


5 


o 


a; 


^ 


« 










CS 






K 



•5 5i 

SSj to .§ 

^ 5 B .3 

<>^ S s £ 

s e . o 



GC 



1i 


S 

T3 


V. 















^ 


K 


5^ 




Oj 










.*2 


^ 




^ 



a e 


? 


p-^ 


£ 


e 


=0 


e 


■aj 


^ 


^ 


ti 


'S 


p::^ 


sj 


?^ 






^ 


B 


Gp^ 



-P PI cfi 

K aj O. CI 

r^ CD cS 

cj U ;h Oj 

pq o -i^ o 



Q 



;s 




to 


-^ 


2 












s.- 


^ 


SJ 




J.. 




to 


e 


=0 


e 












PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 2y APRIL, 1957 



6.J 



Table 2. — Extremes in Some Ecological Conditions in Breemng Habitats 

OF CeKTAIN HbLEIDAB of THE' BERMUDAS. 

Number of Range in 

areas salinity 

Species (out of 15) Range in pH (parts per Comments on vegetation 

in which 1,000) 
collected 



Culicaides 
hcrmudensis 

Bezzia atlanfica 



6 7.0-7.01 1.2-15 Considerable variation in 

species of plants. 

2 6.32-7.01 1.2-31.5 Do. 



C. cr(i)i(.scularis 



Dasyhelea 
atlantis 



6.32-7.50 1.2-36.2 Areas of dense vegetation 
to shaded areas with no 
small vegetative growth. 

6.45-7.60 10.7-36.5 Do. 



D. hcnnitdae 



D. c in eta 



6.34-7.68 1.2-25 



6.34-6. 



In sandy soil with no 
vegetation, to soil wdth 
various types of vegeta- 
tion. 



2.4-4.8 Do. 



D. grisea 



B. luieogrisea 



Forclpomyia 
ingrami 

F. variipennis 



6.46-6.88 2.4 In sandy soil witli no 

vegetation to muck soil 
with cat-tails and cape 
weed. 

6.32-7.60 2.4-31.5 In sandy soil with no 
vegetation to muck soil 
with various types of 
vegetation. 

6.34-7.0 1.2-15 In soil with various types 

of vegetation. 

6.47-6.88 2.4-25 Sandy soil with no vege- 

tation to loam soil with 
various types of vegeta- 
tion. 



66 PKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 2, APRIL, 1957 

that of exposed soil next to the cage, with the result that emergence 
may have been considerably stimulated. 

The results of these studies are given in Tables 1 and 2. 

Three species, Culicoides floridensis Beck, Dasyhelea scissiirae 
Macfie, and Forcipomyia raleighi Macfie were taken in the light trap 
but never in the recovery cages, and Pterohosca fusicornia (Coq.), 
which had been collected by Johnson in 1913, was not collected at all. 

In the United States Culicoides crepuscular is, a pest of man in some 
parts of the country, is associated with fresh water, but in the Ber- 
muda Islands it displayed a great tolerance for salt, being found in 
areas ranging from 1.2 to 36.2 parts of salt per thousand. 

RHPEREJSrOElS 

Dove, W. E., Hall, D. G. and Hull, J. B. 1932. The salt marsh sand fly problem. 

Ann. Ent. Soe. Amer. 25: 505-522. 
Johnson, C. W. 1913. The dipteran fauna of Bermuda. Ann. Ent. Soe. Amer. 

6: 443-452. 
Williams, E. W. 1956. The biting midges of the genus Culicoides in the Bermuda 

Islands (Diptera, Heleidae). II. A study of their breeding habitats and 

geographical distribution. Jour. Parasitol. 42(3): 300-305. 
Wirth, W. W., and Williams, R. W. 1956. The biting midges of the Bermuda 

Islands, with descriptions of five new species (Diptera, Heleidae). Proc. 

Ent. Soe. Wash. 59: 5-14. 



PREPUBLICATION NOTICE 

Butterflies of thh American Tropios. The Genus anaea, Lepidoptera Nymph- 
alidae. By William Phillips Comstock. American Museum Natural History., 
New York, 1956. Price $20.00. 

Because American institutions and publishers of scientific books have fallen 
far behind the rest of the world in the publication of high-quality color illustra- 
tions, the Museum is sponsoring the publication of this beautifully illustrated 
and designed book. The tremendous cost of reproducing the 30 color plates makes 
it necessary for the Museum, a. non-profit institution, to obtain in advance an 
indication of the demand for this book. If the response is sufficient to show 
that a reasonable amount of the expense will be subscribed, the book will be 
published and you will receive your copy in the immediate future. Should the 
response be insufficient, the Museum reserves the right to return all monies 
received through this advance appeal. If you wish this work, send your order 
to the American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, 
New York 24, N. Y. The book will be published in only a limited quantity. 
After publication the price will be $25.00 per copy. Purchasers in countries with 
British sterling currency may order direct from W. S. Cowell, Ltd., Butter 
Market, Ipswich, SufPolk, England. — Ed. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL.. 59, NO. 2, APRIL, 19.17 67 

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE METATHORACIC 
WING IN THE FAMILY LYGAEIDAE 

( Hemiptejja : Hetebopteba) 

Jambs A. Slater and Henr.y W. Huklbutt, Department of Zoology and 

Entomology, University of Connectieiit, Storm 

The present study was undertaken in an attempt to ascertain 
whether or not the venation of the hind wing of members of the family 
Lygaeidae might possess characters important to a better understand- 
ing of the systematic relationships existing within this large and 
heterogeneous family. 

Although the taxonomic importance of wing venation is well estab- 
lished in many orders of insects, the wings have been used only spar- 
ingly in the Heteroptera. Recent studies by Leston (1953a and b) 
in the Pentatomoidea and Usinger (1943) in the Reduvoidea have 
indicated that the wing has considerable taxonomic value in these 
groups. There has, to our knowledge, been no systematic attempt to 
utilize these structures within the family Lygaeidae. 

We have not attempted to investigate the tracheation nor the hom- 
ologies of the wing veins, and have adopted the terminology intro- 
duced by Leston (1953a), as modified from Tanaka (1926), as pre- 
senting an intelligible system that has the advantage of accounting for 
all the structural parts present in the lygaeid wing without doing 
violence to the origin of the various veins. Students more familiar 
with the system of Hoke (1926) may readily compare the two systems 
by utilizing the illustrations of the various species discussed in the 
following pages. 

Technique: For purposes of the present study the majority of the 
wings were studied from dried specimens. A small number of species 
were studied from living specimens taken in the field. Wing mounts 
from dried or fresh material were obtained by the following technique. 
With a dissecting microscope and forceps the wings were removed 
and placed on a drop of water. Care was taken at this point to unfold 
the jugal lobe. The wing was then drawn onto the top of a drop of 
glycerine and a coverslip added for protection. To keep the coverslip 
from touching the glycerine a drop of fingernail polish was placed 
under each corner of the coverslip. Venation is most apparent if no 
glycerine is allowed to cover the upper surface of the wing. Addi- 
tional glycerine may readily be placed under the wing if the original 
glycerine supply dries out. In some cases it was necessary to relax 
the insect in ethyl acetate for several hours before removal of the wing. 

Where one is not greatly concerned with the nature of the jugal 
area, or where comparison only is desired, it is useful to work with 
dried specimens. With care one may readily remove the front wing 
and carefully pull the hind wing laterally until the venation is clearly 
exposed. This method has the advantage of allowing the investigator 
to check over many species in a relatively short period of time. 



(5s 



PROC. F.NT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 2, APRIL, U)^, 



Generalized lygaeid wing: (Text figure) 

It may safely be said that the lygaeid wing is never of a completely 
primitive nature within the suborder. However, it is in many species 
still rather generalized and close to a pentatomoid pattern. The only 
important specialization uniformly found in the Lygaeidae as con- 
trasted with the Pentatomoidea is the loss of the antevannal vein. The 
])resence of this vein is apparently characteristic of the latter group. 

The generalized lygaeid wing may be summarized as follows: 1, Sub- 
costa present and separated from radius in basal wing area ; 2, hamus 
Avell developed as a complete vein in the discal cell, the anterior por- 
tion bent strongly toward the wing base; 3, radius and media fused 
onl}^ at a single point distad of the discal cell; 4, vannal fold bifid 
for nearly its entire length ; 5, antevannal vein absent ; 6, intervannals 
present, short, and not fused at base; 7, vannals separate for nearly 
entire length (Tanaka notes a single trachea, thus the primitive con- 
dition may have been a single vein) ; 8, jugal vein single and extend- 
ing throughout most of jugal lobe. 



SUBCOSTA 




GENERALIZED LYGAEID WING 
DIAGRAMMATIC 



The j)rincipal modifications from this generalized scheme are the 
loss of the hamus, subcosta, and intervannals, fusion of the vannal 
folds, basal fusion of the vannals, reduction or loss of the second 
vannal and the jugal, and fusion of radius and media for some 
distance beyond the discal cell. 

Of these modifications two appear to be very important at higher 
group levels within the family. These are the loss of the hamus and 
the intervannals. Frequently the reduction of these veins is correlated, 
although in the Lygaeini (fig. 7) the hamus is well developed while 
the intervannals are entirely lacking. The presence basally of the 
subcosta and the reduction of the posterior vannal also are useful 
modifications at subfamily and tribal levels. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 2, APKIL, 1957 (ii» 

Other iiiodifit'ation.s must be interpreted with much caution as they 
generally are the result of vein fusion and appear to have arisen 
independently in very different groups. This may be illustrated in 
The case of the radius and the media, which often are fused for some 
distance beyond the discal cell in some genera of such diverse groups 
as Cleradini, Blissinae, Cyminae, and Pachygronthinae. 

Subfamily LYGAEINAE 

The most generalized wing condition within the subfamily is found 
in the genera Nysius, Ortholomus, and Uhypodes, where both hamus 
and intervannals are present and the intervannals may be either fused 
basally or separate (figs. 6 and 8). This very generalized condition 
indicates that this group of genera is near the primitive lygaeid line. 

Such orsilline genera as Belonochilus and OrsiUus show a more 
specialized condition in that the intervannals are absent. It seems 
probable, upon the basis of this as well as other features, that two 
well defined groups are present in what we now call the Orsillini. 

The Lygaeini resemble the Orsillus-Belonochilus group by virtue 
of the loss of the intervannals. However, this tribe possesses a short 
distinct basal subcostal vein. This feature is unique within the familv 
(fig-. 7). 

Species examined: Lygaeini. — Lygacu.s kaluiii Stal, Mclanocoryphiis 
hicrucis (^ay) ,Grapfostethus servus (F.), G. arge7itatus (F.), Caeno- 
coris neri Germar, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas). Orsillini. — Nysius 
ericae (Schill.), N. calif ornicus Stal, Ortholomits scolopax (Say), 
Belonochilus )}U)ueuii(s (Say). OrsiUus reyi Puton. Bhypodrs clavi- 
cornis (F.). 

Subfamily CYMINAE 

It is evident that the present division of this subfamily into two 
tribes, the Ischnorhynchini and the Cymini, is untenable. As Mr. 
H. G. Barber will treat the systematic groupings in this subfamily 
in a forthcoming publication, we will confine ourselves to the observa- 
tion that the Ischnorhynchini wing is very generalized, whereas in the 
Cymini and in Ninus and its allies the hind wing- shows the most 
specialized condition in the entire family. 

In the Ischnorhynchini^ all species examined have a completely 
developed hamus and intervannals. Polychisme (fig. 1) is perhaps 
the most generalized by virtue of separate intervannals. In Kleido- 
cerys (fig. 3) and Rhiohia the intervannals are fused basally and 
these two genera also have in common a distinctive bend midway along 
the distal portion of radius. A stridulatory structure is present in 
some members of this group. 



^The correct usage here is as alcove, for although the genus Ischnorhynchus 
Fieb. is a junior synonym of Kleidocerys Stephens, type genera in synonymy 
are valid as the stem for family group names under action of the International 
Commission at the 1953 Copenhagen meetings. 



70 PROC. EKT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 2, APRIL, 1957 

111 the Cyiniiii and the ' ' ninines ' ' the hind wings show a very much 
reduced venation (fig. 4). The hamus and the intervannals are com- 
pletely lost. Radius and medius are usually fused together for a dis- 
tance beyond the discal cell. The second vannal is always at least 
partially reduced. 

The Australian genus Ontiscus (fig. 2) is less reduced in that a 
hamus remnant is present on the posterior portion of the discal cell. 

Species examined: Ischnorhynchine. — Kleidocerys resedae 
(Panz.), A', franciscanus (Stal), Pohjchisme hyalinatus (Spinola), 
Rhiohia chinai (Esaki), Ninus insiyriis Stal, Cymoninus flaripes 
(Mats.), new genus near Cymoninus. 

Cymini. — Cymus discors Horvath, C. angustatus Stal, Arphnus 
coracipcnnis Stal, Ontiscus australicus Stal. 

Sill. family BLISSINAE 

The wing venation of members of this subfamily is highly special- 
ized. The intervannals are absent, the hamus is either completely 
absent (fig. 15) or represented by a vestige on the posterior margin of 
the discal cell (fig. 16). Radius and media are sometimes fused for 
a distance beyond the discal cell. The jugal and posterior vannals 
are reduced. The radius reaches the anterior wing margin in Blissus 
as in many myodochines and in the Pamphantinae. 

The relationships of the subfamily are obscure and other evidence 
than the wings is needed to clarify its systematic and phylogenetic 
position within the family. 

Species examined: Ischnodemus falicus (Say), 7. sahuleti (Fall.), 
Blissus leucopterus (Say), Dimorphopterus spinolae Sign. 

Ruljfaniily OXYCARENINAE 

This subfamilv is uniaue in the Lygaeidae in that the species studied 
have intervannals present but lack a hamus. Radius and media are 
fused for some distance beyond the discal cell. The intervannals are 
separate in Cropliius (fis;. 13), basallv fused in Oxycarenus. The 
second vannal and the jucral are somewhat reduced. 

It seems likely that the subfamily represents a side branch in its 
development and not an intermediate stasre in a main line of descent. 
However, it is certainly speculative whether the oxyearenines have 
arisen from an Artheneinae-like stock or from the Orsillines. 

Species examined: Crophius scahrosns (TThler), Oxycarenus sp. 
(S. Africa). 

Subfamily GEOCORINAE 

The condition of the hind wings in members of this subfamily is 
most interesting. The wing venation (fig. 10) shows considerable 
specialization by reason of the loss of intervannals and the loss or 
reduction of the hamus. However, it is evident that the condition 



PROC. ENT. SOO. WASH., VOU 59, NO. 2, APRIL, 1957 71 

is less specialized than in such a group as the Cymini for the hamus 
stub is retained in many species of Geocoris (i.e. pollens and hidlatus)^ 
Hypogeocoris, and Ninyas. It is, however, absent in Geocoris uligi- 
nosus Say and G. flaviceps Burm. Furthermore, although the inter- 
vannals are absent the vannal folds are in most cases separate for 
most of their length. 

The genus Germalus has a completely developed hamus and basally 
fused intervannals. It seems doubtful whether this genus represents 
a true geocorine (note also the fully developed claval commissure), 
and the relationship appears to be largely with the henestarine stem. 

Species examined: Geocoris pollens Stal, G. hnllaius (Say), G. 
uliginosus (Say), G. flouiceps Burm., Hypogeocoris piceus (Say), 
Ninyas d£ fide ns (Leth.), Germulns samoanus China. 

Subfamily HETEROGASTRINAE 

This well defined subfamily possesses a unique feature in that the 
hamus, as discussed above, has migrated distally so that it reaches 
the posterior portion of the discal cell distad of the point where 
cubitus diverges from the discal cell as a free vein. This condition 
frequently creates a triangular cell in the anterior portion of the 
wing formed by the hamus, media, radius, and the point of fusion 
of radius and media (figs. 12 and 14). 

The intervannals are present and either separate {Heterog aster, 
Dinoniochus, Hyginus) or basally fused {Tamosanko, Platyplax). 

It is evident that in general the wing is generalized with an in- 
dependent specialization of the hamus. 

The genus Artemidorus (fig. 12) has in the past been the subject 
of much debate as to its systematic position. Distant, Bergroth, and 
Horvath all have discussed the relationships. The hind wing indicates 
that the continental workers are correct in considering the genus as 
a heterogastrine. The wing though specialized by the loss of the inter- 
vannals nevertheless possesses the hamus in the same characteristic 
position as do the other members of the subfamily. 

Species examined: Heterogoster urticae (F.), Dinoniochus marshalli 
Dist., Tamasanka limhato Dist., Platyplax sal viae (Sehill.), Hyginus 
sp. (S. Africa), Artemidorus pressus Dist. 

Subfamily PACHYGRONTHINAE 

The hind wing is generalized. Both hamus and intervannals are 
present and fully developed. 

In all members of the tribe Pachygronthini investigated the inter- 
vannals are free throughout, whereas in all Teracrini (fig. 9) they 
are fused at the base. It appears that this distinction may well supple- 
ment other characters as a tribal character in the subfamily. 

As noted above we consider this subfamily to represent the general- 
ized condition from which the Heterogastrinae have evolved. 

Species examined: Pachygronthini — Oedancala dorsalis (Say), 
Pachygrontha hipunctata Stal, P. oedancolodes Stal, P. soileri Slater; 
Teracrini — Teracrius namaquensis Stal, Phlegyas ahbreviatus (Uhl.), 



72 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, XO. 2, APRIL, 1957 

Opisthokpttis ])al}i(}ns (Hesse), StenopJiycUa macrefa Horv. 

Subfamily HENESTAKINAE 

The hind wiii«i- of this subfamily is rather generalized (fig. 27). 
However, there are subtle evidences of reduction present in the re- 
duced hamus and jugal and the basal fusion of the intervannals. It 
is apparent that this group and Germalus are closely allied; indeed 
the latter may well prove to be a henestarine. The highly specialized 
geocorines may have developed from a stock very similar to that 
represented by this small subfamily. Species examined: Henesiaris 
laticcps (Curt.) 

Subfamily ARTHENINAE 

The wing is somewhat generalized in that hamus and intervannals 
are present. However, evidences of specialization are the partial 
reduction of the hamus, basal fusion of the intervannals, and reduc- 
tion of the posterior vanual (fig. 26). 

In some respects this subfamily appears to represent an inter- 
mediate stage between the generalized Ischnorhynchini and the highly 
modified Cymini. Here again supporting evidence is needed to ascer- 
tain whether this is more than a superficial resemblance. 

Species examined: Chilacis typhae Perr., Artheneis foveolata Spin. 

Subfamily CHAULIOPINAE 

The systematic position of this peculiar subfamily is not substan- 
tially clarified by the condition of the hind wings. A degree of speciali- 
zation is evidenced by the loss of the intervannals and the fusion of 
the vannal fold (fig. 24). The hamus is present although apparently 
not completel}^ developed. 

There is some habitus resemblance between this group and the 
Malcinae, and the venation of the latter could well represent a spe- 
cialization from that of the Chauliopinae. Again supporting evidence 
is needed. There is no evidence to support a Heterogastrine relation- 
ship as intimated by some authors. Indeed the characteristic nature 
of the hamus in that subfamily would seem to rule out the inclusion 
of this group as even representing a closely related group. 

Species examined: Chanliops fallax Scott. 

Subfamily MALCINAE 

The hind wing is highly specialized with loss of hamus and inter- 
vannals, fusion of the vannal fold, and reduction of the vannal veins 
(fig-. 5). 

The venation is almost exactly as in the Cymini and represents with 
this latter group the most strongly reduced situation found in the 
entire family. "Whether these taxa are closely related or we are dealing 
with parallelism must await additional evidence. Our feeling is that 
probably parallel development has occurred. 

Species examined : Malcus flavidipes Stal. 



PKOC. ENT. see. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 2, APRIL, 19-57 73 

Sill, family PAMPHANTINAE 

The affinities of tliis peculiar subfamily are obscure. The venation 
is specialized (fig. 28) with loss of hamus and intervannals and partial 
fusion of the vannal folds. Radius curves forward to reach the lead- 
ing edge of the wing in the distal area as in many myodochines. It 
may well be that these ant-mimics represent extremely specialized 
myodochine forms whose subfamily identity is masked by the fusion 
of the basal abdominal sternites. The nature of the wing in Blissus 
is also much as in this subfamily. 

The relationship of the Pamphantinae to the Mediterranean sub- 
family Bledionotinae should be nivestigated. Unfortunately represen- 
tatives of the latter subfamily have not been made available for study. 

Species examined: Famphantus eleganfulus Stal. 

Subfainily MEGALONOIINAE 

The hind wing has proven some^^hat disappointing as a diagnostic 
character for subgroups within this large and varied subfamily. There 
is little to observe in the hind wings that will separate the genera into 
the traditional tribal units. This is chiefly due to the generalized 
wing venation found in most species. It seems obvious for many 
reasons that this subfamily has diverged from the remaining lygaeid 
subfamilies at an early period and that such specializations as do 
occur in the hind wings are independent variations of the main 
megalonotine line. 

Tribe — Myodochini : 

In many genera of this tribe radius beyond the discal cell curves 
forward to reach the leading edge of the -\ving (fig. 18). This occurs 
so frequently as to be a useful althou2'h not infallible diagnostic 
feature. Radius reaches the anterior wing margin in the following 
genera: Myodocha, Heraeus, Pachyhrachius, Ligyrocoris, Paromius. 
Zeridoneus and Prosomaeus. In Exptocliiomera, PiocMomera, Kolenc- 
trus, and Cnemodus, radius curves strongly forward but does not 
reach the wing margin. 

Many myodochines also have a rather characteristic vannal condi- 
tion where the two vannals are completely fused on the basal half 
and then curve strongly apart to assume a rather 'Svishbone" like 
appearance (fig. 18). This condition, however, is also found in some 
other genera within the subfamily. 

In Prosomaeus the intervannals are absent ; otherwise they are 
present and usually separated. 

Species examined: Myodocha serripes (Oliv.), Heraeus plehejus 
Stal, Pachyhrachius hasalis (Dallas), Ligyrocoris diffusus Uhler, 
Exptochiomera sp., Paromius longulus (Dallas), PiocMomera nodosa 
Say, Kolenetrus plenus (Dist.), Cnemodus mavortius (Say), Zeri- 
doneus costalis (V.D.), Prosomaeus hrunneits Scott. 



74 PKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. -^ APRIL, 1957 

Tribe Megalonotini : 

The venation is usually of a generalized liature (fig. 17). However, 
in Megalonotus (fig. 21) the radius is vestfeial beyond the diseal cell. 
Ozophora (fig. 25) is highly specialized m lacking both hamus and 
interv^annals. This is the greatest degree| of vein reduction found in 
the entire subfamily. 

Species examined: Peritrechus f rater jius Uhl., Megalonotus chira- 
grus var. calif ornicus (V.D.), Ozoi)horcj jjicturata Uhl., Lamprodema 
manrnm (F.), Neocattarus sp. 

Tribe Beosini : 

"Wing venation of generalized na^e. In Sphragisticu^ the inter 
vannals are separate; in Rhyyarofhromus (fig. 28) and Dieuches 
(fig. 20) they are fused basally. 

Species examined : Sphragii^vicus nehulosus (Fall.), Rhyparo- 
chrotnus umhrosits (Dist.), Dimiches near placidns (Stal). 

Tribe Lethaeini : / 

The wing venation as in most other Megalonotinae is generalized 
in nature. The intervaiuials are fused in Eremocoris (fig. 22) and 
Faragonatus, and separate throughout in the other genera studied. 
In Scolopostethiis the intervannals appear rather obsolete. 

In Eremocoris there are peculiar veinlike stubs present on cubitus 
and media midway along their length in the distal portion of the 
wing. The vein stub of cubitus may conceivably represent the remnant 
of the antevannal vein so characteristic of the Pentatomoidea. 

Species examined : Cryphnla parallelogram ma Stal, Drymiis unus 
(Say), Eremocoris ferus (Say), Lethaeus crihratissimus Dohrn, Para- 
gonatus divergens (Dist.), Scolopostethus tho)vsoni Rent., Gastrodes 
grossipes (D.G.) Rhaptus quadricollis (Spin.). 

Tribe Gonianotini : 

The species investigated in this tribe, Emblethis vicarius Horvath. 
shows a completely generalized wing pattern throughout (fig. 19). 

Tribe Cleradini : 

The venation of this tribe (fig. 11) is rather specialized in lacking 
intervannals, having the vannal folds fused for a considerable distance 
and in having radius and media fused for a short distance beyond 
the diseal cell. From this as well as other features it is evident that 
the tribe is a rather specialized unit within the subfamily. Species 
examined : Clerada apicicornis Sign. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 2, APRIL, 1957 75 

Fhylogenetic Consideraiions. — The generalized lygaeid wing, as dis- 
cussed above, is retained in several tribes and subfamilies. We find a 
typical condition in many Megalonotinae, ischnorhynchini, Orsillini, 
and PachygTonthinae. The first modification to appear is the basal 
fusion of the inter-intervannals, both free and basally fused inter- 
vannals being found in all of the above groups and sometimes within 
the same genus (i.e. Nysius). 

The next important modifioatiou after intervannal fusion is loss 
of the intervannals. This is frequently concurrent with reduction 
and subsequent loss of the hamus. However in the Lygaeini, Chauli- 
opinae, Cleradini, and Prosomaeus of the Myodochini, the intervan- 
nals are absent whereas the hamus is completely developed. The 
Lygaeini are also unique in retaining the basal portion of the sub- 
costa. In the Oxycareninae exactly the reverse situation is found, 
for here the intervannals are present whereas the hamus is lost. In 
all other cases, however, where the intervannals are absent the hamus 
is also either absent, or reduced to a short stub on the posterior portion 
of the discal cell. 

In the otherwise generalized Heterogastrinae the hamus has migrated 
toward the apex of the wing so that its posterior connection with the 
discal cell lies distad of the separation of cubitus from the discal cell 
(figs. 12 and 14). 

The most specialized condition of the wings within the family is 
found in the Cymini (together with the genera related to Ninus) and 
the Malcinae. Here both intervannals and hamus are lost and the 
posterior vannal and jugal veins are reduced or absent. 

Our conclusions are that lines of descent within the family cannot 
be determined by the venation of the hind wings alone. However, the 
following discussion is an attempt to indicate probable trends and we 
hope it will be further elaborated in the near future by a study to 
integrate the information from various sources into a reconstruction 
of the phylogeny of the family. 

Using primarily the wing veins, but supplementing at times with 
additional characters, we present the following situation. 

Five main lines of descent which we will call the Pachygronthine 
line, the Orsilline line, the Geocorine line, the Ischnorhynchine line, 
and the Megalonotine line. 

Pachygronthine line. — The situation here is quite simple. We have 
first the completely generalized tribe Pachygronthini. The Teracrini 
are obviously closely related, the only basic difference being the basal 
fusion of the intervannals. From the generalized form the Hetero- 
gastrinae arise through Heterogaster, Dinomachus, and Hyginus to 
the slightly more specialized condition of Tamasanka and Platyplaa:. 
The most highly specialized condition of this line is in Artemidorus 
with the absence of intervannals and the distal shift of the hamus 
beyond the cubital origin on the discal cell. 



70 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 2, APRIL, 1907 

Orsillme line. — Generalized venation in this line is shown by such 
genera as Nysius, Ortholomus, and Rhpodes. From this condition 
develop the more specialized orsillines where the intervannals are 
absent (i.e. Belonochilns, Orsillus). The Lygaeini by virtue of reten- 
tion of the subcosta and loss of the intervannals present an anomalous 
condition. It is difficult to interpret this condition until more study 
has been made of the relationships of the tribal units within the 
subfamily. 

Geocorine line. — A completely generalized form has not been found 
for this group. However the genus Germalus is generalized in all but 
the basal fusion of the intervannals and may be considered as repre- 
sentative of the generalized type (this is not to state that Germalus 
itself is necessarily primitive). From this condition a slight advance 
is evident to the Henestarinae where the hamus is reduced; there is 
basal fusion of the intervannals and the vannal fold is fused for a 
considerable distance. It may well be that the Blissinae are an oif- 
shoot from a similar ancestor. The main line of descent however is 
to the Geocorinae through subsequent stages of reduction and ultimate 
loss of the hamus and the loss of the intervannals. 

IschnorhyncJxine line. — This complex presents an interesting and 
complex situation, with the genera Kleidocerys, Rhiohia, and Poly- 
chisme illustrating generalized conditions. It seems possible that by 
independent loss of the hamus the Oxycareninae have diverged from 
this line. The main trend within the group is often indicated by a 
tendency toward loss of the posterior vannal. We find in the Arthenei- 
iiae a partial reduction of the hamus, basal fusion of the intervannals, 
and partial posterior vannal reduction. It seems feasible to consider 
this as the next evolutionary step from the generalized Isehnorhyn- 
chini. It is possible that the line now diverged into tw^o groups, one 
to the Chauliopinae and to the Malcinae, the other through such 
cymine genera as Ontisens to the highly specialized Cymini and the 
* ' ninine ' ' genera. 

Megalonotine line. — This line has obviously diverged from the re- 
mainder of the Lygaeidae at a very early stage in their evolution. 
In general the whole group is generalized. The myodochines seem to 
show a slight specialization by virtue of the strong anterior curvature 
of radius in the distal portion of the wing. The genus OzoyJiora is 
also highly specialized. It is possible that the specialized Pamphanti- 
nae may well have arisen from a myodochine ancestry. 

Obviously there are a number of highly speculative interpretations 
in the above discussion. We propose to analyse interrelations within 
the family more fully in a later paper. 

ACKNOWLEJXiEMENTS 

AVe should like to extend our sincere thanks to Dr. Norman T. Davis 
and Mr. P. D. Ashlock, of the Department of Zoology and Entomology 
of the University of Connecticut, for aid given during the course of 
this studv. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 2, APKIL, 19.57 



77 




Metathoraeic wings of Lygaeiclae. — Fig. 1, — Polychisme hyalinatus (Spinola) ; 
fig. 2,0ntiscus australicus Stal; fig. 3, Kleidocerys resedae (Panz.) fig. 4, Cymus 
discors Horv. ; fig. 5, Malcus flavidipes Stal.; fig. 6, Nysins ericae (Schill.) ; 
fig. 7, Lygaeus Icalmii Stal; fig. 8, Nysim calif amicus Stal. fig. 9, Teracrius nama- 
quensis Stal; fig. 10, Geocori^ uliginosus (Say) ; fig. 11, Clerada apicicornis Sign.; 
fig. 12, Artemidorus pressus Dist. ; fig. 13, Crophius scabrosus (Ulil.) ; fig. 14, 
Heterogaster urticae (F.) ; fig. 15, BJiss-ns leucopterus (Say) ; fig. 16, Ischnodemus 
falici(^ (Say). 



78 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. U, APRIL, 1957 




Metathoracic wings of Lygaeidae. — Fig. 17, Peritrechus fraternus Uhl. ; lig. 
18, PacJiybrachius hasalis (Dall.) ; fig. 19, Emblethi^ vicarivs Horv. ; fig. 20, 
Dieuches nr. placidus Stal. ; fig. 21, Megalonotus cMragraus var. calif omicus 
(V.D.) ; fig. 22, Eremocoris ferus (Say); fig. 23, Pamphantiis elegantulus Stai; 
fig. 24, ChauUops fallax Scott; fig. 25, Osophora piciuraia Uhl.; fig. 26, Chilaci^ 
typhae Perr. ; fig. 27, Henestaris laticeps (Curt.); fig. 28, Bhyparochromii,s iim 
broffus (Dist.). 



PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASn., VOL. 59, NO. 2, APRIL, 1957 79 

REiFEKENCBS 
Hoke, S. 1926. Preliminary paper on the wing-venation of the Hemiptera (Hete- 

roptera). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 19: 13-34. 
Leston, D. 19n3a. Notes on the Ethiopian Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera) : XVI. 

An acanthosomid from Angola, with remarks upon the status and morphology 

of Acanthosomidae Stal. PuVjI. Cult. Comp. Diam. Angola No. 16, pp. 121-132. 
■ — ; 1953b. "Phloeidae" Dallas: Systematics and morphology with 

remarks on the phylogeny of ' ' Pentatomoidea ' ' Leach and upon the position 

of "Serbana" Distant (Hemiptera). Eev. Brasil Biol. 13 (2):121-140. 
Tanaka, T. 1926. Homologies of the wing veins of the Hemiptera. Annot. Zool. 

Jap. 11:33-54. 
Usinger, E. L. 1943. A revised classification of the Reduvioidea with a ne^v 

subfamily from South America (Hemiptera). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 36:602- 

618. 



THE SPIDER, CONOPISTHA TRIGONA HENTZ, FAMILY THERIDIIDAE, 
AS A COMMENSAL OF ALLEPIERA LEMNISCATA WALCKENAER, 
FAMILY ARGIOPIDAE, IN PRINCE GEORGES COUNTY, MARYLAND 

In the literature Corwpistha trigona is recorded as a commensal 
spider. Muma (1945, Md. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. A-38) reported that 
this species is found most frequently in the webs of Metepeira lahy- 
rinthea Hentz. Comstock (1948, The Spider Book) stated that it lives 
as a commensal, feeding on the smaller insects caught in the web but 
neglected by its host. 

During the course of regular observations on a basilica spider, 
Allepiera- lemniscata, at Greenbelt, Md., from May to July 6, and 
from August 26 through October 1956, I observed Conopi^tha trigona 
as a frequent commensal of this basilica spider on June 20, 21, and 
25 ; on August 30 ; and on September 23 and 25. On the last 5 days 
the commensal was in the dorsal or ventral labyrinth strands of the 
basilica spider's web. On four occasions, the host was present in the 
web with the commensal, and on two other occasions the commensal 
was in a deserted web of the basilica spider. On August 30 the com- 
mensal was feeding beside its own cocoon, which it had fastened to a 
strand of the dorsal labyrinth of the web of its host. The latter was 
present in its normal waiting position under the center of the snare. 

On June 20 I recorded one specimen of Conopistha trigo7ia under 
the center of the snare of a young basilica spider in the position 
normally occupied by the host. The basilica spider was above and 
near the perimeter of the snare on one of the strands of the dorsal 
labyrinth facing the intruding spider, which was the larger of the 
two. — Donald Lamore, 2C Gardenway, Greenhelt, Md. 



80 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, XO. 2, APRIL, 1957 

SYSTEMATICS OF THE SUBORDER TUBULIFERA (THYSANOPTERA) 
IN CALIFORNIA, \>y II. Edwin Cott, Univ. California Pu))., Entomology, 
13:1-216, plates 1-4. Univ. Calif. Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1956. 
$3.50. 

At long last here is an analysis of a portion of the thrips fauna of our con- 
tinent. Not since Hinds reported on the then known thrips in 1902 has an Ameri- 
can treatment of sizeable scope been published, Watson's annotated list (Sj-nop- 
sis) of 1924 notwithstanding. 

Cott's work deals only with the suborder Tul)ulifera of California and is 
presented more as a local faunal survey than as a monograph. The knotty prob- 
lem of supergenerie categories and generic limits are mentioned, but no over-all 
solution is attempted, principally because the study does not take into consid- 
eration many of the critical species and related genera that occur outside California. 

In a fresh and candid style, Cott summarizes the morphological and biological 
features of the Tubulifera and points out how these characteristics may be used 
to best advantage. His classification is conservative in that it follows the system 
set up by Priesner in 1927. The genera and species are keyed with a modicum 
of the specialists' jargon. What appear to be complete citations are listed under 
each category. Type species of the genera are indicated with mention of the way 
they were designated and who was responsible for their designation. Remarks on 
the status of the genus and the problems in need of further attention are included 
after each generic definition. The species are described in detail. Although 
many characteristics of a "typical" specimen, arbitrarily selected by Cott, are 
fully measured down to the nearest micron, the range of variation exhibited by 
the species is not recorded, thereby minimizing the precise value of such measure- 
ments. Type localities, hosts so far as are known, specimens studied, and Cali- 
fornian and extralimital distributions are given and documented. 

In all, this work covers 29 genera embracing 60 species of which 12 are described 
as new. The genus Liothrips is reported to contain the largest number of species 
(9) in California. Even though Liothrips and Bhynchothrips are bridged by 
intermediates, Cott tentatively separates the two taxa by the characteristic of 
the length of the head compared with the length of the pronotum. Similarly, 
HaplotJirips, the next largest genus treated (7 species) grades into Lepthotlirips 
in most respects in California, but by the feature of the presence or absence 
of a tooth on each tarsi, Cott is able to maintain these 2 genera as units in his 
State at least. Acanthothrips and Eoplandrothrips are regarded as subgenera of 
Phlaeothrips, and Stephanothrips and Trachythrips are placed in a separate 
family, the Urothripidae, following an old custom. The remaining genera treated 
contain 1 to several species each. Two species, Siictothrips maculatus and Neiiro- 
thrips magnafemoralis, formerly supposed to be strictly eastern in distribution, 
are reported as members of the Californian fauna for the first time. 

Although limited geographically, Cott's efforts clear a trail in the jungle of 
thrips taxonomy. His viewpoints and presentation will be appreciated by thy- 
sanopterists and by other interested entomologists. But most important, his 
work vein serve as a sound guide to newcomers venturing into the study of one 
of the least known groups of insects, the Tubulifera. — Lewis J. Stannard, Jr., 
Illinois Natural History Survey, Urbana. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 2, APRIL, 1957 81 

A NEW RUGITERMES FROM BOLIVIA 

(ISOPTEJKA, KALOTERMIDAE) 

Thomas E. Snyder, Washington, IJ. C. 

Twelve species of Rugitermes have been described, 11 from Middle 
and South America and 1 from the Marquesas, an aberrant species 
as to its wing venation. Many species are bicolored, the head being 
much darker than the pronotum. A new species found in the National 
Museum collection is described as follows : 

Rugitermes laticoUis, n. sp. 

Winged female adult. — Head dark castaneous-brown, smootli, shining, longer 
than broad, sides rounded, with scattered long and short hairs. Post-clypeus 
white tinged with yellow. Labrum light yellow-brown, with long hairs. Eye 
black, not round, projecting, separated from lateral margin of head by a distance 
slightly greater than the long diameter of the eye. Ocellus hyaline, suboval, at 
oblique angle to eye from which it is separated by a distance less than the short 
diameter of the ocellus. 

Antenna light yellow-brown, segments not all present, second segment slightly 
longer than third or fourth, which are subequal, with long hairs. 

Pronotum same color as head, broader than long, shallowly concave anteriorly 
and posteriorly, sides rounded, with scattered long hairs. 

Wings yellow-bro^\^l, coarsely punctate. In forewing, median vein soon (in 
first quarter) unites with radial sector; radial sector close to and parallel to 
Avith ."i branches to costal vein. Cubitus above middle of wing, parallel to radial 
sector, with 16 branches to apex of wing. In hind wing median vein absent, 
ladial sector with 4 branches to costal vein. Cubitus above middle of wing, with 
16 branches to apex. 

Legs light yellow-brown, femora darker, with long hairs. 

Abdomen with tergites dark castaneous-brown, with dense long and short hairs. 

Measurements (in millimeters) : 

Length of entire winged female adult — 10.50 

Length of entire dealated female adult 5.50 

Length of head (to tip of labrum) 1.80 

Length of pronotum (to anterior corner) 1.20 

Length of forewing _. 8.00 

Length of hind tibia 1.10 

Diameter of eye (long diameter) 0.35 

Width of head (at eyes) 1.50 

Width of pronotum — 1.80 

Width of forewing .-_.. 2.20 

Rugiterines laficoJIis is nut bicolored; is smaller than artJiur-muel- 
leri (von Rosen) and costaricensis (Snyder) ; is darker colored than 
unicolor Snyder and rugosus (Hagen) ; the median vein unites with 
the radial sector sooner in occidentaUs (Silvestri) and in rugosus 
(Hagen) ; the latter has a shorter wing. 



82 PKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 2, APBtL, 1957 

Type locality. — La Paz, Bolivia. Described from 6 winged adults, 
4 males and 2 females, collected at the type locality by R. Perez 
Alcala, 1947. 

Types. — Holotype, ivingecl female adult. U.S. National Museum. 
No. 63342; paratypes female and male wino-ed adults deposited at 
same institution. 



A BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE ON CERATOPOGON YEZOENSIS 
MATSUMTJRA 

( DiPTEUA : Helkii>ae) 

Different years of publication and different orthographies have been 
used by various authors to refer to Ceratopogon yezoensis Matsumura 
1911. Edwards [1939, hi Edwards, Oldroyd, and Smart, British 
Blood-sucking Flies, p. 143], Vargas [1949, Rev. Sac. Mexicana Hist. 
Nat. 19 (1/4) :203, 208], and Arnaud [1956, Microentomology 21 (3) : 
116, 149] have followed Tokunaga [1937, Tentkredo 1 (3) : 235] in 
accepting a 1915 paper by Matsumura as containing the original de- 
scription. The correct reference to this species given by Takahashi 
[1941, Insecta- Matsumurana 15 (3) : 84], attributing yezoensis 
[yesoensis of Edwards 1939, and Vargas 1949] to a publication by 
S. Matsumura (p. 60) entitled "Erster Beitrag zur Insekten-Fauna 
von Sachalin," published in 1911 in The Journal of the College of 
Agriculture, Tohoku Imperial University, Sapporo, Japan 4 :1-145 
Plates I and II was overlooked by certain of these authors. The 
original description is provided below because of its general non- 
availability. 

"212. Ceratopogon yezoensis i\. sp. 

" Graulichbraun. Anteimen und Palpen blassgelblich. RuckeusL-hild grau, ohue 
langsstriemen, nahe Vorderrande jederseits mit einem Griibchen. Kopf 
schwarz, Rostrum braunlich. Fliigel subhyalin, weisslich getriibt, dritte 
Langsader durch eine Querader niit der ersten nicht verbunden, Unterrand- 
zolle dalier einfach, Randmal braunlich, vor und hinter diesem je mit einem 
undeutlichen weissliclien Fleckcheu, Unterrandzelle die Mitte des Fliigels 
erreicht, dritter Langsnerv weit hinter der Fliigelspitze miindend. Halters 
weisslich. Beine weisslichgelb, Schenkel an der Spitzp etwas braunlich. Abdo- 
men braunlich, unten etwas heller. 

"Lange: 1 mm. 

"Fundort: Korsakoff, gesammelt in 3 Examplaren von Herrn Y. Ikuma 
(in der Sammlung von Herrn Y. Naiva) . 
"S. F.: Hokkaido (haufig). 
"T. N.: Nulcaka. 

"Der Farbuug nach C. bicolor Pz. etwas ahnlich.'' — Paul H. Arnaud, Jr., 

Entomology Besearch Divlsiov, II. S. Department of Agriculture. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 59, NO. 2, APRIL, 1957 83 

A NEW SPECIES OF MITE, HIRSTIONYSSUS BISETOSUS, 

FROM THE NESTS OF THE DESERT WOOD RAT, 

NEOTOMA LEPIDA LEPIDA THOMAS^ 

( ACARIXA : Dermanyssidae), 

DORAXDi M. Allrbd, Ecological Research, Univetsity of Utah, Dngway.^ 

During a seasonal study of the parasitic mites associated with the 
uests of the desert wood rat Neotoma lepida lepida Thomas in Utah, 
Allred and Roseoe (unpublished manuscript) found mites represent- 
ing- a new species to be very abundant in the nests. These mites are 
described in this paper. The dimensions given for the sternal plate 
of the female refer to the shortest distances between two margins. 
Length and width figures for other plates refer to the greatest distance, 
exclusive of the very narrow projections such as the intercoxal pro- 
jections on the holoventral plate of the male. All measurements are 
given in microns. 

Acknowledgment is given to Dr. R. W. Strandtmann, Texas Tech- 
nological College, Lubbock, and Dr. E. W. Jameson, Jr., University 
of California, Davis, for checking some of the specimens. 

HIRSTIONYSSUS BISETOSUS, new species 

(Female) 
(Figs. .5-10) 

Idiosoma. — 494 long, 306 wide. 

Gnathosama. — Width near the base 93 ; length from tip of idiosoma to base 
of palpal trochanter 105. Hypostomal setae all nude; basal pair 24 long, middle 
internal pair 19 long, middle external pair 9 long, distal pair 9 long. Length of 
palps from base of trochanter to tip 91. Chelicerae chelate, both digits of about 
equal length and without teeth. Digitus fixus slightly curved, with striated flange- 
like tip; a microseta at base of striation. Digitus mobilis slightly sinuous with 
a blunt point. 

Venter. — Base of tritosternum grooved ventrally; lacinae reaching to base of 
palpal trochanter. Presternal area reticulate. Sternal plate faintly reticulate, 
two and one-fourth times as wide as long at narrowest points (50 by 112) ; 
anterior edge slightly convex ; concavity of posterior edge extending to a level 
about midway between the second and third sternal setae ; anterior edge of plate 
more heavily sclerotized than central portion of plate ; heavy sclerotization most 
evident between the first pair of sternal setae where it extends one-third the 
length of the plate; posterior edge of plate also more heavily sclerotized. Three 
pairs of sternal setae about equal in size, 38 long ; distance between first pair 
of sternal setae equal to length of plate. Genitoventral plate broadly rounded 
posteriorly; with usual pair of setae opposite posterior edge coxae IV, and a 
pair of accessory setae near the tip of the plate; plate Avidest at point midway 



^This work was supported by U. S. Army Chemical Corps contract. No. DA-18- 
0(i4-CML-2fi39, with the University of Utah. 

^Now with Department of Zoology and Entomology, Brigham Young University, 
Provo, Utah. 



84 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, XO. l!, APRIL, 1957 

between usual setae and accessory setae; usual genitoventral setae 31 long; 
accessory setae 28 long. Anal plate long oval, slightly less than twice as long 
as wide (100 by 57); reticulate near lateral margins; anus in anterior half 
of plate; paired anal setae 24 long, situated slightly behind middle of anus; 
postanal seta 26 long, situated behind the anus by a distance equal to the length 
of the anus. Anal plate separated from the genitoventral plate by a distance 
less than the length of the anus ; cribum with 4 rows of teeth. Unselerotized 
portion of venter with approximately 31 pairs subequal setae 24 to 28 long; 
those along posterior margin barbed. Stigma at level between coxae III and IV. 
Peritreme sinuous, extending to middle of coxa I. Legs I and II thicker than 
III and IV; leg I, 304 long; leg II, 247 long; leg III, 228 long; leg IV, 299 
long. Coxa I with two regular setae. Coxa II with regular dorso-anterior spur 
and a small, sharply pointed accessory spur located below the distal edge of the 
segment and directed posteriorly. Coxa III Avith two small, sharply pointed acces- 
sory spurs situated near posterior edge of coxa, the internal spur situated directly 
internal to the marginal seta and directed posteriorly; the external spur situated 
on posterodistal edge of the coxa and directed at almost a right angle to the 
internal spur. Coxa IV without an accessory spur. Tarsus II without clawlike spurs. 
Bors-um. — Dorsal plate reticulate, covering most of dorsum, extending almost 
to posterior tip of idiosoma ; 480 long, 268 wide ; Avidest part just posterior to 
coxae IV. Anterolateral margins of plate sinuous; posterolateral margins slightly 
convex. With 26 pairs nude setae; anterior pair setae smallest, 12 long; second 
pair setae largest, 36 long; other setae on anterior half of plate longer (24 to 31) 
than posterior setae (19 to 21). Unselerotized portion of dorsum with approxi- 
mately 22 pairs nude setae, 21 to 26 long. 

Male 
(Figs. 3. 4, 11-13) 

Idiosoma. — 387 long, 255 wide. 

Gnathosoma. — Width 76; length from tip of idiosoma to base of palpal tro- 
chanter 43. Hypostomal setae all nude; basal pair 19 long, internal middle pair 14 
long, external middle pair 7 long, distal pair 9 long. Palps 76 long from base of 
trochanter. Chelicerae chelate, without teeth ; digitus fixus fingerlike, straight, 
slightly shorter than digitus moVnlis, which is thicker, curved toward the trans- 
parent tip. 

F enter. -^Basc' of tritosternum grooved ventrally ; lacinae extending well past 
base of palpal trochanter. Presternal area reticulate. Holoventral plate faintly 
reticulate, widest anteriorly; 304 long, 117 wide; with usual 5 pairs setae plus 
anal setae and 3 pairs accessory setae; anterior 5 pairs setae 26 long; accessory 
setae 16 to 24 long; paired anal setae 19 long, situated opposite anterior half 
of anus; postanal setae equal in length to paired anal setae. Cribum with 2 rows 
teeth. Three pairs sternal pores present, indistinct. Unselerotized portion venter 
with approximately 30 pairs subequal setae, 16 long; posterior marginal setae 
barbed. Stigma at level between coxae III and IV. Peritreme sinuous, extend- 
ing to middle half or coxa I. Legs I and II thicker than III and IV; leg I, 
261 long; leg II, 214 long; leg III, 199 long; leg IV, 261 long. Coxae I, II, 
and III as in female; coxa IV with accessory spur on distal margin near pos- 
terior edge. Tarsus II Avithout claAvlike spines. 



PROO. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 2, APRIL, 1957 




Hirst ion yssus biseiosus, n. sp. Fig. 1, Dorsal plate and peritremes of ikuto 
nymph; fig. 2, sternal plate of deutonymph ; fig. 3, holoventral plate of male; 
fig. 4, dorsal plate and peritreme of male; fig. 5, sternal and genitoventral plates 
of female; fig. 6, dorsal plate and peritreme of female. 



86 



PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 59, NO. 2, APRIL, 1957 



Dorsum. — Dorsal plate reticulate, covering all of dorsum except lateral margins; 
378 long, 208 wide; lateral margins almost straight. With 33 pairs nude setae; 
anterior pair smallest, 9 long; second pair longest, 28 long; other setae on 
anterior half of plate longer (16 to 21) than posterior setae (14 to 16). Un- 
sclerotized portion of dorsum with approximately 7 pairs nude setae, 16 to 19 long. 

Deutonymph 
(Figs. 1, 2, 14-17) 

Idiosoma. — 295 long, 185 wide. 

Gnatii 0807)1 a. — Width at middle 76; length from tip of idiosoma to base of 
palpal trochanter 24. Hypostomal setae all nude; basal pair 19 long, middle 
internal pair 12 long, middle external pair 7 long, distal pair 7 long. Palps 
69 long from base of trochanter. Chelicerae chelate, both digits almost straight, 
fingerlike, about equal ui length and lacking teeth. 

Venter. — Base of tritosternum grooved ventrally ; lacinae extending past base 
of palpal trochanter. Sternal plate extending from base of tritosternum to a 
point slightly posterior to coxae IV; anterior edge of plate distinctly reticulate, 
165 long, 69 wide; widest part opposite coxae II; with 4 pairs setae; first and 




Hir.'itio'nyssus bi.sctonii.s, n. sp. Fig. 7, Anal plate of female; fig. 8, left coxa 

II of female ; fig. 9, right coxa III of female ; fig.' 10, right chela of female 
(ventral view) ; fig. 11, left chela of male (ventral view) ; fig. 12, left coxa 

III of male; fig. 13, left coxa IV of male; fig. 14, chela of deutonymph; fig. 15, 
anal plate of deutonymph; fig. 16, right coxa II of deutonymph; fig. 17, right 
coxa III of deutonymph. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 2, APRIL, 1957 87 

hecoiid pairs 31 long; third pair 28 long; fourth pair 21 long. Three pairs 
sternal pores; first pair situated behind first sternal setae about 12 microns 
from lateral edge of plate, second pair on edge of plate directly posterior to 
second setae, third pair on edge of plate midway between third and fourth setae. 
Anal plate pyriform, with anterior edge rounded; 52 long, 28 wide; anal opening 
situated slightly anterior of middle of plate; paired anal setae 19 long, situated 
opposite middle of anus; postanal seta equal in size to paired anal setae. Unsclero- 
tized portion of venter with approximately 38 pairs nude setae, 21 to 24 long. 
Stigma at level of coxae III and IV; Peritreme sinuous, extending to about 
middle of coxa II. Legs I and II slightly thicker than III and IV; leg I, 228 
long; leg II, 190 long; leg III, 185 long, leg IV, 228 long. Coxa I with 2 
regular setae. Coxa II Avith single accessory spur as in female. Coxa III with 
only the internal accessory spur present. Coxa IV Avithout an accessory spur. 
Tarsus II without clawlike spines. 

Dorsum. — Dorsal plate faintly reticulate, long oval in shape, covering all of 
dorsum except lateral margins ; 283 long ; 139 wide at level of coxae II and III. 
With 26 pairs nude setae ; anterior pair setae smallest, 9 long ; posterior pair 
longest, 33 long; setae on anterior part of plate longer (24 to 28) than setae 
on posterior part of plate (16 to 21). Unsclerotized portion of dorsum with 
approximately 15 pairs nude setae, 19 to 28 long. 

COLLEICTION AND DISPOSITION 

Holotype. — Female, in collection of the U. S. National Museum, No. 
2227, collected from a nest of desert wood rat, Neotoma lepida lepida 
Thomas, 2 miles southeast of White Rock, south end of Cedar Moun- 
tains, Tooele County, Utah, July 22, 1954, by Dorald M. AUred and 
Stanley Mulaik. 

Allotype. — Male, in collection of U.S. National Museum, collected 
from the same kind of nest and same locality a,s holotype, June 24, 
1954, by Ernest J. Roscoe. 

Paratypes.—SO females, 17 males, and 13 deutonymphs collected 
from same kind of nests in same locality as holotype and allotype, 
during- various times from April to August and in November, 1954. 
An additional 912 females, 257 males, and 319 deutonymphs not desig- 
nated as paratypes were collected in the same habitat as the types 
between April 1954 and April 1955. Deposited in the collections of 
Dorald M. Allred, R. W. Strandtmann, E. W. Jameson, Jr., Harvey 
B. Morlan, R. B. Eads, F. da Fonseca, University of Utah Entomo- 
logical Museum, U. S. National Museum, British Museum of Natural 
History, and National Museum of Natural History of Paris. 

Discussion 

Fonseca (1948:263), among other characters, used the number of 
setae of the genital plate in females to separate the genera of Macro- 
nyssidae Oudemans, 1936 (synonym : Dermanyssidae Kolenati, 1859 ; 
Liponissidae Vitzthum, 1931). In his key (p. 273), he used the 
characters of one and three pairs of setae on the genital plate to sepa- 



88 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. '2, APRIL, 19.17 

rate females of the genus Hirstesia from those of Lepronyssoides, and 
females of LiponyseaUa from those of five other genera, including 
Hirstionyssus. Hirstionyssus falls in the group possessing only one 
pair of genital setae. In his species diagnoses (p. 265-266), EcJmw- 
nyssus was the only genus possessing two pairs of genital setae. In 
no case did the numbers of genital setae vary within the genus. With 
this as a basis, there seems to be sufficient justification to create a new 
genus for Hirstionyssus hisetosus. However, in H. hisetosus the other 
generic characters are so similar to other species of the genus Hir- 
stionyssus that the author does not deem it wise to erect a new genus 
until the genera of this family can be more thoroughly studied. Ac- 
cording to Jameson (correspondence), in many of the Hirstionyssus 
there is a second pair of setae just ofl' the genitoventral plate. A slight 
expansion of the posterior part of this plate often results in these two 
setae being within its lateral margins. Strandtmann and Morlan 
(1953) state that this situation exists in H. hreviseta. In H. hisetosus, 
the extra pair of setae apparently got too close and was completely 
enclosed by the plate. 

The presence of the extra pair of setae on the genitoventral plate 
separates hisetosus from all other species of the genus Hirstionyssus. 
In many respects, hisetosus is similar to four other species {ohsoletus, 
isahellinus, hreviseta, and neotoniae) , but differs as follows: In Jame- 
son's (1950:163) key to the females of North American Neoichoronys- 
sus (synonym, Hirstionyssus Fonseca 1948), hisetosus runs to ohso- 
letus. but differs from that species by having a smaller dorsal plate 
of diff'erent shape, spurs on coxae II and III that are pointed, a shorter 
.sternal plate, and almost twice as many ventral setae. In the key by 
Strandtmann and Morlan (1953:630), hisetosus runs to isahellinus 
from which it differs by the absence of a thickened margin on the anal 
plate and posterior thickened margin of the genitoventral plate ; the 
sternal plate of hisetosus is shorter than in isahellinus. However, in 
hisetosus the anterior and posterior margins of the sternal plate are 
thickened. This species resembles hreviseta, but differs from it by 
having two spurs on coxa II, lacking a spur on coxa IV, having almost 
twice as many setae on the venter, and possessing a slightly shorter 
sternal plate. The new species, hisetosus, differs from neotomae by 
lacking a spur on coxa IV, having a slightly shorter sternal plate, and 
possessing more setae on the unsclerotized portions of the venter and 
dorsum. 

Allred and Roscoe (unpublished manuscript) found hisetosus to be 
the second most abundant parasitic mite in the nests of the desert wood 
rat, in which nests it was found each month of the year (Fig. 18). 
The ratio of males to females over a period of a year was 1 :3.4. 
Gravid females, each with one egg, were found in May, July, and 
August. There is little doubt that this species is a nest-dwelling form, 
getting onto a host onlv to feed. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 2, APRIL, 1957 



89 



ee - 

!1 - 

i? - 

20 




Fig. IS. Average numbers of Hirstioni/ssiis hisetosus found in each of 160 
nests of the desert wood rat, Xeoiomn Jepirla Jepida, from April 15, 1954, to 
April 14, 1955. 

Eeferenobs 

Fonseca, F. da. 1948. A monograph of the genera and species of Macronyssidae 

Oudemans, 1936 (synon. ; Liponissidae Vitzthum, 1931) (Acari). Proc. Zool. 

Soe. 118(2) :249-334. 
Jameson, E. W., Jr. 1950. Notes on mites of the genus Neoichoronyssus, with 

the description of a new subgenus and three new species of the subgenus 

Hirstionyssus. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 52(4) :161-172. 
Strandtmann, E. W., and H. B. Morlan. 1953. A new species of Hirstionyssus 

and a key to the known species of the world. Texas Ept. Biol. Med., 

11(4): 627-637. 



Short scientific articles, not illustrated, two double-spaced type- 
written pages or less in length, are welcome and will usually receive 
prompt publication. References to literature should be included in 
the text. 



9U PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 2, APRIL, 1957 

THE DATE OF PUBLICATION OF BEZZI'S STUDIES IN PHILIPPINE 

DIPTERA, II 

Mario Bezzi's second "century" of Diptera collected by C. F. 
Baker in the Philippine Islands, generally cited as published in the 
Philippine Journal of Science, (D) 12 (3) : 107-161, pi. 1 (May, 
1917), seems to have actually been published on November 15, 1916, 
in another printing- with different pagination. I possess a copy with 
the same text as the 1917 publication, with the following information 
on page 2 : Department of the Interior, Bureau of Science, Manila. 
Publication No. 10. Actual date of publication November 15, 1916. 

It is paged 1-59 plus Plate 1. The plate is headed "Bureau of 
Science Publication No. 10." The page numbers with the species 
numbers, etc., appearing thereupon are as follows: 

P. 7: title, etc.; p. S: iios. 101-104; p. 9: key to PselliopJwra, no. 105; p. 10: 
nos. 106-107; p. 11: nos. 108-110; p. 12: no. Ill, key to Eriocera ; p. 13: nos. 
112-114; p. 14: nos. 115-119; p. 15: no. 120, key to Libnotes, p. 16: nos. 121- 
124; p. 17: nos. 125-127; p. 18: gen. Schizella nov.; p. 19: no. 128; p. 20: nos 
129-130; p. 21: nos. 131-133; p. 22: no. 134; p. 23: nos. 135-137; p. 24: nos 
138-144; p. 26: nos. 145-147; p. 27: nos. 148-149; p. 28: nos. 150-157; p. 29 
nos. 158-163; p. 30: nos. 164-168; p. 31: no. 169, gen. Tylopterna nov.; p. 32 
no. 170; p. 33: nos. 171-173; p. 35: nos. 174-175; p. 36: nos. 176-177; p. 37 
no. 178; p. 38: no. 179; p. 39: nos. 180-183; p. 41: key to Pterogenia, no. 184 
p. 43: no. 185; p. 44: no. 186; p. 45: no. 187: p. 46: no. 188; p. 48: no. 189; p. 49 
key to Euprosopia, no. 190; p. 51: no. 191; p. 52: no. 192; p. 53: no. 193; p. 54 
nos. 194-195; p. 55: nos. 196-197; p. 57: no. 198; p. 59: nos. 199-200.— Geob&e 
C. Steyskal, Grosse He, Michigan. 

SOCIETY MEETING 

The 658th regular meeting of the Society was called to order by President 
E. A. St. George at 8 p.m., December 6, 1956, in room 43 of the IT. S. National 
Museum. There were 32 members and 10 visitors present. The minutes of the 
preceding meeting were read, corrected, and approved. 

The following new members were elected: Robert L. Wallis, Truck Crop 
and Garden Insects Section, Agricultural Eesearch Center, Beltsville, Md.: 
Donald H. Lamore, 2C Gardenway, Greenbelt, Md.; and Dr. Oswaldo Paulo 
Forattini, Faculdade de Higiene e Saude Publica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 
Avenida Dr. Amadlo, 715, Sao Paulo, S. P., Brazil, Caixa Postal 8099. 

President St. George gave the summary report on the state of the Society. 
He remarked that the Society has three honorary mmbers (see names on 
inside front cover — Ed.), and acknowledged the presence of Honorary Presi- 
dent E. E. Snodgrass. 

In the absence of other nominations, members on the slate presented by the 
nominating committee were elected officers for 1957 by acclamation. (Officers 
listed on inside front cover — Ed.) President St. George congratulated the 
new President, P. L. Campbell. 

It was voted to replace Article II, Section 3 of Article III, and Article VI 
of the Constitution with the following: 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. '2, APRIL, 1957 !t] 

Article II. 

The objects of the Society shall be to promote the study of entoiuology iu all 
its bearings ; to publish a periodical to be known as the Proceedings of the Ento- 
mological Society of Washington, which shall contain the proceedings of the 
Society and such papers as are accepted for publication in it; to publish a series 
of Memoirs, and a miscellaneous series of handbooks or other special publications ; 
and to cultivate mutually advantageous relations among those in any way inter- 
ested in entomology. To further these objectives dues shall T)e collected from the 
members. 

Article III, Section 3. 

Each member shall be entitled to one copy of each issue of the ' ' Proceedings ' ' 
and shall be privileged to vote on all questions. Members shall be given prefer- 
ence over non-memliers in the publication of manuscripts. 

Article VI. 

The Society shall maintain a separate fund to be known as the Special Publi- 
cation Fund. At the discretion of the Executive Committee, any unrestricted 
portion of the Special Publication Fund may be used for publishing memoirs, 
handbooks, or other special publications. In any one year, a sum not exceeding 
the previous five years' income from interest on the Special Publication Fund 
monies may be taken from this Fund and applied toward the publication of the 
Proceedings; such sum to be returned to the Special Publication Fund at the 
discretion of the Executive Committee. The Special Publication Fund will be 
derived from bequests and gifts, from the sale of complete sets of the Proceed- 
ings of the Entomological Society of Washington, from the sale of memoirs, 
handbooks, or other special publications, from the fees of life and sustaining 
members, and from the sum of fifty cents from the annual dues of each member. 

F. L. Campbell reviewed the "Handbook of Biological Data," edited by 
William S. Spector, and exhibited both this and volume 1, "Acute Toxicities," 
of the 5-volume "Handbook of Toxicology," a companion book prepared by the 
same editor. 

Max Day told aljout the ecology of the adult Bogong moth, Agrotis infusa 
(Boisduval), Phalaenidae (Noctuidae of authors), describing recent work by Mr. 
I. F. B. Common, of the Division of Entomology, Commonwealth Scientific & 
Industrial Research Organization, Canberra, Australia. The moths occur in large 
assemblages in granite caves at altitudes above about 4,500 feet in the Australian 
Alps, where the Australian Aborigines formerly feasted on them. The fat content 
of the moths averages more than 50 percent of their dry weight. They rest on 
the walls of the caves, about 1,500 per square foot. 

Moths of the spring generation migrate to the mountains and in late summer 
they migrate back to the breeding grounds, which are pastures covering wide 
areas of New South Wales. 

A small proportion of the aestivating moths become intensely active for about 
an hour after sunset and before sunrise, when they indulge in random flight 
over the mountain tops. During aestivation the moths neither feed nor mate, 
nlthough they do ingest moisture from rain or dew. 

The migration and aestivation enables part of the adult population to avoid 



92 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 2, APRIL, 19.57 

the breeding grounds during the summer when pa.stures are dominated by unpal- 
atable perennial grasses. [Author's abstract.] 

A note on "Subterranean Termites and Ships" was given by T. E. Snyder. 
In 1927 a coal barge was found to be infested by subterranean termites in the 
liarbor at Honolulu, Hawaii. Much moisture was present and some dirt was 
lodged along the bottom. Probably the infestation by this introduced oriental 
termite, Coptotermes formosamus Shiraki, was by winged adults. Such a vessel 
would be a source of danger at ports of call. 

This same destructive termite has established itself in the woodwork of steam- 
ships plying between Hawaii and California. So far Federal inspectors have 
intercepted and prevented its introduction to the mainland. 

In July 1956 another destructive subterranean termite, Coptoterme.s crassus 
Snyder, was found damaging the woodwork of a large floating dry dock at 
Houston, Tex. This termite occurs in Spanish Honduras, Guatemala, and West 
Mexico (Lower California). It is larger than the native subterranean species of 
Reticulitermes, and the soldier has a short tube in the front of the more oval 
head from which a white liquid is ejected. 

As soon as Dr. Snyder identified the termite, Federal inspectors surveyed along 
the waterfront to determine whether this tropical termite had become established in 
buildings on shore. (Winged adults from a large colony could fly from the dock 
and infest woodwork on shore.) Surveys made in August showed no infestation 
in waterfront structures. Evidently the dock became infested from ships from 
tropical ports. Owners of the dock have attempted to eradicate the termites. 

In August 1956 another dry dock at New Orleans, La., was found to be infested 
by the native subterranean termite ReticuUtermes flavipes (Kol.). [Author's 
abstract.] 

President St. George recalled similar instances, one of an infestation of termites 
in a houseboat anchored above Key Bridge and another in the oak beams of a 
church steeple four stories above the ground. 

Paul Arnaud exhibited a Japanese delicacy, a can of ' * child hornets " ' — the 
larvae, pupae, and occasional adults of Vespula letvisi Smith — which are served 
on rice, principally in central Japan. The can was a product of Nagano Prefecture. 

A. B. Gurney discussed the growing trend, especially among entomologists 
working in applied fields, toward using the Avord "roach" instead of "cock- 
roach. ' ' In the current Common Name List certain species are called cockroaches, 
others roaches, a somewhat distressing lack of uniformity. Dr. Gurney explained 
the origin of cockroach from the Spanish cucaracha, and cited support for the 
view that the abbreviated "roach" is etymologically incorrect and loose English. 
Furthermore, various species of fish, as well as one or more groups of fish, have 
the common name of roach. Some confusion has occurred in abstracting journals 
because of uncertainty whether "roach" referred to fish or to cockroaches. 
Nevertheless, the trend continues and it is desirable that entomologists under- 
stand the situation and act to promote uniformity and avoid confusion. [Author's 
abstract.] 

Honorary President Snodgrass commented that he was in favor of doing away 
with the name "roaches" for insects, as, in behalf of his son-in-law^ Roach, he 
preferred that the name bring to mind the popular fish rather than the unpopular 
insect. 



PROC. ENT. SOO. WASH., VOL. 59, XO. 2, APRIL, 19.17 93 

The principal paper of tlie evening was an illustrated lecture on the ' ' Mating 
Behavior in Australian Dragonflies, " by Mr. A. F. L. O'Farrell. 

Field observations, mainly from the Nevs- England Tableland area of New 
South Wales, suggest that in several species of Australian Odonata the behavior 
and pattern of distribution of adult individuals of differing age and sex tends 
to be rather characteristic for a given species and habitat. The diverse phenomena 
observed seem to have a similar end-result, ensuring ready discovery of a mate 
and of a suitable oviposition site while retaining for the species the ability to 
colonize and exploit new habitats arising as the result of flooding, dam con- 
struction, stream diversion, and so forth. 

Patterns vary from the apparently indiscriminate aggregations of individuals 
of all ages and both sexes, seen in the primitive damselfly Sijiilestes weyersi 
iveyersi Selys, to the seemingly highly organized male territorial systems of the 
rather specialized dragonfly Tramea loewii tillyardi Lieftinck. An adequate study 
will be possible only when a satisfactory field marking technique is available 
for each species. Disturbance of the normal behavior pattern by any procedure 
involving capture and release is a major problem here. [Author's abstract.] 
Mr. O'Farrell 's slides showed the variety of dragonfly habitats in Australia. 

Visitors introduced were Dr. Nicholaus Obraztsov, of the American Museum 
of Natural History; Dr. Harvey I. Scudder, of the Public Health Service, and 
Dr. C. D. Michener, of the University of Kansas. 

The meeting adjourned at 9:50 p.m. — Kellie O'Neill, Recording Secretary. 



Date of publication. Vol. 59, No. 1, was March 15, 1957, 






NEW AMMUNITION? 

Search for improved insecticides and fumigants 
gets high priority at Diamond's enlarged 
Research Center. Increasing sales of our own 
products give evidence of this interest. We 
welcome requests for cooperation on research 
and development projects. 



DIAMOMO 



DIAMOND ALKALI 
COMPANY 

Cleveland 1 4, Ohio 





94 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 2, APRIL, 1957 



A Cyanamid Report 



Resistance 



Resistance to chlorinated hydrocarbon type 
insecticides has been proven or suspected in : 



cockroaches 

mosquitoes 

Colorado potato beetle 

dog^ and cat fleas 

bed bugs 

codling moth 

leafhoppers 



house flies 
flea beetles 
cotton boll weevil 
body lice 
lygus bugs 
cotton leaf vv^orm 
dog ticks 



Many researchers have found malathion to be 
a capable replacement for the chlorinated 
hydrocarbons and have made recommendations 
for its use. If you have a "resistance" problem 
in your area, you might well consider malathion 
for your 1957 research schedule. 



«7 I^-A iVA J**- JT X» 



Developers and producers of malathion and parathion 



Write for 

particular 

technical 

information 



AMERICAN CYANAMID COMPANY 

Agricultural Chemicals Division 

Insecticide Research 

30 Rockefeller Plaza, N. Y. 20, N. Y. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 2, APRIL, 19.57 



95 



GREAT 
INSECTICIDES 




CONTROL THESE INSECTS 

CHLORDANE: Ants, Armyworms, Blister Beetles, Boxelder Bug, Brown Dog Tick, 
Cabbage Maggot, Carpet Beetles, Cattle Lice, Chiggers. Cockroaches, Crickets, 
Cutworms, Darkling Beetles, Dog Mange, Earwigs, Fleas, Flies, Grasshoppers, 
Household Spiders, Japanese Beetle Larvae, Lawn Moths, Lygus Bugs, Mole 
Crickets. Mosquitoes, Onion Maggot, Onion Thrips, Plum Curculio, Sarcoptic 
Mange, Seed Corn Maggot, Sheep Ked, Silverfish, Sod Webworms, Southern 
Corn Rootworm, Strawberry Crown Borer, Strawberry Root Weevils, Sweet 
Clover Weevil, Tarnished Plant Bug. Termites, Ticks, Wasps, White Grubs, 
Wireworms...and many others. 

HEPTACHLOR: Alfalfa Snout Beetle, Alfalfa Weevil, Ants, Argentine Ant, Army- 
worms, Asiatic Garden Beetle Larvae, Black Vine Weevil, Root Maggots, Clover 
Root Borer, Colorado Potato Beetle, Corn Root worms. Cotton Boll Weevil, 
Cotton Fleahopper, Cotton Thrips, Crickets, Cutworms, Egyptian Alfalfa Weevil, 
European Chafer, Eye Gnats, False Wireworms, Flea Beetles, Garden Web- 
worm, Grasshoppers, Japanese Beetle, Leaf Miners, Lygus Bugs, Mormon 
Cricket, Mosquitoes, Narcissus Bulb Fly, Onion Maggot, Onion Thrips, Rapid 
Plant Bug, Rice Leaf Miner, Salt Marsh Sand Fly, Seed Corn Maggot, Spittle- 
bug, Strawberry Root Weevils, Strawberry Rootworms, Sugar Beet Root Mag- 
got. Sweet Clover Weevil, Tarnished Plant Bug. Tuber Flea Beetle. Western 
Harvester Ant, White Fringed Beetles, White Grubs (June Beetles), Wireworms 
...and many others. 

EN D R I N : Budworms, Cabbage Worms, Cotton Boll Weevil, Cotton Bollworm, Cot- 
ton Fleahopper, Fall Armyworm, Grasshoppers, Hornworms, Leafworms, Rapid 
Plant Bug, Spiny Bollworm, Sugar Beet Webworm, Tarnished Plant Bug, Thrips. 

WRITE FOR FULL PARTICULARS 



VELSICOL CHEMICAL CORPORATION 



General Offices and Laboratories 

330 East Grand Avenue, Chicago 11, Illinois 



Foreign Division 

350 Fifth Avenue, New York 1, N. Y. 



^ 



HlFKCSCNTATIVtS 



/> R ; N C J P A I 



c I T I e i 



9(5 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 2, APRIL, 1957 

Pyrenone* 



HELPS TO PRESERVE 
PRINCIPLE OF NATURAL CONTROL 



Xyrenone quickly kills destructive, annoy- 
ing and disease-carrying insects. 

In the absence of sunlight, it remains effective 
for long periods of time. In fact, a single application 
of Pyrenone protects stored grains from insect at- 
tacks for an entire storage season. 

On growing crops Pyrenone kills the accessible 
stages of insects fast — even between showers of 
rain. Yet natural factors of rain and sunlight do not 
permit Pyrenone to form long-lasting residues. Be- 
cause long-lasting residues are not present, the newly 
emerging parasites and predators are free to com- 
plete their life cycles and to continue to parasitize 
or feed upon destructive insect pests. 

This means that Pyrenone is completely com- 
patible with the natural control of crop-destroying 
insects. 



'Reg. U.S. Pat. OB.. F.M.C. 



FAIRFIELD CHEMICAL DIVISION 

Food Machinery and Chemical Corporation 

441 Lexington Avenue • New York 17, N. Y. 



'^^ BRANCHES IN PRINCIPAL CITIES 




ffl, 



w 



In Canada: Natural Products Corporation, Toronto and Montreal 




White ffrubg (left) and wireworma (riffht) magnified SO times, 

WHEN PESTS SEE 

eye -to -eye 

Creatures from the science-fiction world! No, just an ordinary white grub 
and a wireworm magnified twenty times. But they and their equally de- 
structive allies, such as rootworms and cutworms, ruin millions of dollars 
worth of cotton, corn, tobacco, wheat, cole crops and others — each season. 

Constant research is necessary to find the flaws in their armor ... to 
develop newer and better controls ... to hold their crop-destruction to a 
minimum. 

That's why Shell Chemical maintains a staff of researchers who, with the 
co-operation of federal, state, and local agencies, are continually searching 
and eiiwrimenting to develop new and more potent pesticides. 

Shell's contributions to agriculture include aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, Phos- 
drin* insecticides; D-D® and Nemagon* soil fumigants; and allyl alcohol 
weed seed killer. Others that are now in the laboratory stage will be avail- 
able for even more effective controls in the future. "With you, we look to 
a better tomorrow for agriculture and industry through research in 
chemistry today. 

* Shell Chemical Trademark 

SHELL CHEMICAL CORPORATION 

Agricultural Chemical Sales Division 
460 Park Avenue, New York 22. New York 




'■i:^ 




QUAUTY rNSECTiCIDES 



Preferred by Home Owners, 
rood Processors and Dairymen 

QUICK ACTION. GULFSPRAY <Liquid) 

'A "space spray" for quick knipekdown and kill of many 
r^krnfJs. of flying drrd crawling irrsects. Contains 0.10% Pyre- 
'fhfiAs, 0.12% Piperonyl Butoxlde,.. and 0.75% Methoxychlor. 

GbiL^SPRAlrj^EROSQI, BOMB ^^ 

Gulf's carefully researched formula provides quick knock- 
down ^ctfon and high kill. Contains 0.25% Pyrethrins, 1% 
Piperonyl Butoxide, and 2% Methoxychlor. 

GULF MOTH PROOFER (Bomb) 

An easy-to-use pressurized spray for protecting woolens 
against moth and carpet beetle damage. Contains 3% DDT 
and 3% Perthane. 
■ • . -i'- ■ --■'. " 

GULF ANT AND ROACH BOMB 

A convenient pressurized spray containing contact and resid- 
ual'/ insecticides :for killing ants and cockroaches. Contains 
vO.Qfi% Pyrethfins and 2% Chlocdane. 

. SPECIAL GULFSPRAY (Liquid) 

A superlative-quality insecticide specially formulated for 
use where foodstuffs are processed, stored, served, and sold. 
Contains 0.25% Pyrethins and 0.20% Piperonyl Butoxide. 

GULF LIVESTOCK SPRAY 

<r Long-proven formula witfe effective insect-killing power and 
repellent properties. Contains 0.07% Pyrethrins and 0.19% 
Piperonyl Butoxide. 

"gulf oil corporation 

.*G U JL F B U I L DING, PI T T S B U R G H 30, PA. 



ol. 59 -f r ^ irx 



JUNE 1957 



No. 3 



PROCEEDmGS 



of the 



ENTDMDLOGICAL SOCIETY 

. WASHIlVGTOiyi 




U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 
WASHINGTON 25, D. C 

PUBLISHED BIMONTHLY 



$s\^^^^ 



\ 1 JUM8fie37 I 



CONTENTS 

FULLAWAY, D. T. — ^A New Reared Optus from Africa (Hymen- 
optera: Braconidae) 98 

GALINDO, P. — On the Validity of Haemagogus spegazzinii Falco 
Kumm et at, 1946 (Diptera: Culicidae) 121 

SELANDER, R. B. — Descriptions and Records of North American 
Meloidae. I. (Coleoptera) ^ _ _... 135 

SHENEFELT, R. D., and MUESEBECK, C. F. W.— Ashmead's 
Meteoridea (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) 129 

SOMMERMAN, K. M. — Three New Species of Liposcelis (= Troctes) 
(Psocoptera) from Texas 125 

TOWNES, H. — A Review of the Generic Names Proposed for Old 
World Ichneumonids, the Types of whose Genotypes are in Japan, 
Formosa, or North America (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) 100 

WERNER, F. G. — A New Species of Epicauta from the Gulf Coast 
of Texas (Coleoptera, Meloidae) 97 

BOOK REVIEW - 124 



Azv. ms. 



THE 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 

Organized March 12, 1884 

Regular meetings of the Society are held in Room 43 of the U. S. National 
Museum on the first Thursday of each month from October to June, inclusive, at 
8 P.M. Minutes of meetings are published regularly in the Proceedings. 

MEMBERSHIP 

Members shall be persons over 18 years of age who have an interest in the 
science of entomology. Annual dues for members are $4.00; initiation fee is 
$1.00 (U. S. currency). 

OrnCERS FOR THE YEAR 1957 

Honorary President - - _ _ R. E. SnodgeASS 

President _ _ F. L. Campbell 

First Vice President - -R. I. Sailkr 

Second Vice President - - -R. H. Nelson 

Recording Secretary ._ Kellie O'Neill 

Corresponding Secretary Kelvin Doewabd 

Treasurer F. P. Harrison 

Editor Alice V. Renk 

Custodian H. J. Conkle 

Program Chairman J. F. G. Clarke 

Executive Committee. ._ A. B. Gurnet, T. L. Bissell, R. A. St. George 

Nominated to represent the Society as Vice President of the Washington Academy 

of Sciences. C. F. W. Mubsebeck 

Honorary Members _ C. F. W. Muesebeck, H. G. Barber 



The Corresponding Secretary, Editor, Custodian, and Treasurer should be ad- 
dressed as follows: 

Mr. Kelvin Dorward, Corr. Secy. Mr. Herbert J. Conkle, Custodian 

Plant Pest Control Branch, ARS Plant Quarantine Branch, ARS 

U. S. Department of Agriculture U. S. Department of Agriculture 

Washington 25, D. C. Washington 25, D. C. 

Miss Alice V. Renk, Editor Dr. Floyd P. Harrison, Treas, 

Stored-Product Insects Section, AMS Department of Entomology 

U. S. Department of Agriculture University of Maryland 

Plant Industry Station College Park, Md. 
Beltsville, Md. 



Entered as second-class matter at the Post Office at Washington, D. C. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Entomological Society of Washington 
vol. 59 june 1957 no. 3 



A NEW SPECIES OF EPICAUTA FROM THE GULF COAST OF TEXAS 

(COLEOPTERA, MeLOIDAe) 

Floyd G. Werner, Bepartment of Entomology,^ University of Arizona, Tucson. 

The first specimen of the new species described here has been in the 
Cornell collection for some time and was examined during previous 
studies. However, it is a specimen lacking most of the segments of 
the antennae and is otherwise in poor condition. There was some 
doubt that the color was normal. Three additional specimens, from 
nearby localities, show^ that the Cornell specimen is normal in color 
and that it represents an undescribed species. 

Epicauta ennsi sp. n. 

Black, densely clothed \\itli rufous pubescence, except for yellowish cinereous 
pubescence narrowly at the suture and on a median line on each elytron. General 
appearance similar to that of a well-marked specimen of E. strigosa (Gyll.), except 
for the very different color of the pubescence. 

Holotype male : Length 9 mm. with head detlexed ; maximum width of elytra 
3.3 mm. Head subtriangular, widest just behind the eyes, 2.01 mm.; the width 
across the moderately protuberant eyes is the same. Length to base of clypeus 
1.64 mm. Surface densely and finely punctured and densely decumbent-pubescent. 
The setae on the back of the head are longer, more erect, and paler than the 
rest. Median impressed line fine and indistinct and antennal calluses not evident. 
Clypeus separated from the front by a deep suture. It, and the labrum especially, 
have sparser and longer pubescence than the front. The eyes are moderately 
narrow, 0.93 x 0.61 mm., excavated, and separated across the front by 1.32 mm. 
Palpi normal, with sparse black pubescence. Antennae 3.7 mm. long, reaching to 
about the basal sixth of the elytra, about 2.2 times as long as an anterior tibia. 
They are of almost uniform thickness. Except for a few pale setae on segments I 
to III, they are entirely black. Segment I reaches half-way across the eye and is 
moderately stout; segments IV to X are truncate at the apex, V to X slightly 
obliquely so. Segment XI is almost uniform in width, rounded at apex. Measure- 
ments (Length/Width, to a total length of 1,000 units, from base to apex) : 151/60, 
6:1/48, 139/.5.5, 79/.55, 76/59, 76/60, 76/59, 76/59, 76/55, 69/55, 117/55. 

Pronotum subquadrate, 1.98 mm. long, 1.85 mm. wide. Basal impressed line dis- 



^Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Paper No. 401. 



98 PROO. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, .7UNE, 1957 

tmct ; median impressed line absent. The disc is slightly elevated just behind tht 
middle and a moderately deep impression extends from the elevation to the basal 
impressed line, flanked by distinct but shallow lateral impressions. Anteriorly 
from the elevation there extends a feeble median impression. Surface and pu- 
bescence as on head. There is some pale pubescence across the very base and apex; 
in addition there is a pale suffusion on the sides of the disc before the middle; 
the paler markings on the pronotum are not evident without magnification. Scutel- 
lum rufous-pubescent. Elytra almost parallel, 7.31 mm. long, 2.6 mm. wide across 
the humeri and ca. 3.3 mm. at thei? widest. Surface and pubescence almost as on 
pronotum and head. Suture narrowly elevated and pale-pubescent. A pale-pubes- 
cent line about 0.25 mm. wide extends from the humeri to about 0.8 mm. from 
the apex of each elytron. A narrow but distinct costula is present on each elytron 
parallel to the suture and midway between suture and pale line. Sides of elytra, 
as well as sides of pronotum, obscurely paler pubescent. Ground color of elytra 
uniformly dark, not lighter under the stripes. Underside of body with sparser and 
longer pubescence than above, the surface clearly visible; pubescence uniformly 
rufous except for some black toward the apex of the tarsi. Legs moderately stout, 
entirely l)lack in ground color. Anterior tibial spurs two, spiniform, the inner 
longer ; inner posterior tibial spur slender, tapered-sticklike, the outer about twice 
as broad, slightly expanded apically. 

The size of the three paratypes is almost exactly the same as in the holotype. 
In one male and the female paratype the pronotum has a pair of small pits in the 
postero-lateral impressions. A feeble indication of these pits is present in the other 
paratype and in the holotype. The eelor of the two male paratypes is almost the 
same as in the holotype, except that one of them has the elytral vittae slightly 
narrower. The female paratype is not so brilliantly colored and the last ventral 
abdominal segment appears to have entirely black pubescence. 

Holotype.— M-dle : 10 m. N. of Roekport (Aransas Co.), Texas, IV-18- 
1952, Miehener, Beaniers, Willc, and LaBer<ie collectors. Deposited 
in the Snow Entomological Museum, University of Kansas. Para- 
types, two males: Riviera (Kleberg Co.), Texas, IV-17-1952, Michener, 
Beamers. Wille, and LaBerge collectors ; one in the Snow Entomo- 
logical Museum, and one in the collection of the author ; one female : 
Kingsville (Kleberg Co.), Texas, C. T. Reed Coll., in the collections 
of Cornell TTniversity. All three localities are near Corpus Christi. 

This species is named in honor of Dr. Wilbur R. Eniis. who recog- 
nized that tlie holotype could not be assigned to any described species. 
In my 1945 key to the species of Epicauta, cnnsi runs to couplet 24 
but is distinct in having the pubescence mainly rufous over the whole 
body. It is unlike any described species from Mexico or Central 
America. It belongs to group BB, subgenus Epiccntta, and appears to 
be most closely related to E. strigosa. 

A NEW REARED OPIUS FEOM AFRICA 

(HYMENOPTEiR.^ : BRAfONIDAE) 

liy 1). T. FuLLAwAv, HonoJiihi, JIairaii. 

The following new species was included i'> 8 (•;)llection of Opius 
reared from various fruit flies in Africa bv J. M. McGough. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, JUNE, 19.57 99 

Opius ottotomoanus, new speeies ' "-"^ 

Female. — Length 4 iiini. ; ovipositor 4 mm. Head and thoraV shining black; 
abdomen bright fulvous; antennae, sheaths of the ovipositor, hind tibiae, and 
tarsi black or blackish; palpi and tegulae pale yell6w; mandi1)les except at tips, 
front, middle, and hind legs except tibiae and tarsi, bright fulvous, wings liyaline, 
stigma and veins black or blackish. Body, including abdomen, with sparse pale 
liairs and sparsely punctate, especially on face. 

Head broader than thorax and twice as wide as thick, broad Ijehiud the eyes; 
ocelli disposed in the form of an isosceles triangle in the middle of the fronto- 
vertex, a tight group set in a shallow basin, the individual members almost 
touching; ocellocular line twice length of base of triangle; vertex in front of 
ocelli transversely striate on either side of a smooth, depressed area ; eyes short 
oval.; face convex, wider than high, antennae inserted at upper margin and 
rather widely separated, the scrobes as far apart as distance to eyes, a short 
median carina below; clypeus somewhat tectiform, the anterior margin angulate; 
malar space twice the width of base of mandible; geua even wider and strongly 
margined; antennae 39-segmented, scape and pedicel rather short and thick, 
llagellar segments all longer than wide, the proximal ones four to five times 
longer than wide, segmental length deci'easing distally; palpi, particularly the 
maxillary, slender, elongate. 

Pronotum not visible from above, pleuruni with a crenulated groove on posterior 
margin ; mesonotum convex and with foveolated parapsidal grooves extending 
diagonally from anterior lateral angles caudally, converging before apical margin, 
forming median and lateral lobes, the former rather prominent, the latter with 
foveolated lateral nmrgius; mesopleurum crossed by vertical and horizontal 
crenulated sulci; scutellum convex; prescutellar. sulcus divided by costae into 
four pits; metanotum with a narrow costate groove between anterior and posterior 
carinated margins on either side of a median longitudinal carina; propodeum 
convex, coarsely rugose (reticulate areolate), especially at sides, and with a short 
median longitudinal carina anteriorly, spiracle minute, circular. 

Abdomen elongate oval; first tergite ligulate, considerably wider apically than 
basally, the median plate aciculate; succeeding segments weakly separated. 

Legs fairly stout. Wings long and rather narrow, three to four times as long- 
as wide, faintly cloudy ; stigma lanceolate, three to four times as long as wide, 
radius emitted from its middle ; first abscissa of radius more than half stigma 
width ; second abscissa twice length of first but shorter than first culiital cross- 
vein, which is interstitial with recurrent vein ; second cubital cell wider than 
high but hardly twice as wide; nervulus postf ureal ; nervus parallelus joining 
medial below the middle ; postnervellus present. 

Male. — Similar to female except for sexual differences and the apical segments 
of the abdomen black or blackish. 

Described from eight female and two male specimens (type, allotype, and para- 
types) reared from a species of Dacus infesting cultivated gourds in the Ottotomo 
Forest Reserve in the French Cameroons (West Africa), November 1, 1951, by 
•T. M. McGough. One specimen labeled as from cucurbits, Cameroons, May 21, 1951, 
J. M. McGough, appears to be the same. This species is closest to Bridwell's 
'lesideratus or Szepligeti 's cniiiJafiis, but is rendily distinguishable by the black 
hind tibiae and tarsi. 



100 I'KOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, .JUNE, 1957 

A EEVIEW OF THE GENERIC NAMES PROPOSED FOR OLD WORLD 

ICHNEUMONIDS, THE TYPES OF WHOSE GENOTYPES ARE IN JAPAN, 

FORMOSA, OR NORTH AMERICA 

(Hymenoptera, Ichneximonidae) 
Henry Townes, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 

It has recently been possible to stndy the types of the iehneumonid 
genotypes that are in various eolleetions in Japan, Formosa, and 
North America. In certain papers, particularly in the Hymeiwpiera 
of America North of Mexico, Synoptic Catalog (1951. U. S. Dept. 
Agr., Agr. Monog. 2: 184-409), there has been an opportunity to re- 
view the status of the generic names applicable to the Nearctic Fauna, 
so far as was possible at those times. The present paper reviews the 
generic names proposed for Old World species, the types of whose 
genotypes have been studied to date. 

Other authors, particularly Uchida, Ileinrich, and Cushman, have 
already reviewed the status of many of the generic names treated 
herein, and many of those proposed by Uchida and Cushman were 
adequately described and figured to begin with. There has remained, 
however, a large number which are enigmas as far as the literature is 
concerned, and it has seemed desirable to try to clarify these and to 
bring together all the names in one list for easy reference, with con- 
firmations of previous dispositions, further information or corrections 
where needed, and bibliographic references to the pertinent literature. 

The types of the genotypes concerned are housed in the following 
collections : Institutum Entomologicum, Hokkaido University, Sap- 
poro, Japan ; Taiwan National Agricultural Research Insitute, Taipeh, 
Formosa; U. 8. National Museum, Washington, D. C; and the post- 
war collection of Mr. Gerd Heinrich, at present partly at Dryden. 
Maine, and partly at Ann Arbor, Michigan. The types of Uchida 's 
genotypes are mostly at Sapporo and a few others are in Shanghai. 
Washington, and Berlin-Dahlem. Those in Washington concern ge- 
nera erected on Ashmead species. The Uchida types in Shanghai and 
Berlin-Dahlem have not been seen, but the generic names involved are 
included also in the discussion for the sake of completing the list of 
his genera, even though the remarks concerning them can not be based 
on the holotypes. The Sonan types are in Taipeh. The Aslnnead. 
Cushman, and Viereck types are all in Washington. Ashmead, Uchida. 
and Viereck have referred Old World species to a few of Foerster's 
iehneumonid genera that had not previously contained species and 
thus made genotypes available for them. The status of these Foers- 
terian genera is reviewed also, alphabetically with the rest. 

I am deeply indebted to the curators of the various collections for 
the privilege of studying the material in their care, and esneciallv to 
Dr. Toichi Uchida for the assistance given while I was visiting Sap- 
poro. Mr. J. F. Perkins has assisted with information on the names 
Ateleuie, Talorqa, CremaMus, and with some of the Acaenitini. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, JUNE, 1957 101 

Some of the tribal and subtribal names employed in the discussion 
of genera belonging to the subfamilies Gelinae and Ophioninae will be 
unfamiliar. For their elucidation, the reader is referred to another 
paper by the author, entitled "A synopsis of the tribes and subtribes 
of Gelinae and Ophioninae (Hvmenoptera, lehneumonidae) " (1957. 
Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 59: .......'..) 

Alphabetical List of the Genera 

ACERATASPIS Uchida, 1934. Insecta Matsumurana 9: 23. New name for 
Cerataspis Uchida, preoccupied. 

Resembles Metopius in most characters but lacks the shield-shaped 
area on the face. The face is evenly convex. 

AKAJOPPA Uchida, 1932. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 33: 217 New 
name for Erythrojoppa Il^cliida, iireoccuiiied. 

Synonym of AJlonotus (new synonymy). 

ALLOTHERONIA Ashmead, 1900. Proc. Linnaean Soc. New South Wales 25: 
351. One species. 

Type: (AUotheronia l;.'-guttata Asliniead, 1900) = Cri/ptiis iiitricatorius FaVjri- 
cius, 1804. 

A synonym of Echthromorpha, as previouslv noted (Townes, 1940. 
Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 33: 288). 
AMAUROMORPHA Ashmead, 1905. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 29: 410. One species. 

Type: AmaiiromorpJia mefathoracica Ashmead, 1905. Monol)asic. 

A monotypic Oriental genus of Mesostenini, subtribe Echthrina. 
Its cardinal characters are : First abdominal tergite without a lateral 
subbasal triangular projection, propodeum with a basal transverse 
carina, first intercubitus a little beyond the second recurrent vein, 
body hair very dense, clypeus wdthout a median tooth. 
AMEBACHIA Uchida, 1938. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 21: 198. One 
species. 

Type: Amebachia baibaraua Uchida, 1928. Original designation. 

Same genus as Netclia, and belongs in or near the subgenus Netelia. 
Baiharana differs from known members of the subgenus Netelia in 
lacking the occipital carina, but a careful examination of Uchida 's 
specimens shows this carina to be sometimes present as a faint trace. 
A decision as to whether Amehachia should be synonymized with the 
subgenus Netelia or maintained as a distinct subgenus should be de- 
ferred until the male genitalia of its genotype can be studied. 
ANOMALOCTENUS Cushman, 1934. Indian Forest Rec. 20: 4. One species. 

Type: Anomaloctenus melleus Cushman, 1934. Original designation. 

I consider this a s^^lonym of Apatagium, which is a subgenus of 
Netelia, as previously noted (Townes, 1938. Lloydia 1: 185). 
APOCRYPTUS Uchida! 1932. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 33: 170. One 
species. 

Type: Apocryptus issil'ii Uchida, 1932. Original designation. 

This genus belongs in the Mesostenini and appears to belong to the 
subtribe Echthrina, but the only specimen seen was a male. The 
female type is in Berlin-Dahlem. 



102 PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, .IVNE, 1957 

APOPHYSIUS Cushman, 1922. Pljilippiue Jour. Sei. 2U: 587. One species. 

Type : Apophysius bakeri Cushman, 1922. Original designation. 

An aberrant genus of Hemigastrini, well characterized in the origi- 
nal description. I have seen abont six species, all from the Oriental 
Region. 
ARACHNOLETER Cushman, 1924. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. (i4: 2. One species. 

Type: Arachnoletrr ^iirezeyi Cushman, 1924. Original designation. 

A g-enns of Gelini, well illustrated in the original description. A 
singular generic character that is not brought out in the original 
description is the fact that the spiracles of the second to fourth ab- 
dominal segments are on the epipleura rather than on the tergites. I 
have a Swedish specimen determined as "Theroscopus stagnalis 
Thomson" by Roman which belongs to Arachnolcter, to which genus 
Heuiifelcs sfognalis Thomson, 1884 is hereby transferred. A third 
species of the genus (undeseribed) occurs in northeastern United 
States. 
ASTOMASPIS Foorster, 1868. Vehr. naturh. Ver. Rheinlande 25: 175. No speeies. 

Ashmead, 1904. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 28: 140. One species. 

Type: Astomaspis metathomcira Ashmead, 1904. Monobasic. 

An Oriental genus of the Phohetes group, tribe Gelini, that com- 
monly goes under the name of Syrites. The male has a broad short 
abdomen with three visible tergites, the third ending in a pair of 
spines. ISy rites is a junior synonym. Astomaspis of authors is a dif- 
ferent genus, which has been renamed Haplaspis. 
BADYORYGMA Uehida, 1936. Insecta Matsumurana 10: 112. One species. 

Type: Badyorygma fiavogutiatum Uehida, 1936. Original designation. 

A synonym of Iclnieumon (new synonymy). The genotype is closelj- 
related to {Aglaojoppa) Ichneumon flavoinarulata Cameron, 1901 
(new combination). 

BANCHOGASTRA Ashmead, 1900. Proe. U. 8. Natl. Mus. 23: 87. One species. 

Type: Bandiogastra nigra Ashmead, 1900. Original designation. 

I consider this a synonym of Enicospilus, as first noted in 1945 (Mem. 
xVmer. Ent. Soc. 11: 737). Cushman, however, considers it a distinct 
genus and has discussed its characters (1947. Proc. IT. S. Natl. Mus. 
96: 460-461). 

BRACHYNERVUS Uehida, 1955. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 50: 123. 
One species. 

Type: Brachynervus tsunekii Uehida, 1955. Original designation. 

A genus of Anomalini with one spur on the middle tibia and the 
intercubitus obliterated by the approximation of the radial and cubital 
veins. I have not seen it. 
BltACHYSCLEROMA Cushman, 1936. Proe. U. S. Natl. Mus. 88: 369. One species. 

Type: Brachyscleroma apoderi Cushman, 1936. Original designation. 

This anomalous ophionine genus belongs in a separate tribe, the 
Brachyscleromatini. 
CAENOCRYPTOIDES Uehida, 1936. Insecta Matsumurana 11: 4. One species. 

Type: Ischnojoppa tarsalis Matsumura, 1912. Original designation. 

This genus is close to Agrothereiifes. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, JUNE, 1957 103 

CERATOMANSA Cushmaii, 1922. Philippine Jour. Sci. 20: .')74. One species. 

Type: Ceratomansa prima Cuslunan, 1922. Original designation. 

A g-enus of Mesostenina with considerable superficial resemblance 
to the genus Mansa. Mansa belongs in the Hemigastrini. 
CERCODINOTOMUS Uchida, 1940. Insecta Matsumurana 15: 9. One species. 

Type {Psilomastax pictus Kriechbaumer, 1882) = P.siIoma.sta:r pjiramidaU.s 
Tisclibein, 1868. Original designation. 

A synonym of Psilomastax, having the same genotype. Psilomastax is 
very close to Trogus, but differs in having the prepectal carina pres- 
ent only on the mesosternum, and in some additional characters as 
tabulated by Uchida in his description of Cercodinotomus. 
CERATASPIS Uchida, 1934. Trans. Sapporo Nat. Hist. Soe. 13: 275. One species. 
Name preoccupied by Gray, 1828. 

Type: Cerataspis clavata Uchida, 1934. Original designation. 

Renamed Acerataspis, which see. 
f^HASMOGRYPTUS Uchida, 1936. Insecta Matsumurana 11: 16. One species. 

Type: (Plectocrifptiis hol'l-aidrvi^i-fi Uchida, 1930) = Cryptus penefratar Smith, 
1874. 

A synonym of Polytrihax (new synonymy). 

('HRIODES Foerster, 1868. Vehr. naturh. Ver. Rheinlande 25: 178. No species. 

Ashmead, 1905. Proc .U. S. Natl. Mus. 28: 966. One species. 

Type: (Chriodes (!) oculatv^ Ashmead, 1905) = Atro-metiis ■miniitii.s Ashmead, 
1904. Monobasic. 

A genus of Ophioninae common in the Old World tropies and many 
times named. Synonyms are Nesomesochorus, Mavandia, and Meta^ 
nomalon (new synonymies). Khitiana is a subgenus differing in the 
lack of the subdiscoidella vein (new status). MavandicUa is a synonym 
of Khitiana (new synonymy). Chriodes and the Neotropic genus 
Non7ius constitute a distinct section of the tribe Porizonini. 
COBUNUS Uchida, 1926. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 23: 65. One species. 

Type: Ichneumon palJidiohts Matsumura, 1912. Original designation. 

Heinrich (1934. Mitteil. Zool. Mus. Berlin 20: 100) discusses the 
characters of this genus. He places it near Naenaria. 

COGHLIDIONOSTENUS Uchida, 1936. Insecta Matsumurana 10: 115. One spe- 
cies. 

Type: Cri/ptaiila.r coreanus Szepligeti, 1916. Original designation. 

This genus is related to Coccygodes, Christolia, and Lamprocryp- 
tidea. This group of genera, so far as known, parasitizes Limacodidae. 
COELOJOPPA Uchida, 1925. Zool. Mag. Tokyo 37: 453. One species. Name pre- 
occupied by Cameron, 1904. 

Type: Coelojoppa segmenialia Uchida, 1925. Original designation. 

This genus was renamed Uchidia by Heinrich in 1934, but it is a 
synonym of Naenaria Cameron, 1903. Uchida has discussed the 
synonymy (1942. Insecta Matsumurana 16: 34). 

COLPOTROGHIOIDES Uchida, 1930. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 25: 
263. Two species. 

Type: ColpotrocJiioidcs orievfalis Uchida, 1930. Original designation. 



104 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, JUNE, 1957 

Listed as a synonym of Colpotrochia (Towues and Townes, 1951. 
U, S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Monog. 2: 355), but a better treatment seems 
to be as a synonym of Scallama, with HcaUania as a subgenus of Col- 
potrochia (new status). Scallama (with Colpotrochioides as a syno- 
nym) has the nervellus broken below the middle and the areolet al- 
ways present. The subgenus Colpotrochia has the nervellus broken 
near the middle and the areolet often lacking. 

COEEOJOPPA Uehida, 1926. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 18: 23. One 
species. 

Type: Coreojoppa flavomactdata Uehida, 192(). Original designation. 

A synonym of Pterocormus (new sjmonymy). The genotype is a 
large robust form which is close to and may be a subspecies of {Ich- 
neumon) Pterocormus sexmaculatus Matsumura, 1912. 
CEEMASTIDEA Viereck, 1912. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. -43: 587. One species. 

Type: Cremastus (Cremastidea) chinensis Viereck, 1912. Original designation. 

A synonym of Temelucha, and the genotype is a synonyni of 
{Ophionellus) Temelucha Uguttuliis Munakata (new combination). 
Uehida (1934. Insecta Matsumurana 9: 4) has published the specific 
synonymy. 
CRYPTAULAXOIDES Uehida, 1940. Insecta Matsumurana 14: 121. Two species. 

Type: Cryptu-s purpuratus Smith, 1852. Original designation. 

I consider this a synonym of Cochlidionostenus (new synonymy). 

CTENOCHARIDEA Cushman, 1922. Philippine Jour. Sci. 20: 549. One species. 

Type: (Ctenocharidea luzonensis Cushman, 1922) z=z subspecies of Maraees 
flavobalteata Cameron, 1902. Original designation. 

A synonym of Maraees. Luzonensis is a Philippine subspecies of 
Maraees flavohalteata Cameron, 1902, the genotype of Maraees. Hein- 
rich published these facts in 1934 (Mitteil. Zool. Mus. Berlin 20: 134, 
136). 

CUBOSCOPESIS Heinrich, 1952. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (ser. 12) 5: 1080. One 
species. 

Type: Cuboscopesis epachthmdes Heinrich, 1952. Original designation. 

Similar to Scopesis and I see no reason for making the fine generic 
distinctions that would be necessary if Cuboscopesis is to be retained 
as a genus. I have formerly (1951. U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Monog. 2: 
331-334) included Scopesis and many other minor groups in a broadly 
defined genus Mesoleius. This may be the best arrangement, but the 
matter needs a thorough study. 
PAICTES Foerster, 1868. Verh. naturh. Ver. Rheinlande 25: 176. No species. 

Viereck, 1911. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 40: 193. One Species. 

Type: Phygadeuon (Da'ictes) fulcaii Viereck 1911. Monobasic. 

A synonym of Mastrus (new synonymy). 

DAISETSUZANIA Uehida, 1.930. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 25: 289. 
One species. 
Type: Daisetsusania albifrons Uehida, 1930. Original designation. 
A synonym of Himerta (new synonymy). 



PKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, .JUNE, 1957 105 

DENTIMACHUS Heiiiricli, 1949. Mitteil. Miincliner Ent. Gesell. .3.";-39 : S(i. One 
species. 

Type: Dentimachua morio Heinrieli, 1949. Original designation. 

This genus resembles Perisimda and ScoiJcsis, but differs from both 
in having- the lower tooth of the mandible longer than the upper. I 
have compared the type of Dentiniachus morio with the series of Try- 
phon flavipes Gravenhorst on which Heinrich based the new genus 
Nemesoleius. I believe the two species congeneric and hereby synony- 
mize Nemesoleius with Dentimachus. Heinrich mentioned propodeal 
differences as the generic distinction between Nemesoleius and Denti- 
machus. The propodeal carinae of the genotype of Nemesoleius are of 
the common Scopesis type. In the genotype of Dentimachus they are 
almost obsolete and the apical propodeal carina is more regularly 
transverse. This dift'erence does not impress me as being of generic 
value. 
BIAGLYPTIDEA Yiereck, 1913. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 46: 371. One species. 

Type: Biaglyptidea roeplcei Viereek, 1913. Original designation. 

A genus of Gelini related to such genera as Iselromas and Haplaspis. 
DIATOEA Foerster, 1868. Yer. natiirh. Ver. Klieinlande 25: 180. No species. 

Ashmead, 1904. Proc. U. 8. Natl. Mus. 28: 141. One species. 

Type: Diatora prodeniac Ashmead, 1904. Monobasic. 

An Oriental genus of Gelini. Cardinal generic characters are : 
Lateral edge of second tergite without a carina or crease setting off 
its epipleurum ; notaulus extending beyond the middle of the mesoscu- 
tum, of almost uniform strength throughout its length and posteriorly 
ending abruptly; disc of mesoscutum without hairs. 

DTCHELOBOSMINA Fcliida, 1932. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 33: 201. 
One species. 

Type: Bichelohosmina iuhcvcalaia Uehida, 1932. Original designation. 

A rather robust member of the Hymenohosmina group of genera. 
Unusual features are the absence of the glymma except for a trace, the 
short face and clypeus, and particularly the propodeal carination. 
ECTOPOIDES Heinrieli, 1951. Bonner Zool. Beitrage 3-4: 280. One species. 

Type: Ectopoides fcuitisseni Heinrich, 1951. Original designation. 

Heinrich related this genus to Ectopius and Apaeleticus. 1 ex- 
amined the type in 1951 but have not seen it recently. 
EGURICHNEUMON Uehida, 1929. Trans. Sapporo Nat. Hist. Soc. 10: 116. One 
species. 

Type: Chasinias agltatm Matsuumra and Uehida, 1926. Original designation. 

A synonvm of JJlesta, as was noted by Heinrich (1934. Mitteil. 
Zool. Mus. 'Berlin 20: 174). 

ELASMOGNATHIAS Ashmead, 1906. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 8: 31. New name 
for Elasmognathuft, preoccupied. 

A synonym of Caenojoppa, as noted by Heinrich (1934. Mitteil. 
Zool. Mus. Berlin 20 : 122) . 

ELASMOGNATHUS Ashmead, 1905. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 29: 405. One species. 
Name preoccupied by Gill, 1865, and by Newton, 1878. 

Type: Elasmognathns cephalotes Ashmead, 1905. Monobasic. 

Renamed Elasmof/nathias. which see. 



106 PROC. KNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, JUNE, 1957 

EEIPTERNIMORPHA Viereck, 1913. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 44: 64."). One species. 
Type: {Eriptcrnimorplia .<ichoenobii Viereck,, 1913) =^ sul^speeies of Amaitro- 
morpha meiathoracica Ashmead, 1905. Original designation. 

A synonym of Aniauromorpha (new synonymy), its genotype be- 
ing only a subspecies of the genotype of Amanroinorpha. The proper 
scientific name of the present genotype would therefore be Amauro- 
morpha metathoracica schoenohii (new status). 

ERYTHROJOPPA Ucliida, 1932. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 33 : 153. One 
species. Name preoccupied by Cameron, 1902. 

Type: Aeanthojoppa (Erythrojoppa) saideri Ucliida, 1932. Original designation. 

Renamed Akajoppa, which see. 
ERYTHROPIMPLA Aslimead, 1900. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 23: 57. One species. 

Type: Eryihropimpla ahbotfii Ashmead, 1900. Monobasic. 

A synonym of Caiiiptotypus, as noted bv Cushman (1942. Proc 
U. S. Natl." Mus. 92: 284)". Whether Campiotypus should be main- 
tained as generically distinct from Hemipimpla, as Cushman contends 
{ihide})i), is a question requiring study. 

ESUCHONEMATOPODIUS Cusliman, 1922. Phili])pine Jour. Sci. 20: 5(37. One 
species. 

Type: Esuchoncmaiopodins luzonensis Cushman, 1922. Original designation. 

A synonym of T)i(ip( fiis. Diapetus and MichrocJiorus are subgenera 
oi Nematopodins (new status). The subgenera of NernatopocliKs may 
be distinguished as follows : 

1. Epomia ending dorsally in a prominent tooth on upper margin of pronotum ; 

elasper of male genitalia ending in a slender rod Microchorus 

Epomia not toothed above and not reaching upper margin of pronotum ; elasper 
of male genitalia rounded apically 2 

2. Occipital carina distinct dorsally; apical carina of propodeum represented 

only by lateral vestiges Xematopodiu.^ 

Occipital carina absent dorsally; apical carina of propodeum usually distinct, 
complete or interrupted medially, or sometimes absent Dio,petii.'< 

Cushman has referred a number of species to Diapetus, which con- 
sidering the subordination of Diapetus to Nematopodius as a subgenus, 
should nov; be included under Nematopodius. The necessary nomen- 
clatorial shifts are as follows: 

Earrana nigromaculaia Cameron, 1907 = Nematopodius (subgenus?) nigro- 
maculata. 

Ischnoceros^ (limidiaiu.s Brulle, 1846 = Nematopodius (Diapetus) dimidiatus. 

Diapetus (D.) pallidicornis Cushman, 1932 = Nrmatopodivs (Diapetus) pal- 
lidicornis. 

Diapetus (D.) unicolor Cuslunan, 1932 = Nematopodius (Diapetus) iniicolor. 

Diapetus (D.) parvus Cushman, 1932 = Nematopodius (Diapetus) parvus. 

Earrana lutea Cameron, 1905 = Nematopodius (subgenus?) luteus. 

Diapetus (D.) faiwanevsis Cushman. 1932 = Nematopodius (Diapetus) fai- 
wanensis. 

Diapetus (D.) dissipus Cushman, 1932 = Nematopodius (Diapetus) d'lssipus. 

Diapetus (D.) pieratus Cuslmiaii, 1932 = Nematopodius (Diapetu.'^) pieeatus. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, JUNE, 1957 107 

DiapetiDi (Z>.) fossulatit.s Cusliniau, .1932 = Xematopoduis (Diapetn.s) fossula- 

tus. 
Esuchoiu maiopoduis luzonensis Cushmini, 19'_'2 = Xeniatopodius (Diapetus) 

luzonensis. 
Earrana phiUppiiK iisi.s Ciishiiian, 1922 = Xcmatopodiiis (Microclionis) philip- 

pinensis. 
MicrocJiorii.s mirobilis Szepligeti, 1916 == XrmaiopoiUiis (Microchoru.>i) mira- 

b/l/.s-. 
Diapetii.s (Microchonix) luiiformi.s Cushmaii, 1932 = Xemalopodiuf^ (Micro- 

choni.s) uniform is. 
EUCTENOPUS Asliniead, ]!Mi(i. Pioc Liiinaean Soe. New South Wales 2.3: 3ol. 

One species. 
Type: Etivtetiopu.s novazealandicus Aslimead, 1900. Monobasic. 

A synonym of Phytodictus (new synonymy). The <yenus Fhytodiet us 
niav some day be divided into snbgenera, when Enctenopus may be 
used for one of them. Cushman (1942. Proe. U. S. Natl. Mns. 92: 286) 
has disenssed the eharaeters of Enctenopus. 

EXERIf-iTESOIDES Pchida, 192S. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 25: 51. 
One si)ecies. 
Type: (Pimpla .spectabili.s Matsunuira, 1926) = subspecies of Piiupio alternaii.s 
Gravenhorst, 1829. Original designation. 

A synonym of Ifoplectis. Spectahili.s is a subspecies of Itoplectis 
aJiirnans Gravenhorst. 1829, as published by Uchida (1942. Inseeta 
Matsum\n-ana 16: 122). It differs from typical alicrnaus most con- 
spicuously in the coloration of the hind tibia, which is fuscous with a 
white submedian band, the submedian band beiny' wider than in 
typical alternans and the fuscous areas without the ferruginous 
infusion characteristic of typical alternans. Itoplectis triamiulatus 
Uchida 1928, Itoplectis epinotiae Uchida 1928, and Itoplectis nigri- 
hasalis I^chida 1937 are synonyms of spectahilis (new S3nion3rtnies). 

PORMOCRYPTUS Uchida, 19*31. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 3(i: 192. 
One species. 
Type: Formocri/ptits leniiicorni.s Uchida, 1931. Original designation. 
This genus belong in the Gelini. Distinctive features are its rela- 
tively large size, two strong teeth on the clypeus, and strong propodeal 
apophyses. 

FORMOSANOMALON Uchida, 1928. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 21: 241. 
One species. 
Type: (Formo-sanomalon baibarcnse Uchida, 1928) = subspecies of Mncrostcm- 
ma elegans Shestakov, 1923, new status. Original designation. 

A synonym of Aphanistes (new synonymy). Its genotype is only 
a subspecies of the genotype of Macrosteinnia. and this name also 
should be listed as a synonym of Aphanistes (new synon)Tny). The 
species elegans, genotype of Formosanomalon and of Macrostetnma, 
although believed to belong in the genus Aphanistes, is atypical in 
having the ocelli large, the lateral ocellus separated from the eye by 
only about 0.3 its diameter, th(^ inedian frontal carina reaching the 
median ocellus and nowhere strongly elevated, and the tarsal claws 



108 PROC. £NT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, N'O. 3, JUNE, 1957 

somewhat lon<>er than is typical for Aphanistes. Uchida (1953. Trans. 
Shikoku Ent. Soc. 8: 129) has published the synonymy of Formomno- 
inalon with Macrostcnnna. 

FOEMOSTENUS Uchida. 11)31. Joui'. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 30: 180. 
Two species. 
Type: Mrs-o.stenus {Foniiostenii.s) angidari.s Uchida, 1931. Original designation. 

A synonym of Isotima (new synonymy). The genotype of For- 
mostenus and certain related si)ecies differs from alhicineta (the 
<j;enotype of Isotima) and its closer relatives in having- the braehiella 
vein present, and in the somewhat narrower postpetiole. Both groups 
of species agree, however, in luiving a characteristie arcuate carina 
above each antenna! socket. 

FORMOXORIDES T^chida. 1928. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. -ir,: ]4. 
One species. 

Type: Achorocephaltis pilosus Szepligeti, 1914. Original designation. 

A synonym of Etigalta. The type of the genotype is in Budapest, 
but its generic identity is determinable from the original description. 
Its synon^^llY was recognized by Uchida (1932. Jour. Faculty Agr. 
Hokkaido' Univ. 33: 221) and "by Cushman (1933. Insecta Matsu- 
nuirana 8:1). 
GLYPTOGASTRA Ashmoad, 1900. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 123: .">7. One species. 

Type: Glyptogasira hawaiiensis Ashmead. Monobasic. 

A synonym of Echthromorpha, as previously noted (Townes, 1940. 
Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 33 : 288). 
HABROCRYPTOIDES Uchida, 1952. Insecta Matsumurana 18: 19. Two species. 

Type: Habrocri/piu.s .shilcolciiensis Uchida, 1936. Original designation. 

A synonym of Trachysphyrm (new synonymy). 
HEMIEPHIALTES Ashmead, 1906. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 30: 177. One species. 

Type: HemiepJiiaUes glyptus Ashmead, 1906. Monobasic. 

A synonym of Glypta, as was first noted by Uchida (1928. Jour. 
Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 25 : 71) . 
HYMENOMACROPYGA Uchida, 1911. Insecta Matsumurana 15: 116. One species. 

Type: Symenonuicropyga latifrontaJis Uchida, 1941. Original designation. 

A synonym of Clistopyga (new synonymy) . The species latifrontalis 
has the temples narrower and the abdominal tergites more heavily 
punctate than is usual for species of Clistopyga, but does not deserve 
generic distinction. 
HYPOPHELTES Cushman, 1924. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 64 (20) : 11. One species. 

Type: MypophelttH pergae Cushman, 1924. Original designation. 

A genus of Mesoleiini as indicated in the original description. I have 
seen only the genotype, from Australia. 
IDIOGNATHUS Cushman, 1922. Philippine Jour. Sci. 20: 558. One species. 

Type: Idlognaihu.s haUeains Clishnian, 1922. Original designation. 

A synonym of Aulojoppa, as first noted by Heinrich (1934. Mitteil. 
Zool. Mus. Berlin 20: 127). Baltcatns is a Philippine subspecies of 
Aulojoppa spilocepliala Cameron, 1907, the genotype of Aulojoppa 
(new status). 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, JUNE, 1957 109 

ISHIGAKIA Uchida, 1928. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 25: 32. One species. 

Type: Ishigakia exetasea Uchida, 1928. Original designation. 

An Oriental genus of Acaenitini with long erect hairs on the first 
sternite, hind tarsal claws simple, apical half of clypeus rather flat and 
without a subapieal transverse ridge, and intercubitus well beyond 
the second recurrent. 
ISOTIMA Foerster, 1868. Ver. naturh. Ver. Eheinlande 25: 182. No species. 

Ashmead, 1905. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 29: 407. Four species. 

Type: Isoiima albicineta Ashmead, 1905. By present designation. 

A mesostenine genus of the Goryplius-Gaml)r\is group of genera. It 
is distinctive in having, in the female, a semicircular area above each 
antennal socket bordered dorsally by a carina. The male has either a 
similar structure or in some species a grotesque specialization of it. 
Many of the species, including the genot^qie, lack the brachiella vein. 
Isotima cmciicornis Ashmead, 1905 is a synonym of /. albicineta 
(new synonymy). For most cnns, Fotsiforia, and Mavia are s\aionyms 
of Isotima (new synonymies). 

ITAMUS Foerster, 1868. Verh. naturh. Ver. Eheinlande 25: 179. No species. 
Name preoccupied by Goebel, 1846 and by Loew, 1849. 
Uchida, 1936. Insecta Matsumurana 11: 13. One species. 

Type: (Hemiteles (Itamu^) okamotoi Uchida, 1936) ^ Leptocri/pfK.s mdiiiinatiis 
Uchida, 1930. Monobasic. 

This genus has a general resemblance to Bathythrix, but the notau- 
lus is shorter and not quite so sharp, and the clypeus is larger and 
with an evenly convex margin. The genotype was described first as 
Leptocryptus inarginatus by Uchida in 1930, with which it is hereby 
synonjnnized. Besides the genotype from Japan, I have a second 
species of the genus from the Philippines. 

Since the generic name is preoccupied and the genus is a distinct 
one, I hereby rename it Uchidella, as a token of respect for Dr. Toichi 
Uchida and his work on the Oriental Ichneumonidae. 
JEZAROTES Uchida, 1928. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 25: 30. Two 
species. 

Type: Jezarotes tiimanul-ii Uchida, 1928. Original designation. 

A genus easily distinguished by the strongly forward projecting 
median lobe of the mesoscutum. The blunt ventral tooth on the hind 
femur and subobsolete upper tooth of the mandible are additional 
features of note. 
KARAECHTHEUS Uchida, 1929. Insecta Matsumurana 3: 176. One species. 

Type: Karaechthrus tuberculatus Uchida, 1929. Original designation. 

Closely related to Echthrus, from which it differs in having the apex 
of the clypeus truncate, without a median tooth, and in a few addi- 
tional minor characters. 

KOSHUNIA Uchida, 1932. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 33: 185. One 
species. 

Type: Hemiteles {KosJntnia) faiira)ulhis Uchida, 1932. Original designation. 

The type of the genotype is in Berlin-Dahlem and has not been seen. 



110 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, JUNK, 1957 

The urijiiiial dese-riptioii indicates that Kosliunia belongs probably in 

the Phobetes group of genera, tribe Gelini. 

KRIEGERIA Ashmead, 1905. Proc. U. S. Natl. Miis. 29: 116. Ono species. 

Type: Kriegeria heplazonata Ashmead, 1905. Monobasic. 

An Oriental genus of the Mesostenini, subtribe Echthrina. Its car- 
dinal characters are: First abdominal tergite with a lateral subbasal 
triangular projection, acute or subacute in females, blunt and often 
indistinct in males; pleural carina of propodeum present behind the 
basal carina ; apical carina of propodeum absent ; epomia reaching the 
upper edge of the pronotum and curved strongly forward at its upper 
end; nervulus varying from interstitial Avith basal vein to beyond it 
by 0.3 of its length. 

KUNI0CRYPTU8 Soiian, 1937. Tnins. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 27: 172. One 
species. 

Type: OricntocryptiDi flavofasciafiis Ui-liida, 1931. Original designation. 

A synonym of Latihulus (new synonymy). 

LEPTOBATOPSTS Aslnnead, 1900. Proc. Linnaean Soc. New South Wales 25: 
349. One species. 
Type: {Lepiohaiopsi.s unstraJicnsis Ashmead. 1900) = Criipfiis iiidiciis Cameron, 

1897. Monobasic. 
A well-known lissonotine genus of the Oriental Region. Tanera and 
SaiitcrellKs are synonyms, as discussed by Cushman in 1922, 1924, 
1933, and 1940, Tanera having the same type species (through synony- 
my) as Leptohaiopsis. 

LONGICHAROPS Uchida, 1940. Insecta Matsumurana 14: 131. New name for 
Xoihanomaloides Uchida, preoccupied. 

A synonym of C a sin aria (new synonymy). 
MEGALOMYA Uchida, 1940. Trans. Nat,. Hist. Soc. Formosa 30: 223. One species. 

Type: Megalomya longiabdom'nialis Uchida, 1940. Original designation. 

This genus is close to Alomya. 
MATSUMURAIUS Ashmead, 1906. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 30: 109. One species. 

Type: Matsitnuiraiu.'i grandis Ashmead, 1906. Monobasic. 

A synonym of Ptcrocornms, as was first recognized by Matsumura 
(1912. Thousand Insects of Japan, Supplement 4: 102). 
MELALOPHACHAROPS Uchida, 192S. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 21: 
280. One species. 

Type: Melalophacluirops Uimanulcii Uchida, 1928. Original designation. 

Very close to Charopsimorpha. 
METACHORISCHIZUS Uchida, 1928. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 25: 35. 
One species. 

Type: Metachorischizus unicolor Uchida, 1928. Original designation. 

Related to Siphimedia. 

METARHYSSA Ashmead, 1900. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 23: 40. One species. 

Type: Metarhyssa bifmciata Ashmead, 1900. Monobasic. 

A sjaionym of Gahunia (new synonymy). Cushman (1942. Proc. 
U. S. Natl. Mus. 92: 279-280) has redescribed the genotype. The genus 
belongs in the Mesostenini, subtribe Echthrina. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOI,. 59, NO. 3, JUNE, 1957 111 

METOPHELTES Ucliida, 1932. Inseeta Matsumuiaua 6: 162. One species. 

Type: Metopheltes petiolaris Uchida, 1932. Original designation. 
This o-enus is close to Perilissus. 
METOPICHNEUMON Uchida, 1935. Inseeta Matsumurana 10: 13. One species. 

Type: Protichneumon {Metopichneumon') superomediae Uchida, 1935. Original 
designation. 

Proposed first as a subgenus of Protichneumon and later (1937. 
Inseeta Matsumurana 11: 85) elevated to generic rank. It is very 
close to Protichneuinon, but the genotype is unusual in having a com- 
pressed tubercle in the middle of the Irons, a relatively narrow cly- 
peus, and relatively elongate areola with distinct bounding carinae. 
MICEOTOEIDEA Vie"reck, 1912. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 42: 150. One species. 

Type: Microtoridea Ussonota Viereck, 1912. Original designation. 

A synonym of Diatora (new synonymy). 

MICROTOBUS Foerster, 1868. Verh. natiuh. Ver. Rheinlando 25: 175. No species. 

Uchida, 1940. Inseeta Matsumurana 14 : 64-66. Two species. 

Type: Microtorus hwhijoi Uchida, 1940. By present designation. 

A synonym of Ofaciistcs (new synonymy). Uchida placed a second 
species, Microtits tciiuihasalis Uchida, 1940, in Microtus. It should 
be referred to Mastrus (new combination). 

MONOMACEODON Cushman, 1934. Indian Forest Eec. 20: 2. One species. 
Type: Monomacrodon bicolor Cushman, 1934. Original designation. 
A subgenus of Netelia, as noted in 1938 (Townes. Lloydia 1: 186). 

MONONTOS Uchida, 1926. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 18: 165. One 
species. 

Type: Monontos niphonicus Uchida, 1926. Original designation. 

Near Heresiarches, but a distinct genus, not a synonym as stated by 
Tchida (1932. Inseeta Matsumurana 7: 32). In Monontos the second 
lateral area of the propodeum extends to the apical 0.6 of the propo- 
deum and is separated from the third lateral area by a sharp carina. 
In Heresiarches the second lateral area extends to the apical 0.8 of 
the propodeum and the carina between it and the third lateral area is 
ubsolescent. 

MONOPLECTEOCHUS Heinrich, 1949. Mitteil. Miinchner Ent. Gesell. 35-39: 109. 
One .species. 

Type: MonopIectrocJuis hoerhammeri Heinrich, 1949. Original designation. 

A synonym of Peri ope (new synonymy). Its genotype is related 
more closely to the Nearctic Periope aethiops Cresson than to the 
European Periope auscultator Curtis. 

MYRMELEONOSTENUS Uchida, 1936. Inseeta Matsumurana 10: 116. One 
species. 

Type: Myrmelconostenns habai Uchida, 1936. Original designation. 

Close to Trychosis, differing from Trychosis in the interstitial nervu- 
lus, smaller areolet, narrower first abdominal segment, and longer 
ovipositor. 
NAWAIA Ashmead, 1906. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 30: 184. One species. 

Type: Naitaia japonica Ashmead, 1906. Monobasic. 

A synonym of Banchus, as was first noted bv Uchida (1931. Inseeta 



112 PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, JUNE, 1957 

Matsumnrana 6: 51). Its genotype (Banchus japonicus) is similar to 
the Nearctie Banchus canadensis in the elongate female abdomen and 
in the relatively small fonrth segment of the maxillary palpus of the 
male. These two species seem to constitute a distinct group. 
NEISCHNUS Heinrieh, 1952. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (ser. 12) 5: 1066. One species. 

Type: Xci.scJmus oxypygns Heinrieh, 1952. Original designation. 

Heinrieh placed this genus in the ' ' lehneumonini, ' ' at the same time 
stating its relation to the Phaeogenini. The type is in Dryden, Maine. 
NEODONTOCRYPTUS Uehida, 1940. Insecta Matsumnrana 14: 122. New name 
for Odontocrypfus Uehida, preoccupied. 

The type of the genotype was returned to Berlin-Dahlem, but I have 
a specimen which appears to belong to the genotype species. It repre- 
sents an aberrant genus of Mesostenina related possibly to Trachy- 
sphyriis. Its dark metallic blue coloration and the structural charac- 
ters described by Uehida should make it easy to recognize. 
NEOHERESIAECHES Uehida, 1937. Insecta Matsumnrana 11: 87. One species. 

Type: Xeolicresiarches albipilosus Uehida, 1937. Original designation. 

This is an unusual genus of which I have seen only the type of the 
genotype. It is somewhat reminiscent of Tricholahus but probably not 
closely related to it. 

NEOPIMPLA Ashmead, 1900. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 23: 56. One species. 

Type: Neoplmpla abbottii Ashmead, 1900. Original designation. 

The type of the genotype, stated to be from Africa, has never been 
found since Ashmead published the name, and the original description 
is insufficient for even a subfamily placement. Neopimpla remains a 
namen duhium until further evidence is available. 
NEOPIMPLOIDES Viereck, 1912. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 42: 151. One species. 

Type: {Ncopimploidea syleptae Viereck, 1912) = Ichneumon piinctaiits Faln-i- 
cius, 1787. Original designation. 

This is a synonym of Xanflwpiiiipla, and its genotype is a synonym 
of Xanthopinipla punciaia. Fabricius, 1787. The generic synonymy 
was first published by Krieger (1914. Arch. Xaturg. 80 (A), 6: 3) 
and the specific synonymy first bv Cushman (1922. Proc. U. S. Natl. 
Mus. 60:10). 
NEOTOEBDA Uehida, 1932. Insecta Matsumurana 6: 153. One species. 

Type: Torbda (Neotorbda) sakagucMi Uehida, 1932. Original designation. 

A mesostenine genus of the subtribe Echthrina, related to Micro- 
stenus. The first tergite has a lateral subbasal triangular projection, 
the pleural carina of the propodeum is absent beyond the basal carina, 
both transverse carinae of the propodeum are strong, and the hy- 
postomal carina is obsolete apically and does not meet the occipital 
carina. I have seen several Oriental and one Madagascan species of 
the genus. Didiaspis is a synonym of Neotorbda (new synonymy). 
NEPHOPHELTES Cushman, 1924. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 64 (20) : l(i. One 
species. 

Type: Nephopheltes japonicus Cushman, 1924. Original designation. 

A synonym of Ophelias, as previouslv noted (Townes, ]i>45. Mem. 
Amer. Ent. Soc. 11: 495). 



PRO(;. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, JUNE, 1957 113 

NESOMESOCHORUS Ashmead, 1905. Proe. U. S. Natl. Miis. 28: 967. One tspecies. 

Type: (Nesornesochorus oculatu^s Ashmead, 1905) = Airomeius minutuii Ash- 
mead, 1904. Monobasic. 

A synonym of Chriodes. Its g-enotype is a synonym of Atronietus 
nimutus Ashmead, 1904, and of Chriodes oculatus Ashmead. 1905, 
the genotype of Chriodes. 
XESOPIMPLA Ashmead, 190(i. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 30: 180. One species. 

Type: Nif<opimpla naranyae Ashmead, 1906. Monobasic. 

A synonym of Itoplectis, as previonsly noted. (ToAvnes, 1940. Ann. 
Ent. Soc. Amer. 33: 314). 
NESOSTENODONTUS Cushman, 1922. Philippine Jour. Sci. 20: :]:'^:). One species. 

Type: Nesotitetiodontn.s hakerl Cushman, 1922. Original designation. 

Thiii; geiins belongs in the Alomyini as defined by the subcireular 
spiracles and the usually lenticular clypeus. Cushman relates it to 
Stenodontus, emphasizing the sickle-shaped mandible. If the lack of 
gastrocoeli were emphasized it would be placed near Centeterus. Its 
true relations are problematic. The genus is adequately described and 
figured in the original publication. 
NEUCHORUS Uchida, 1931. Insecta Matsumurana 5 : 143. One species. 

Type: Neuchorus longicaud a JJchida, 1931. Original designation. 

A synonym of Phytodietus (new synonymy). The species loiigi- 
cauda is closely related to the Xean-tic Phytodietus [julcherritnus 
Cresson. 
NIPPOCRYPTUS Uchida, 1936. Insecta Matsumuran;( 11 : 3. One species. 

Type: Hemitcles snziiMi Matsumura, 1912. 

A synonym of Trachysphyriis (new synonymy). 

XIPPONAETES Uchida, 1933. Insecta Matsumurana 7: 160. One species. 

Type: Hemitcles {Nipponaetes) haenssleri Uchida, 1933. Original designation. 

This genus is similar to Acrolyta in most characters. Further study 
of generic limits in this area is needed before a more definite state- 
ment can be made as to its relationships and distinctness. 
XIPPONOPHION Uchida, 1928. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 21: 201. 
One species. 

Type: (Nippoiiophion varic(/atii.s Uchida, 1928) = variety of Ophion boinhtjei- 
vorus Gravenhorst, 1829. 

This genus is a synonym of Stauropoctomus, a synon.ym.y already 
published by Cushman (1947. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 96: 456). Uchida 
(1951. Insecta Matsumurana 17: 127) has reduced the name rarie- 
(jatus to varietal status under homhycivorus. 
NIPPORICNUS Uchida, 1931. Insecta Matsumurana 5: 147. One species. 

Type: Acroricnus tarsalis Matsumura, 1912. Original designation. 

A synonym of PicardeUia (new synonymy) . The genus belongs in 
the Mesostenini, subtribe Osprynchotina, and is close to Messatoporus, 
differing from that genus most conspicuously in the somewhat larger 
areolet. 

NOTHANOMALOIDES Uchida, 1928. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 21: 
273. One species. Name preoccupied by Viereck, 1925. 
Type: Nothanomaloide.s- matsuynmensis Uchida, 1928. Original designation. 



114 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, JUNE, 1957 

Renamed Longickarops, which see. 
ODONTOCEYPTUS Uchida, 1932. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 33: 187. 
One species. Name preoccupied by Saussure, 1890, by Cameron, 1903, and by 
Szepligeti, 1916. 
Type: Odonlocrypius hrillantiis Uchida, 1932. Original designation. 
Renamed Neodontocryptus, which see. 
ODONTOTYLOCOMNUS Uchida, 1940. Trans. Sapporo Nat. Hist. Soc. 16: 179. 
One species. 
Type: Odontotylocommis pilosus Uchida, 1940. Original designation. 
A synonym of Pseudometopius (new synonymy). Pilosus is an ex- 
traordinary species with the face sharply produced beneath the an- 
tenna! sockets, the apex of the front tibia with a rounded prolonga- 
tion, and with other specializations as mentioned in the original de- 
scription. It does not seem, however, to be more than an aberrant 
member of the genus Pseudometopius. 

OPISTHOSTENUS Foerster, 1868. Verh. naturli. Ver. Bheinlande 25: 175. No 
species. 
Uchida, 1936. Insectn Matsumurana 11: 43. One species. 
Type: Hemiteles (Opisthosfeniis) etorofuensi.s Uchida. Monobasic. 

A synonym of Gnypetonwrpha (new synonymy). 

OEIENTOCEYPTUS Uchida. 1931. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 30: 174. 
Two species. 

Aype: Orientocryptns formosanus Uchida, 1931. Original designation. 

A synonym of Arthula, as noted by Uchida in 1940 (Insecta Matsu- 
murana 14 : 125). 

OEIENTOHEMITELES Uchida. 1932. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 33: 
186. One species. 

Type: Orientohemitelcs ovatus Uchida, 1932. Original designation. 

This genus belongs to Phohetes ^roup. It differs from all others of 
that group in having the petiolar area of the propodeum very long 
(0.7 as long as the propodeum) and the areola very short (about 3.8 
as wide as long). 

OEIENTOSTENAEAEUS Uchida, 1930. Joui-. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 25: 
321. One species. 

Type: Orientostenaraeus cJtinensis Uchida, 1930. Original designation. 

This is a singular mesostenine genus with coarse apical teeth on both 
upper and lower ovipositor valves, the ovipositor about 1.3 to 1.5 as 
long as the head and body, the clypeus broad, and the areolet as in 
Mesostenus. The genotype occurs in China, Taiwan, and the Philip- 
pines and I have a second species from Queensland. The European 
Mesostenus gladiator Scopoli, 1763 is closely related to these two spe- 
cies but differs in having the apical propodeal carina present. Parasil- 
sila is a synonym (new synonymy). 

OTOHIMEA Uchida^ 1926. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 18: 146. Two 
species. 

Type: {Otohimea nigra Uchida, 1926) -- Ichncvmon incanescens Smith, 1874. 
Original designation. 

A synonym of Tricholabus, as has been noted by Uchida (1932. 



PROC. KNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, JUNE, 1957 115 

Insecta Matsumiiraua 7 : 31 ) . 

PARACRYPTUS Uchida, 1932. Insecta Matsumuraua 6 : 149. One species. 

Type : Paracryptus orientalis Uchida, 1932. Original designation. 

Close to Trachysphyrns and further study may prove it to be a 
synonym. 
PARAGAMBRUS Uchida, 1936. Insecta Matsumurana 11 : 7. One species. 

Type: Gambnis sapporonis Uchida, 1930. Original designation. 

The genus is superficially similar to Agrotherentes and Gamhnts. 
The apical margin of the clypeus is without a median angulation, the 
apical carina of the propodeum indicated only laterally, and the 
dorsal valve of the ovipositor has distinct apical teeth. 
PARAGRYPON Uchida, 1941. Insecta Matsumurana 15: 159. 

Type: Gongropelma kilriwhii Uchida, 1928. Original designation. 

A synonym of Phacnolahrorychu.s (new syiion3rmy). 

PARAPHYLAX Foerster, 1868. Verh. naturh. Ver. Rheinlande 2.'): 176. No 
species. 

Ashmead, 1904. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 28: 141. One species. 

Type: Paraphylax fasciaiipennis Ashmead, 1904. Monobasic. 

This is an Oriental and Australian genus of the Phohcfc.s group, 
tribe Gelini, containing many species. Its generic characters are : Disc 
of scutellum and upper part of temple smooth or with weak punctures, 
I he scutellum with a weak median longitudinal elevation and the up- 
per part of temple flat or almost so ; notaulus extending more than 0.6 
the length of the mesoscutum ; nervulus approximately opposite the 
basal vein, or beyond it by less than 0.35 its length ; sternaulus ex- 
tending- distinctly to near the middle coxa ; propodeum with its first 
and second pleural areas separated by a carina .just beyond the spiracle 
and its median apical area occupying 0.4 to 0.6 of the propodeal 
length ; spiracle of first tergite at 0.65 to 0.7 the distance from the 
base of the tergite ; first sternite without a preapical transverse carina ; 
ovipositor sheath about as long- as the width of the second tergite; 
ovipositor point not unusually slender. 

PERILISSOIDES Uchida, 1932. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 33: 213. 
One species. 

Type: PenUssoides cubitaliti Uchida, 1932. Original designation. 

This genus is not in Uchida 's collection. The type of the genotype 
is in Berlin-Dahlem. The genus is said to be near Perilissus and is 
distinguished by a peculiar venation. 
PHOTOPTERA Viereck, 1913. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 46 : 380. One species. 

Type: Photoptera erythronota Viereck, 1913. Original designation. 

A synonym of Paraphylax (new synonymy). 

PIELIA Uchida, 1937. Insecta Matsumuraua 11 : 91. One species. 

Type: Pielia concava Uchida, 1937. Original designation. 

The type of the genotype is in Musee Heude, Shanghai. Uchida 
compares the genus with Burcschias, Eupalamus, and Gyrodonta. 
The face and clypeus are concave, the face has a strong transverse 
carina just below the antennal sockets, and the gastrocoeli are indis- 
tinct. 



116 PROC. KNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, JUNE, 1957 

PLANOCRYPTUS Heinrich, 1949. Mittcil. Miinchner Eut. Gessell. 35-39: 56. 
One species. 
Tj'pe : Planocrifptiis mvrnbilis Heinrich, 1949. Original designation. 

A synonym of CnhocepJialus (new synonymy). 

PLATYJOPPA Uchida, 1932. Insecta. Matsuniurana (5 : 146. One species. 

Type : Platyjoppa naxae Uchida, 1932. Original designation. 

This genus is somewhat intermediate in its characters between 
Aoplus and Stenich'ncumon, but different from both in the sharply 
elevated, laterally margined scutellum. The costula is strong. 
PLECTOCHORUS Uchida, 1933. Insecta Matsuniurana 7: 163. One species. 

Type: Mesochorus iwatensis Uchida, 1928. Original designation. 

Near Stictopisthus. The transverse carina beneath the antennal 
sockets is continuous, without a median dip, and the prepectal carina 
reaches the front edge of the mesopleurum. These are characters 
shared with Stictopisthus. Females differ from those of Stictopisthus 
in having the propodeum extending to or beyond the middle of the 
hind coxa, abdomen greatly elongate, and the ovipositor sheath only 
about four times as long as wide. Males seem indistinguishable from 
those of Stictopisthus. 

PLEURONEUROPHION Ashmead, 190(1. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 23: 86. One 
species. 

Type: PleuroneiiropMon hawaiensis Ashmead, 1900. Original designation. 

A synonym of Enicospilus, as previously noted (Townes, 1945. 
Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc. 11: 737). 
POTOPHION Cushman, 1947. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 96 : 442. One species. 

Type : Poiophion candatus Cushman, 1947. Original designation. 

Near Ophion, from which it differs in the longer ovipositor and 
somewhat elongate trophi, as described and figured in the original 
publication. 

PROSOPOSTENU8 Uchida, 1932. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 33: 184. 
One species. 

Type: Hemiteles (Prosopostenus) Icoshuncnsi.s Uchida, 1932. Original designation. 

The type of the genotype is in Berlin-Dahlem and has not been seen. 

PROTEROCRYPTUS Ashmead, 1906. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 30: 174. One species. 

Type: Proterocryptvs nawaii Ashmead, 1906. Monobasic. 

A synonym of Brachycyrtns, as was first noted by Roman (1915, 
Ark. for. Zool. 9 (9) : 5). 
PSEUDAROTES Uchida, 1929. Insecta Matsuniurana 3: 179. One species. 

Type: Psendarotes cMsMmensis Uchida, 1929. Original designation. 

This genus is a synonym of Yamatarotes (new synonymy). Its 
genotype has the propodeum, first sternite, first tergite, and scutellum 
with specialized swellings, but these may be regarded as specific 
rather than generic characters. 

fSEUDASTHENARA Uchida, 1930. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 25: 276. 
One species. 

Type: Asthenara rufocincta Ashmead, 1906. Original designation. 

A synonym of Euceros, as previously noted (Townes and Townes, 
1951. U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Monog. 2 : 321). The type of the genotype 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, JUNE, 1957 117 

is in Washington. 

P8EUDEUGALTA Ashmead, 1900. Pioc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 23: 5.3. One species. 

Tj^te: Eitgalta spinosa Cameron, 1899. Original designation. 

A synonym of Eugalia. Cusliman (1933. Insecta Matsnmurana 8: 
1 ) has disenssed the .synonymy. 

PSEUDOCHASMIAS Uchida, 1926. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 18: lis. 
One species. 

Type: Pseudochasmlas major I'cliida, 192(3. Original designation. 

Kesembles Chasmias in most of its characters. The propodenni is a 
little more elongate than in Chas))iias and the areola bounded pos- 
teriorly in both sexes by a strong carina. The apex of the female 
antenna is a little more tapered than in Chasinias. The apical edge 
of the clypeus is truncate with a weak median angular projection. 
The upper edge of the face is unique in having a median, short, broad, 
angular, upward-projecting flange in place of the usual subantennal 
tubercle. 

P8EUD0DIX0T0MUS rdiida. 1925. Trans. Xat. Hist. Sop. Formosa 15: 239. 
One species. 

Type: Pseudodinotomii.s tricolor Uchida, 1925. Original designation. 

A synonym of Charitojoppa, as noted by Uchida (1932. Insecta 
Matsumurana 7: 25). 

PSEUDOTORBDA Ueliida, 1932. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido T^niv. 33: 195. 
One species. 

Type: Pseudotorbda genieulata Uchida, 1932. Original designation. 

A mesostenine genus of the subtribe Echthrina. The first tergite 
has a basal lateral triangular projection, the pleural carina of the 
propodenni is absent beyond the basal carina, the apical transverse 
carina of the propodenni absent, and the clypeus without a median 
apical tooth but with a subapical transverse ridge. Besides the geno- 
type from Taiwan, I have seen one species from Japan and two from 
the Philippines. 
P8YCH0STENUS Uchida, 1955. Insecta Matsumurana 19: 32. Three species. 

Type: Psi/chosienus mimiscuJae Uchida, 1955. Original designation. 

A synonym of Atdcutc. Talorga and TsirireUa are also synonyms 
( all new synonymies ) . 

PYCNOPHION Ashmead, 1900. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 23: 87. One species. 

Type: PycnopMon molokaiensis Ashmead, 1900. Original designation. 

Related to Enicospilus. Cushman (1947. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 96: 
461-462) has discussed its characters. 
PYCNOPYGE Cushman, 1922. Philippine Jour. Sci. 20: 552. One species. 

Type: Pycnopyge bella Cushman, 1922. Original designation. 

A distinctive Oriental genus placed in the Oedicephalini by Hein- 
rich. It is adequately described and figured by Cushman in the 
original description. 

RHEXIDEEMUS Foerster, 1868. A^erh. naturli. Ver. Rheinlande 25: 192. No 
species. 

Ashmead, 1906. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 30: 171. One species. 

Type: Bhexidermits japoviciis Ashmead, 1906. Monobasic. 



118 I'ROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, JUNE, 1957 

This is tlie proiier name for Lschinis of authors. The genotype of 
Ischnus (porrcctoriHs) is a species of Habrocriiptus, so Ischnus must 
be used in the Mesostenini, with Hahrocryptus as a synonym, and 
Ischnus of authors, in the Alomyini, must be ealled by the name 
Rhexidermus. Rhexidermus as interpreted by Uehida (1926. Jour. 
Fac. Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 18: 166), however, is Psendoplatylahns, 
and his species Rhe.n'dernins apicalis must be called Pseudoplatylahus 
apicaUs (new combination). 

SCEN0CHAR0P8 Ucliida, 1932. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 33: 202. 
One species. 
Type: Scenocharops longipctiolarif; Uehida, 1932. Original designation. 
This genus is close to Char ops but differs in having the areolet pres- 
ent but small (or occasionally absent) and the outer lower angle of 
the second discoidal cell slightly less than a right angle. It contains a 
number of Oriental species. 

In 1946 I (Bol. Ent. Venezol. 5: 61) included Schenocharops in the 
genus Charops as an aberrant Oriental species group. I now agree 
with Uehida as to its generic distinctness. 

STENAEAEOIDES I'eliida, 1932. .Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 33: ISl. 
Three species. 
Type: Mesostenius octocinctus Ashmead, 19(t(). Original designation. 
A synonym of Gotra. Uehida has published the synonymy (1940. 
Insecta Matsumurana 14: 121). 

STENICHNEUMONOIDES Uehida, 1930. Insecta Matsumurana 5: 93. Three 
species. 
Type: Stenwhncumon posUcalis Matsumura, 1912. Original designation. 
This genus is intermediate between Stenichneumon and Chiaglas, 
having the clypeal and propodeal characters of the former and the 
post petiole without a distinctly raised median area as in the latter. 
Uehida (1937. Insecta Matsumurana 11 : 93-94) has discussed the 
generic characters. 

STEEPSIMALLUS Foerster, 1868. Verh. naturh. Yer. Rheinlande 25: 176. No 
species. 
Ashmead, 1905. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 29: 115. One species. 
Type: Sfrepsimallus bicinctus Ashmead, 1905. Monobasic. 
This is an Oriental genus of the Phohetes group, tribe Gelini. I 
know only three species. Its generic characters are mostly the same 
as those of Paraphylax but the upper part of the temple is strongly 
convex, mat or rugosopunctate ; and the scutellum is rather flat, mat 
or rugoso-punctate. 

STRIATOSTENUS Uehida, 1931. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 30: 177. 
One species. 
Type: Striatostenus areolatus Uehida, 1931. Original designation. 
A synonym of Coesula (new sjmonymy). 
TAIWATHERONIA Sonan, 1936. Trans. Nat. Hist. Soe. Formosa 26: 256. One 
species. 
Type: (Tain-atheronia mahasenae Sonan, 1936) = Apechthis tahvana Uehida, 
1928. Original designation. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. o, .JUNE, 1957 119 

A synonym of Ephialics Schrank, 1802 (new synonymy). A para- 
type of T. mahasenae in lU-hida's collection was compared with the 
type of Apechthis taiirana Uchida, 1928, and found to be conspecific 
(new synonymy). 

TAKAXOMA Ucliida, 1!IL>6. Jour. Faculty Ayr. Hokkaido Univ. IS: 1(33. Om> 
species. 

Type: Takanoma ishiyamana Ucliida, l!i'2(i. Original designation. 

Close to Phaeogenes but probably merits <>eneric distinction. The 
Xearctic Ichncutiuin rincihilis Cresson, 1867 should be referred to 
Takanoma (new combination). 

TAKASTEXUS Ucliida, 19.31. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 30: 18S. One 
species. 

Type: Taka-steniis Jo)i(/i(h)itatu.s Ucliida, 1931. Original designation. 

This is a jienus of the Mesosteniim, close to Buodias, with a large 
number of Oriental species. CJiromocryptits alhomaculatns Ashmead. 
1905, should be referred to it (new combination). 

TEMELUCHA Foerster, 1868. Verli. naturli. Ver. Klieiiilande 25: 148. Xo species. 

Ashmead, 1904. Canad. Ent. 3(i: 101. One species. 

Type: Temehicha phiUppincn.sis Ashmead, 1904. Monobasic. 

This genus is Cremastus as understood by American authors, but 
according to recent information from J. F. Perkins in England the 
species commonly determined as Cremastus spectator Gravenhorst, 
the genotype of Crcmastus, belongs in the group called Zaleptopygus 
in America. Mr. Perkins also reports that the genotype of Tarytia is 
congeneric with that of Temducha. In view of this information Tary- 
tia is hereby synonymized with Tcmelucha, which is the same as 
C re mast us of American authors, and true Cremastus is considered 
either the same as Zaleptopygus, or of uncertain identity until Gra- 
venhorst 's type of C. spectator can be examined. 
TOGEA Ucliida, 1926. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 18: 109. Four species. 

Type: Togca albofasciata Uchida, 1926. Original designation. 

Close to N eocratichneumon, from which it differs most conspicu- 
ously, at least in the genotype, in lacking the lateral carina on the 
scutellum. Uchida (1937. Insecta Matsumurana 11: 93) states that 
Barichneumonites is a synonym, but this is a distinct genus. 
TOSQUIXETIA Ashmead, 1900. Canad. Ent. 32: 368. Xew name for Obba 
Tosquinet, preoccupied by Beck, 1837, and by Walker, 1869. 

I have not studied material of this genus, but Heinrich (1938. 
Mem. Acad. Malagache 25: 36-37) has discussed its taxonomy, placing 
it near CompsopJiorus and Pyramidellus in the Listrodromini. 
TYLOCOMXOIDES Uchida, 1940. Trans. Sapporo Nat. Hist. Soc. 16: 178. One 
species. 

Type: Tyloconuwides rc/cucai Uchida, 1940. Original designation. 

A synonym for Pseuelometopius (new synonymy). 
UCHIDELIA, new name for Itamiis Foerster. which see. 
YAMATAEOTES Uchida, 1929. Insecta Matsumurana 3: 180. Two species. 

Type: Ynmatarofi s hirolor Uchida, 1929. Original designation. 



120 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, JUNE, 1957 

This genus resembles At^otes, particularly iu having an accessory 
tooth on the hind tarsal claws, but is distinct from Arotes in having 
the clypeus thin apieally, not inflexed or impressed, and the inter- 
cubitus a little basad of the second recurrent. 

YEZOCEEYX Uchida, 19!^8. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 25: 36. One 
species. 
' Type: Yesoceryx .scutellaris Uchida, 1928. Original designation. 

This is a genus of Acaenitini which includes many species from the 
eastern Palaearctic Region and the Indo-Australian area, and Acae- 
nitus rnpinsulensifi from the United States (new combination). 
ZAMESOCHORUS Viereck, 1912. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 42: 152. One species. 

Type: Zamesochorns orU'ntalis Viereck, 1912. Original designation. 

This is a synonym of Edrisa (new synonymy) . 
ZAPARAPHYLAX Viereck, 1913. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 44: 647. One species. 

Type: (Zaparaphylax perinae Viereck, l9l3) = Microtoridea lissomota Viereck, 
1912. Original designation. 

A synonym of Diatora (new synonymy) . 
ZONOCRYPTUS Ashmead, 1900. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 23 : 40. One species. 

Type: Crypins sphivgis Ashmead, 1900. Monobasic. 

Cushman (1942. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 92: 277-279) has redescribed 
the genotype and ' discussed the status of the genus. Zonocryptus 
comes within Waterston's definition of Oneilella (1927. Bull. Ent. Res. 
18: 191-204), but Waterson's Oneilella is polyphyletic, as he was 
deceived by the common color pattern into thinking that at least two 
unrelated groups of species were congeneric. The color pattern in- 
volved occurs in a number of unrelated African Hymenoptera. It is 
evidently a mimicry pattern and as such should not be used as evi- 
dence for phyletic relationship. The genotype of Oneilella (formosa 
Brulle) is a species with which I am not familiar so it would not be 
profitable to speculate on the disposition of this generic name. Zono- 
cryptus sphingis Ashmead is very close to nigiriensis Waterston. 

I have the species Oneilella latifascia Waterston, 1927, amd 0. ni- 
geriensis Waterston, 1927, which should be referred to Zonocryptus 
and also the species 0. suhquadrata Waterston, 1927, and 0. hrevi- 
spicula Waterston, 1927, which should be referred to Uchida 's genus 
Cochlidionostenus (new combinations). Since Waterston states that 
Cryptus corpulentus Tosquinet, 1896, is closely related to suhquadrata 
and hrevispicula, this species also is referred to Cochlidionostenus 
(new combination). 

ZONOPIMPLA Ashmead, 1900. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 23 : 55. One species. 

Type: Zonopimpla albicincta Ashmead, 1900. Original designation. 

Though Ashmead stated that the genotype was from "Africa" it is 
actually from Peru. The genus is related to Scamhiis (= Epiurus) 
and restricted to the Neotropic region. Cushman (1942. Proc. U. S. 
Natl. Mus. 92 : 283) has discussed the genus. He synonymized it with 
"Epiurus," but it is distinct from "Epiurus" in lacking the occipital 
carina and in lacking sculpture on the the abdominal tergites. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, JUNE, 1957 121 

ON THE VALIDITY OF HAEMAGOGUS SPEGAZZINII FALCO KUMM 

ET AL, 1946 

(Diptera, Culicidae) 

Pedro Galindo 

Gorgas Memorial Laboratory, Apartado 1252, Pam,amd, R. de P. 

Kumra et al. (1946) described a new Haemagogus from Colombia 
with hairy larva and male with short palps and bushy antennae, which 
could be clearly differentiated from H. capricornii Lutz, but appeared 
very close to H. spegazzinii Brethes, being- separable from the latter 
species only by details of the mesosome of the male when viewed from 
the side. The new form was named falco, but the describers considered 
it doubtful whether the characters defining it were of sufficient im- 
portance to justify the creation of a new species and placed it as a 
subspecies of spegazziyiii. In the same publication the name H. jan- 
thinomys Dyar, 1921, based on a species from the island of Trinidad, 
was relegated to the synonymy of H. spegazzinii spegazzinii. 

Levi Castillo (1956), after examining the male terminalia of the 
hololectotype of H. janthinomys, concluded that this specimen shows 
the mesosome tip as in falco, and consequently sank H. spegazzimi 
falco Kumm et al., 1946, in the svnonvmv of H. janfhinonnjs Dvar, 
1921. 

The author is not in ag-reement with Levi Castillo's conclusions for 
the following reasons: 

1) Cerqueira (1943) published a photomicrograph of the male 
terminalia of the hololectotype (then cotype) of H. janthinomys. 
As can be observed in this excellent reproduction, the terminalia is 
only partly dissected and the mesosome is in A^entral view, thus not 
well oriented to judge the shape of its tip, which, as pointed out by 
Kumm et al. (loc. cit.),can best be studied in lateral view. 

2) The author, on a visit to the U. S. National Museum, personally 
examined the hololectotype slide of the terminalia of janthinomys. 
Although the mesosome in this preparation is not in a good position 
to permit a conclusive judgment, it appears to belong to an inter- 
grading form between spegazzinii and falco, close to the so-called 
"intermediate" type illustrated by Kumm and Cerqueira (1951) 
from areas of intergradation in Brazil. 

3) Kumm et al. (loc. cit.) in the same paper in which they de- 
scribed H. spegazzinii falco from Colombia stated: "the name jan- 
thinomys becomes a synon^an of H. spegazzinii, as material obtained 
from the type area of spegazzinii, near Ledesma, Argentina, is the 
same as that from the island of Trinidad, B.W.I. , the type locality of 
ja^ithinomys." This statement shows rather convincingly that these 
authors had material from Trinidad, as well as from Argentina, in 
front of them at the time they described falco, and found that speci- 
mens from Trinidad {janthinomys) were closer to type material of 
spegazziyiii than to their new form. 

4) The terminalia of 10 specimens of "janthinomys" from Trini- 



122 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, JUNE, 1957 

dad in the collection of the Gorgas Memorial Laboratory have been 
dissected by the author and the mesosome mounted in lateral view. 
These specimens all show some degree of intergradation between 
spegazzinii and falco, but appear to be mnch closer to the former than 
to the latter (see jihotomicrographs). 

5) More than a hundred mesosomes of males from Honduras, 
Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama examined by the author appear 
identical with material from Colombia (falco) and diifer from the 
mesosomes of males from Trinidad {janthinoniys.) 

6) In mapping out the distribution of spegazzinii and falco, Kumm 
and Cerqueira (loc. cit.) show that while spegazzinii is quite abundant 
along the northeastern coast of Brazil, being found all the way up 
into the State of Amapa along the border with French Guiana, falco 
is not coastal at all but ranges throughout the northwestern corner 
of Brazil. Specimens from the island of Trinidad would be logically 
expected to fall closer to spegazzinii, the common form along the 
Atlantic littoral of northern Brazil, rather than to falco wliich is more 
Andean in distribution. 

From these observations the author concludes that typical falco 
extends from northwestern Brazil and adjoining territories in Ecua- 
dor and Peru, through Western Venezuela and Colombia as far north 
as the north coast of Honduras. True spegazzinii occurs from north- 
ern Argentina and Bolivia, across eastern Brazil to French Guiana. 
The area of north-central Brazil, most of the Guianas, part of Vene- 
zuela, and the island of Trinidad (type locality of janthinotnys) form 
a large intergrading zone where mesosomes of intermediate type are 
found, which neither correspond to typical spegazzinii nor to typical 
falco. Since the form ja/ntJmiomys falls in this category, but appears 
closer to the former than to the latter, the author feels that there is 
no justification for sinking H. spegazzinii falco Kumm et at., 1946, 
in the synonymy of H. ianthinomys Dyar, 1921, and suggests that the 
latter be maintained in the synonymy of H. spegazzinii spegazzinii 
Brethes, 1912, as proposed by Kumm et al. (loc. cit.), and that falco 
be considered a valid name to designate a northern and Avestern 
geographical race of spegazzinii. 



Explanation of Plate 

rig. A, H. .spegazzinii spegazzinii. Mesosome of a male from "Eio de Janeiro, 
Brazil (without date) J. Lane"; fig. B, H. jaiithinomys. Mesosome of a male 
from "St. Pat's, Arima, Trinidad, (8-15) -12-54. T. H. G. Aitken." (Note 
similarity with mesosome shown in figure A) ; fig. C, H. janfliinomy.'^. Mesosome 
of a male from Tabaquite, Trinidad, (8-13) -1-55. T. H. G. Aitken"; fig. D, 
H. spegazzinii faleo. Mesosome of a male from "Choreha, Chiriqui, Panama, 
5-6-50. P. Galindo. " (Note differences with figures B and C); fig. E, H. .spegaz- 
zinii falco. Mesosome of a male from ''Rio Mesai^a, El Negrito, Department of 
Yoro, Honduras, 4-9-54. P. Orjuela. (Northernmost specimen of the species thus 
far collected). 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, JUXE, 1957 



123 




B 







E 



124 proc. ent. soc. wash., vol. 59, no. 3, june, 1957 

Eeferences 
Cerqueira, N. L., 1943. Algumas especies novas da Bolivia, e refereneia a tres 

espeeies de Haemagogus. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 39 : 1-14. 
Kiimni, H. W., and Cerqueira, N. L. 1951. The Haemagogm mosquitoes of Brazil. 

Bui. Ent. Ees. 42: 169-181. 
Kumni, H. W., Osorno-Mesa, E., and Bosliell-Manrique, J. 1946. Studies on 

mosquitoes of the genus Uaemagogiis in Colombia. Amer. Jour. Hyg. 43: 

13-28. 
Levi-Castillo, R. 1956. A systematic note on Haemagogiis spega^zinii Brethes, 

1912. Proe. Ent. Soe. Wash. r,S: 345-347. 

INSECTS OF MICRONESIA, HOMOPTERA: FULGOROIDEA 

l)y R. G. Fennah. Paper. Bernice P. Bishop Museum; Insects of Micronesia 
6(3): [391-211, 64 figs. Price $3.00. 

This work will be an indispensable tool for specialists working in Fulgoroidea 
of the included Pacific area for many years to come. The introduction includes 
a resume of the distribution of the 54 genera and 135 species known from 
Micronesia, a reasonable discussion of the probable sources of the Mieronesian 
fauna in the groups studied by the author, and a charmingly frank account of 
the interpretation placed on degrees of morphological differences in the case of 
groups below the genus category. The last appeared quite reasonable to the 
reviewer and undoubtedly it will appear so to others engaged in taxonomy in 
the seclusion of a laboratory where, like Fennah 's, their evaluation of categories 
must rest on an appraisal of degrees of morphological differences, although ' ' it 
is fully realized how poor an alternative such assessment must be for actual 
experimental investigation." 

Although the work lacks keys in some groups (e.g., Myndus with 18 forms), 
the included keys offer bonuses in several instances, in that they include more 
than the area under treatment: the key to families is for the world, the generic 
key of Cixiidae includes the Philippine Islands and Australasia, and the latter 
area is included also in the generic keys of Delphacidae and Derbidae. 

A minor weakness, but one worthy of comment because it occurs so commonly 
in works in Homoptera, is associated with Fennah 's treatment of the subgenus 
Sogatella which in this and one previous work he has discussed clearly enough 
to make it obvious that several Western Hemisphere taxa should be included in 
the concept. One cannot doubt that the author was well aware of this, yet he 
failed to mention the forms by name. If other specialists, in making identifica- 
tions (for field workers, for example) of the Western Hemisphere taxa place 
them in Sogatella, the publication of the new combination may, as a result, 
occur in some obscure organ not readily available to those who catalogue tax- 
onomic literature. If the identifier purposely avoids this pitfall, and uses the 
older combination, he is placed in the position of delaying taxonomic progress. 
The reviewer subscribes to the opinion that it would have been preferable for 
Fennah to list by name all of the taxa he felt should be placed in his category 
Sogatelln. 

The descriptions are well written and the illustrations excellent and well 
arranged. — David A. Youn(t, .Jr., Enlomology Heseareh Branch, U. S. Depart- 
nirnt of Agriculture.. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, JUNE, 1957 125 

THREE NEW SPECIES OF LIPOSCELIS (=TROCTES) (PSOCOPTERA) 

FROM TEXAS 

Kathryn M. Sommekman, Arctic Health Research Center, Public Health Service, 
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Anchorage, Alaska 

These descriptions have been withdrawn from a comprehensive 
paper in preparation, which treats of the Liposcelidae, so that pub- 
lished records of the psocids taken in Texas by Dr. A. B. Gurney in 
the fall of 1951 may be complete. The terminology used here, for 
the most part, follows that proposed by Mr. J. V. Pearman in his 
1946 and 1951 papers. I am also greatly indebted to Mr. Pearman 
for numerous sketches and personal correspondence that were of tre- 
mendous help to me in oetting acquainted with the book-lice. Dr. E. 
Broadhead continbuted specimens of many of the species he has reared, 
and Dr. Gurney kindly lent his Texas collections for study. It is a 
pleasure to express my gratitude for the kind and generous assistance 
received from these three fellow-workers. 

When standard "permanent" mounting media, such as balsam, 
Euparal, and Hoyer's, are used for book-lice there is a considerable 
decrease in visibility of the sculpturing on the integument, which 
often results in a complete loss of detail, especially after a lapse of 
time. Therefore these specimens were cleared in warm NaOH or 
KOH solution, then rinsed in water, and studied in temporary w-ater- 
mounts containing a tiny bit of detergent to facilitate handling. 
Slight underclearing is recommended. Normal clearing, as for per- 
manent mounts or overclearing, makes the specimens more difficult 
to find and to handle. After study the specimens were returned to 
alcohol. Upon contact with alcohol the partially dissolved contents 
of these undereleared specimens coagulate, so it may be necessary to 
transfer the specimen momentarily to KOH upon future examination 
to make it translucent again. 

The measurements apply to cleared specimens in water-mounts, 
which are neither swollen nor shrunken because the gut ruptures when 
the specimen is rinsed and in so doing the psocid relaxes to normal 
size. The color descriptions refer to uncleared alcoholic specimens. In 
general there is a slight but progressive change in the sculpturing 
on the abdominal terga from III-IX. In an attempt to standardize 
comparisons the sculpturing on terga II and III is described for each 
species. It might be well to stress that "tergum I," as used here, 
is composed of what appear to be two terga (I and II of Broadhead), 
each of which is further subdivided into an anterior and a posterior 
strip. This composite tergum I contains only two rows of setae, the 
same as each following tergum, when the setae are arranged in rows. 
M: d(orsal) on tergum VII refers to the seta behind the spiracle. 

Liposcelis lacinia n. sp. 

(Figs. 1 and 2) 

On the Ijasis of color this species superficially resembles the species in the 



126 



I'ROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, JIXE. 1957 



bo.str!/cliop]iilu.s complex, l)ut differs from them find ;ill otlier known species in 
the shape of the lacinia and in the combination of setation and sculpturing of 
the head, thorax, and abdomen, as well as abdominal infuscation. 

Female. — Length 1.0 mm. Color dorsally against black background, almost 
uniformly light lirovvn, exclusive of eyes. 

Head: Proportions, length and width equal. Dorsally — Setae not dense, distance 
l)etween them 1 to 2 times their length or 2 to 4 times width of areoles. Sculptur- 
ing areolate, imbricate; areoles ridge-marginate, 2 to -l times longer than wide 
(the narrow ones toward mesal part of head) with 1 to 3 distinct nodules across 
width. Epicranial suture and arms indistinct. Eyes with 7 facets. Third antennal 
segment with approximately 16 rings. Ventrally — Prongs of lacinae incised and 
widely divergent (Fig. 1). 




FrCS. 1-7 VENTRAL VIEW 



I LACINIAE 



2 STEM OF LEFT 
CONAPOPHY^ES 



LIPOSCELIS LACINIA N. SP 





4 STEM OF LEFT 
CONAPOPHYSES 



LIPOSCELIS DELTA-CHI N. SP 



5 T-SCLERITE 



6 LACINIAE 




LIPOSCELIS NASUS N. SP 



Thorax: Each lateral lobe of prothorax with long humeral seta plus 2 to 3 
short setae usually posteriorly. Mesothorax with interrupted median internal 
thickening, lacking arched lateral thickenings, only 2 setae along each indistinct 
arch where lateral thickenings would be if present. Sculpturing on metathorax 
areolate, imbricate r areoles ridge-marginate, a few containing distinct modules. 
On anterior half of prothoracic sternum 3 long setae (median one slightly 
shorter), none posteriorly. On mesosternum 8 long setae in row anteriorly. 

Abdomen: Infuscation of terga II and III diffuse, sculpturing behind each 
posterior row of setae similar to that anteriorly, and with very narrow but distinct 
linear intersegmental membrane between terga. Terga IV-VI with slightly paler 
band of sculpturing behind posterior row of setae. Pale median lineation on 
anterior margin of terga III-VII. Sculpturing of terga II and III areolate, not 
interrupted medianly ; areoles long and narrow, about 5 to 7 times longer than 
wide, with margins ridged ; areoles containing distinct modules, iisually only 1 
nodule across width of areole. Setae tending toward arrangement in 2 rows 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, JUNE, 1957 127 

across each of terga II-V, thereafter scattered ; on terguni VIII density of un- 
named setae similar to head. On terga VII, M: d,v both short; VIII, M: d 
short, V long, L short (not identifiable), stem of gonapophyses long, slender, 
bifid (Fig. 2), T-sclerite normal; IX, M: d,v subequal, D present, 8 setae in 
apical row between marginnls; epiproet, 2 longest setae in second row. 
Male. — Unknown . 

Holoiype, cleared female in alcohol, Kerrville, Tex., Sept. 20, 1951, 
under sycamore bark on tree trunks beside river. A. B. Gurney. De- 
posited in T'. S. National Museum. 

Liposcelis delta-chi n. .sp. 
(Figs. 3 to 5) 

This species is most closely related to entoinophilus (Endl. 1907) 
but can be distinguished readily from it by the darker color and 
different color pattern, and by the shape and conspicuous brown color 
of the T-sclerite and stem of the gonapophyses. 

FemaU : Length 1.4 mm. Color dorsally against black Ijackground — head, 
femora and anterior three-fourths of abdomen light yellow-brown, thorax liglit 
brown, tip of abdomen brown; indefinite lateral fuscous patches on abdominal 
terga becoming progressively larger posteriorly. Ventrally — part of pnraprocts, 
stem of gonapophyses, and T-sclerite conspicuous brown. 

Head: Proportions, length to width at 2;j to 24. Dorsally — Setae dense, dis- 
tance between them V^ to 1 times their length or 1 to 4 times width of areoles. 
Sculpturing areolate, imbricate; areoles delicately ridge-marginate and narrow, 
especially toward middle of head, those near eyes more boldly ridge-marginate 
and wider ; areoles for most part with extremely fine pin-point nodules, too fine to 
count, liut a few toward middle of head and near ej'es with large, distinct nodules; 
areoles 2 to r, times longer than wide. Epicranial suture and arms distinct, suture 
with internal thickening posteriorly. Eyes with 8 facets. Third antennal seg- 
ment Avith approximately 20 rings. Ventrally — Prongs of laciniae stubby (Fig. 3). 

Thorax: Each lateral lobe of prothorax with long humeral seta plus 2 to 3 
slightly shorter setae on anterior margin, and 3 to 5 shorter setae posteriorly. 
Mesothorax with distinct median internal thickening with adjoining arched lateral 
thickenings having 5 setae, including 1 mesally, along each lateral arch. Sculp- 
turing on metathorax areolate, areoles nodule-marginate and containing distinct 
nodules. On anterior half of prothoraeic sternum, 6 to 7 long setae in arched 
row, the posterior ones longest, none isolated on posterior half. On mesosternum, 
8 to 9 setae in row anteriorly. 

Abdomen: Infuseation of terga II and III diffuse, witli very narrow Init dis- 
tinct linear intersegmental membrane between terga; terga V-VI with paler band 
of sculpturing posteriorly. Bold median lineations on anterior margin of terga 
II-VII. Sculpturing on terga II and III non-areolate but distinctly nodulate, 
suggestive of patterned stippling. Unnamed setae on tergum VIII truncate, 
numerous and scattered, as dense as setation on head. On terga VII, M: d, v 
long, subequal, but not so long as VIII M: VIII, M: d, v long, subequal, L 
present, stem of gonapophyses extremely short and stout, wider than long, bifid. 



128 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, JUNE, 1957 

(Fig. 1), T-selerite (Fig. 5); IX, M: d, v subequal, D present; epiproct, 2 
longest setae in second row. 
Male. — Unknown. 

Holofype, uncleared female in alcohol, Garner State Park, Texas, 
Sept. 22, 1951, beating mesquite with air plants on twigs, A. B. 
(jiirney. Paratype, cleared female in alcohol, same data. Both speci- 
mens deposited in USNM. 

The name refers to the conspicuous brown T-sclerite and stem of 
the g'onapophyses, the first being somewhat deltoid in shape and the 
latter suggestive of the Greek letter "X". 

Liposcelis nasus n. sp. 

(Figs. (5 and 7) 

This species is perhaps most closely (but rather remotely) related 
to Mrsutus Badonnel 1948 from which it differs in many ways., the 
most conspicuous being color and color pattern, and sculpturing of 
the head. 

Female. — Length 1.4 mm. Color dorsall.v against black background yellow- 
buff ; indefinite fuscous patch (pigment granules) antero-mesad of each eye 
and at tip of second antennal segment ; labrum and anterior part of clypeus 
brown gradually fading to yellow-buff at vertex of head; terminal part of abdo- 
men pale. 

Head : Proportions, length to width as 22 to 20. Dorsally — Setae not dense, 
distance between them equal to their length. Sculpturing areolate, imbricate ; 
areoles ridge-marginate (some fused nodule-marginate), areoles containing 1 to 2 
small nodules across width ; areoles 3 to 8 times longer than wide, narrow ones 
toward middle of head. Epicranial suture indistinct. Eyes with 8 facets. Third 
antennal segment with approximately 14 rings. Ventrally — Prongs of laeiniae 
normal (Fig. 6). 

Thorax: Each lateral lobe of prothorax with long humeral seta plus 2 shorter 
setae on anterior margin and 3 to 4 posteriorly. Mesothorax with short median 
internal thickening, lacking arched lateral thickenings. Sculpturing on meta- 
thorax nonareolate but distinctly nodulate, suggestive of patterned stippling. 
Ou anterior half of prothoracie sternum 4 to 5 long setae, none on posterior half. 
On mesosteruum 8 to 9 long setae in row anteriorly, lateral ones longest. 

Abdomen: Infuscation on terga II and III diffuse, with very narrow but dis- 
tinct linear intersegmental membrane between terga. Terga IV- VI lacking obvious 
pale band of sculpturing posteriorly. Sculpturing on terga II and III nonareolate 
but distinctly nodulate, suggestive of patterned stippling, not interrupted medianly. 
No median lineations or heavy infuscation on anterior margin of terga II-VII. 
Two longer setae near mid-line on terga VII, VIII and IX. Unnamed setae on 
tergum VIII not so dense as on head. On terga VII, M: d short, v long, but 
not so long as VIII M; VIII, M: d, v long, subequal, L short (not identifiable), 
stem of gonapophyses very wide, delicate, bifid (Fig. 7), T-selerite normal; IX, 
M: d, V subequal, D present; epiproct, 2 longest setae in second row. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, JUNE, 1957 129 

Male. — Length O.S mm. Differs from female as follows: Fuscous markijigs 
much less conspicuous. 

Head: Proportions, length to width as 1(5 to 1-5. Eyes with r> facets. Lacinia 
similar to female but more delicate. 

Thorax: Each lateral lobe of prothorax with long humeral seta plus 1 slightly 
shorter seta on anterior margin and 2 shorter ones posteriorly. On anterior half 
of prothoracic sternum 4 long setae, none posteriorly. On meso.sternum 6 long 
setae in row anteriorly. 

Holotype, uncleared female in alcohol, Mission, Tex., Sept. 30, 
1951, beating Fan palm leaves, A. B. Gurney. Allotype, same data. 
Paratypes, 21 females (3 cleared) same data. All deposited in U. S. 
National Museum excepting- 1 uncleared and 2 cleared paratypes, 
which are in my collection. Additional Texas records taken by A. B. 
Gurney in 1951 include : 2 mutilated females, same data as holotype ; 
Mission, Bentson State Park, Sept. 28, beating mesquite, 2 ; Mission, 
Sept. 30, beating ebony bushes on pasture land, 9 ; Weslaco, Oct. 1, 
beating dead leaves on palm trees, $ , 8 ? ; S. of Brownsville, Rabb 
Palm Grove, Oct. 3, beating dead palm leaves, $ , 2 9 ; 9 mi. N. of 
Brownsville. Olmita Resaca. Oct. 4, beating palms and palmettos $ , 
2 9. 

Rbjfesbbnoes 

Bioadhead, E. 19.")U. A revision of the genus Liposcelis Motschulsky with notes 
on the position of this genus in the order Corrodentia and on the variability 
of ten Liposcelis species. Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. Lond. 101(10): 335-388. 

Pearman, J. V. 1946. A specific characterization of Liposcelis divinatorius 
(Mueller) and mcndax sp. n. (Psocoptera). Entomologist 79: 235-244. 

, 1951. Additional species of British Psocoptera. Ent. Monthly Mag. 

87: 84-89. 

ASHMEAD'S METEORIDEA 

(HYMENOPTi:KA : Braconidae) 

R. I). Shexefelt, University of Wisconsin, Madison, and C. F. W. Muesebeick, 

United States National Mu^enm, Washington, D. C. 

In 1900 Ashmead (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 23: 128, 129) briefly 
characterized the genus Meteoridea in his key to the Microdini. The 
description as extracted from the key is as follows: 

' ' First cubital and first discoidal cells separated ; areolet wider than long, 
trapezoidal; first abscissa of the radius thrice as long as the second; marginal 
cell very ^^•ide; maxillary palpi 5-jointed; abdomen narrow, subeompressed and 
acute at apex, the first segment long, petioliform, coarsely rugulose, the sides 
parallel. 

Meteoridea Ashmead, new genus 
(Type, Meteoridea longiventris Ashmead, manuscript.)" 

Szepligeti (1904, Genera Insectorum, fasc. 22:100) repeated Ash- 
mead's description and placed the genus in the Agathidinae. Muese- 



130 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. o, .JUNE, 1957 

beck and AValkley (1951, in Muesebeck et al, U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. 
Monog. No. 2, p. 109) transferred Meteoridea to the Diospilini. Mean- 
while, Nixon (1941, Bull. Ent. Res. 32:98-101) described from Ceylon 
a monobasic diospiline genus which he named Benama (type, B. 
hutsoni Nixon). In this paper Nixon described in some detail the 
unusual modification of the female abdomen. In 1949 Granger (Mem. 
Inst. Sci. Madagascar, A 2:361-S6'4) described two additional species 
in Benama from Madagascar. 

Since, in our opinion, Benama is clearly the same as Meteoriclea, and 
since two new species have been discovered, one from the United States 
and one from Japan, it seems desirable that Meteoridea be redescribed 
and that the type species be described in more detail. The two new 
species will also be described. 

METEORIDEA Ashmead 
Meteoridea Ashmead, 1900. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 23 : 129. 

Type: M. longiveniris Ashmead, by monotypy and original designation. 
Benama Nixon, 1941. Bull. Ent. Res. 32 : 98. New synonymy. 

Type: B. hutsoni Nixon, by monotypy and original designation. 

Nixon's excellent description of the type of Benama leaves no doubt 
that this species belongs in Meteoridea, a genus he did not know since 
it had been inadeciuately described and had been incorrectly placed by 
its author in the Agathidinae. Following is a summary of what seem 
to be the signifieant distinguishing characters of Meteoridea: 

Head earinately margined behind; eyes bare; clypeus separated from face by a 
distinct groove ; maxillary jjalpi (5-segmented ; labial i)alpi 4-segniented ; an- 
tennae slender, filiform. Notauliees complete, well impressed, not meeting be- 
hind; prepectus strongly earinately margined; legs slender, ealcaria of hind 
tibia very short and inconspicuous, tarsal claws simple; anterior wing with three 
cubital cells, the second subquadrate or subtrapezoidal, the first cubital and 
first discoidal cells separated. Abdomen narrowly sessile, strongly compressed 
apically in the female ; spiracles of second and third segments situated on the 
sides, far below the acute lateral margins of the tergites; ovipositor sheath 
subexsertf'd. 

Meteorus longiventris Ashmead 
Meteoridea longiventris Ashmead, 1900. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 23 : 129 ; Szepligeti, 

1904. Genera Insectorum, fasc. 22 : 100 ; Muesebeck and Walkley, 1951. In 

Muesebeck et al., IT. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Monog. No. 2, p. 109. 

The following redescription is based on Ashmead 's type and one 
additional female specimen that was collected at light by R. A. Morse. 
April 19, 1955, in Alachua County, Florida. 

Female. — Length about 4.2 mm. Head and thorax honey-yellow; antennae yel- 
low basally, darkened apically; wings clear hyaline, stigma hyaline, veins in 
middle of anterior wing yellowish brown; legs entirely pale yellowy abdomen red- 
dish yellow, with first and second tergites more or less piceous. 

Head a little wider than thorax, smooth and polished; temple narrow, receding, 
not more than one thii'd as wide as eye; eyes very large; malar space exceedingly 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, JUNE, 1957 131 

sliort, almost absent ; elypeiis witli anterior margin sinuate and somewhat elevated ; 
antennae broken in type, nearly as long as the body and 26-segmented in the other 
specimen. 

Xotaulices sharply, deeply impressed, t'oveolate ; mesonotal lobes and disc of 
seutellum perfectly smooth and polished ; mesopleuron with a broad, rugulose 
longitudinal impression below; propodeum rugose reticulate; radius arising from 
slightly behind middle of stigma; first discoidal cell sessile or subsessile; first 
abscissa, of radius twice as long as second and subequal with first intercubitus ; 
recurrent vein entering first cubital cell; nervellus nearly perpendicular to anterior 
margin of hind wing and weakly angled or curved near middle. 

Abdomen much narrower than thorax; first tergite finely, longitudinally rugu 
lose, more than three times as long as broad at base and one and one-half times 
as broad at apex as at base, and with a large, deep fossa at base on each side; 
suturiform articulation very fine but distinct ; second and following tergites 
smooth and polished. 

Meteoridea compressiventris, new species 
(Figs. 1, 2, 3, i) 

Differs from the genotype and only other North American species 
in numerous details but especially in its piceous head, largely dark 
stigma, strongly petiolate first discoidal cell, and outwardly directed 
nervellus. 

Female. — Length 4.7 to oA mm. Head piceous; basal half of mandible tan; 
palpi yellowish tan ; antenna fuscous, \vith scape and pedicel testaceous; thorax 
largely light fuscous, propodeum a little darker than remainder ; tegulae yellow ; 
legs testaceous ; abdomen with first tergite and lateral margins of conjoined sec- 
ond and third tergites brownish, otherwise testaceous, becoming paler ventrally 
and apically ; wings hyaline, veins lirownish, stigma brown with basal third pale. 

Head about twice as wide as long, broader than thorax, smooth and shining; 
eyes large; malar space less than half as long as clypeus; face l.o times as wide 
at lower edges of antennal sockets as deep from this line to clypeal suture, a little 
swollen below antennae ; clypeus three tinu^s as wide as deep, its apical margin 
nearly straight but with a weak projection centrally; ocelli large, greatest diame- 
ter of a lateral ocellus equal to length of pedicel and nearly as long as ocell-ocular 
line; antennae nearly as long as body, with 30 .segments in type and 28 in one 
paratype; pedicel two-thirds as long as scape; first flagellar segment slightly 
longer than scape and pedicel combined ; genae, temples, basal two-thirds of man- 
dibles; apex of labrum, clypeus, vertex, and face with scattered yellowish hairs, 
which are absent on a shining depressed area above antennae. 

Pronotum coarsely crenulate in depressed area on side; mesonotum shining, with 
minute punctures which are numerous on middle lobe and scattered on lateral 
lobes; notaulices deep, complete but not meeting posteriorly, foveolate, a rugu- 
lose area between their posterior ends ; prescutuUar fovea two-thirds as long as 
disc of seutellum, divided into two parts by a median carina ; disc of seutellum 
convex, virtually smooth; propodeum largely covered with irregular reticulations 
but with two large, nearlj' semicircular, basal areas smooth and polished ; pro- 
podeal spiracles small, circular in outline; mesopleuron largely smooth, a little 
roughened next to preiH'ctal carina and metapleuron; mesopleural furrow foveolate 



13:: 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, XO. 3, JUNE, 1957 




Meteoridea compresslventris, female: Fig. 1, Dorsal aspect; fig. 2, lateral as- 
pect; fig. 3, anterior view of head; fig. 4, wings. Meteoridea japonensis, female: 
fig. 5, outline of clypeus. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, JUNE, 1957 133 

liosteiiorlv, ruguloso anteriorly; logs moderately slender; radius arising from a 
little beyond middle of stigma; first abscissa of radius 0.8 the length of second; 
second cubital cell much narrower above than below; first discoidal cell strongly 
petiolate, the petiole one-third the length of the free portion of first abscissa of 
I'ubiius; recurrent vein entering first cubital cell; hairs on submedian and second 
discoidal cells a little longer and denser than elsewhere; nervellus strongly 
directed outward, angled far below the middle; lower abscissa of basella about 
half as long as mediella. 

Abdomen long and narrow, five or more times as long as its greatest width, 
greatly compressed apically and with six exposed tergites; first tergite strongly 
arched, longitudinally rugulose punctate although with some small transverse rugae 
near ])asal impression, its spiracles small and situated very slightly before the 
liiiddle; remainder of abdomen smooth and polished, the suturiform articulation 
nearly effaced; first tergite about half as wide at apex as long; second one and 
one half times as long as wide at base, an oval ' ' lunula ' ' on the side above and 
liehind the spiracle; terminal segments retractile. 

Male. — Unknown. 

Type. — U. S. National Museum No. 63094. 

Described from three females, all taken by K. D. Sheiiefelt from 
a light trap at Gordon Nursery, Douglas Co., Wis., in 1951. The 
liolotype was collected June 30 ; one of the paratypes, collected 
June 21, is deposited in the collection of the University of Wisconsin, 
the other, taken July 4, is in the collection of R. D. Shenefelt. 

Meteoridea japonensis, new species 
(Fig. 5) 
Meteoridea sp. Haeussler, 19-lU. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull. 728:30. 

Superficially very similar to longiventris, but differs in having the 
temples broader and more convex, in the first and second abscissae of 
radius being subequal, and in the first tergite being parallel-sided 
behind the spiracles. 

Female. — Length -i mm. Head yellow; apical third of mandible piceous; an- 
tennae basally unicolorous with face, becoming fuscous beyond basal third; 
thorax concolorous with head, the propodeum sometimes slightly darker; legs yel- 
low; first tergite brownish yellow and parts of the second and third tergites 
also a little darkened, remainder of abdomen concolorous with head and thorax ; 
wings hyaline, stigma yellowish hyaline edged with brownish. 

Head smooth and i)olished, transverse, broader than thorax; eyes large; nuilar 
space almost absent ; face not or only very slightly wider than deep, moderately 
swollen below antennae; clypeus about half as deep as broad, the anterior i)or- 
tion reflexed laterally, the anterior margin somewhat sinuate but with a blunt 
projection centrally (fig. 5) ; greatest diameter of a lateral ocellus equal to length 
of pedicel but distinctly shorter than ocellocular line ; antennae 29-segmented 
in the type; first flagellar segment as long as scape and pedicel combined and a 
little longer than the second; occipital carina incomplete, narrowly interrupted at 
the middle; genae and face with scattered pale hairs that are longest on the 
lower portions; basal two thirds of mandibles, clypeus, and lower part of lalirum 
with long yellowish hairs. 



134 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, XO. 3, JUNK, 1957 

Mesonotuiu sliiiuiij>, smooth except for s^iuitll. scjittored liiiir pits; notaulices 
deep, foveolfite, well separated at posterior ends; preseutellar furrow nearly half 
as long- as scutellum and divided into two parts by a median longitudinal carina; 
scutelhim weakly convex; propodeum with strong carinae separating irregular, 
small, more or less roughened areas, a pair of strong carinae diverging slightly 
from the cent'er of base of propodeum to posterior face and then diverging 
sharply to form a border between the dorsal and posterior faces; propodeal 
spiracles small, broadly ovate ; mesopleuron shining, with scattered punctures ; 
mesopleural furrow foveolate, about half as long as mesopleuron; legs slender; 
spurs of hind tibia so small as to be barely distinguishable from the liairs; an- 
terior wing with radius emerging slightly beyond middle of stigma ; first abscissa 
of radius as long as the second and shorter than first intercubitus ; second 
cubital cell subtrapezoidal. its anterior side about two-thirds as long as posterior 
side which is subequal to first intercubitus; first discoidal coll sessile; recurrent 
vein entering first cubital cell ; nervulus postf ureal by about its length ; nervellus 
slightly curved, not distinctly angled ; lower abscissa of basella less than one-third 
as long as mediella. 

Abdomen very narrow, about eight times as long as liroad across second tergite, 
strongly compressed apically; first tergite in lateral view strongly arched on 
basal third, nearly three times as long as Itroad at apex, the sides nearly parallel 
except at base, the surface irregularly longitudinally rugulose, the spiracles at end 
of basal tliird ; second tergite twice as long as broad at apex, irregularly and very 
weakly longitudinally aciculate, separated from third by a very fine grooved line; 
remainder of abdomen smooth and polished. 

Male. — Like the female except in the secondary sexual characters and in the 
following additional respects: propodeum and first tergite not darkened; anten- 
nae 35-segmented in the allotype ; temples somewhat broader ; abdomen not com- 
pressed; second tergite about as long as broad at apex; third and following ter- 
gites combined about as long as first tergite. 

Ti/pe.—ll. S. National Museum No. 632512. 

Described from three specimens: the holotype, reared from Grapho- 
litha molesta (Bnsck), August 1, 1933, Mitsuoka, Nagano, Japan; the 
allotype, reared from Anacainpsis mctagrainma Meyr., July 22, 1937, 
Tsunashima, Kanagawa-kon, Japan, and a female paratype reared 
from G. iiiolesta August 16, 1933, Ileitaku, Keikido, Chosen. The 
paratype has the second tergite smooth and shining. 

Other Species of Meteoridea 

The other known s])et-ies of Meteoridea are the follo^ving: 
'Meteoridea Imtsoni (Nixon), new combination. 

Benama huf.soiii Nixon, ];i41. Bull. p:i)t. Rosean-h 32: 9S. 
Meteoridea infvseata (Granger), new combination. 

Benama infuscata Granger, 194!). Mem. Inst. Sci. Madagascar A2: 363. 
Meteoridea testacea (Granger), new combination. 

Benama testacea Granf^er, 1949. Mem. Inst. Rci. Madagascar A2: 362. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, JUNE, 1957 135 

DESCRIPTIONS AND RECORDS OF NORTH AMERICAN MELOIDAE. I. 

(Coleopteka) 

Richard B. Selander, Illinois Natural History Survey 

The Meloidae described in this paper are additions to the fauna of 
the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. I am indebted 
to H. B. Leech, A. T. McClay, J. W. MacSwain, F. H. Parker, 
P. Vaurie, and F. G. AVerner for supplying most of the material upon 
which the paper is based. 

Pyrota bicurvata, new species 

Pyrota virgata [error for divirgata], Scliaeffer, 1905, Mus. Brooklyn Inst. Arts 
and Sci., Sei. Bull. 1:177. Misidentification. 

Pyrota tenidcosfofis, Dillon, 1952, Amer. Midland Nat. 48:360. Misidentifica- 
tion, in part. 

YelloAV-orange, the elytra paler. First two segments of antennae and first three 
segments of maxillary palpi orange, the other segments black. Labrum largely or 
completely black. Head with one or three black spots on neck, occasionally with 
some black on gula, always with a pair of black spots on frontal area between 
eyes. Pronotum with a pair of large, black discal spots just behind middle and a 
pair of smaller spots on each side, one just anterior to discal spots and the other 
on the anterior angle of the pronotum, not quite attaining the margin ; occa- 
sionally there are one or more black spots on each of the posterior angles of the 
pronotum. Elytra each with a large, oval black scutellar spot and a moderately 
broad black discal vitta which, except where it is narrowed to avoid the scutellar 
spot, is about one-third the widtli of the elytron. Pore and middle coxae orange ; 
hind coxae varying from ])lack tipped with orange to largely orange. Femora 
and tibiae cleanly tipped with lilack. ITnder surface black with orange markings 
of variable extent; in the darkest specimens the margins of the thoracic sclerites, 
a broad marginal area of the fifth visible abdominal sternite, and the sixth visible 
sternite are orange ; in the lightest the thorax is largely orange, the first four 
\isible sternites are broadly bordered with orange, and both the fifth and sixth 
visible sternites are orange. Upper surface subglabrous ; under surface sparsely 
clothed with short, pale pu1)escence. Length: 7-17 inm. 

Head and pronotum smooth, shiny, with scattered larger punctures and fine, 
sparse micropunctures. Pronotum depressed anteriorly, one-fifth to one-fourth 
longer than broad. Elytra finely, densely punctate ; surface finely granulose, not 
at all rugulose, less shiny than head and pronotum, not swollen between costulae. 

First segment of middle and hind tarsi with pad (pale pubescence) limited to 
apex or absent. Hind tibial spurs thickened and obliquely truncate, the outer 
spur heavier; truncature of outer spur usually broadly oval but varying oeca 
sionally to a more elongate and pointed form. 

Male. — Antennae with segment II curved in the same direction as I; III 
strongly compressed and curved in the opposite direction (fig. 9). Last segment 
of maxillary palpi (fig. 1) modified but not greatly enlarged; length equal to 
about two-thirds distance' between eyes on frontal area ; beneath with sensory 
surface limited to basal half or less of segment, hardly or not at all concave. Fore 
tarsi somewhat expanded but not asymmetrically produced. Sixth visible abdominal 



136 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, JUNE, 1957 

sternite with a relatively shallow, broadly triangular einargiiiation ;i membranous 
zone large, with much shorter setae along emargination and at center than along 
anterior and lateral margins. Genitalia as in figure 5; gonostyli nearly straight; 
dorsal hook of aedeagus sharply bent at apex. 

Female. — Antennae with segments II and III at least slightly curved but III 
not compressed. Maxillary palpi and fore tarsi not modified. Sixth visible ab- 
dominal sternite obtusely emarginate. as in figure 7. 

Distribution. — Gulf Coast from Texas to eastern San Luis Potosi. 

Type Material. — Holotype male and allotype female from [Ciudad] 
Victoria, Tamaulipas, May 22, 1952, M. Cazier, W. Gertseh, and 
R. Schrammel, in the collection of the American Museum of Natural 
History. Paratypes : Nuevo Leon : 1 female, Linares, Sept. 11, 1947, 
F. Johnson donor, collectors C. and P. Vaurie ; 1 female, Monterrey, 
June 15, 1941, H. S. Dybas; 2 females, Vallecillo, June 2-5, 1951, P. D. 
Hurd. San Luis Potosi : 1 female, 11 km. E Ciudad de Valles, May 
29, 1948, tropical jungle pass, F. Werner and W. Nutting. Tamauli- 
pas : 6 males, 7 females, eutopotypical ; 1 male, Ciudad Victoria, 
Sept. 11, 1947, F. Johnson donor, collectors C. and P. Vaurie; 1 male, 
Ciudad Victoria, Aug. 19, 1941, H. S. Dybas ; 1 male, 1 female. Aba- 
solo, May 17, 1952, M. Cazier, W. Gertseh, and R. Schrammel. Texas: 
1 male, 3 females, state label only, Aug., 1904; 2 males, 11 females, 
Brownsville, May 30 and June 5, 1932, J. 0. Martin ; 1 male, Bdin- 
burg, S. Mulaik; 1 female, Edinburg, Hidalgo County, April, 1939, 
S. and D. Mulaik ; 1 female, Harlingen ; 1 female, Hearne, June 7, 
1937, K. Maehler ; 1 male. Naval Air Station, Corpus Christi, July 21, 
1942, W. M. Gordon; 1 male, 1 female, Weslaco, Sept. 15, 1931, 
S. W. Clark. Paratypes in the collections of W. R. Enns, R. B. Se- 
lander, F. G. Werner, the American Museum of Natural History, the 
California Academy of Sciences, the Illinois Natural History Survey, 
and the University of California at Berkeley. 

This species appears to be most closely related to divirgata, with 
which it has been confused. Although I have not seen the specimens 
from Brownsville, Tex., identified as divirgata by Schaeffer, his de- 
scription leaves little doubt that they represent hicurvata. Schaeffer's 
record seems to have been the basis for the inclusion of divirgata' in 
the Leng catalogue. True divirgata is not known to occur north of 
Veracruz. 

In Dillon's report on the Meloidae of Texas at least one specimen 
of hicurvata {i.e., a male from Edinburg) was recorded under the 
name tenuicostatis. A number of additional specimens studied have 
been similarly misidentified by others. The species tenuicostatis ap- 
parently occupies the entire range of hicurvata but is known to extend 
farther south. I have seen specimens of tenuicostatis from Texas, 
Tamaulipas, and Veracruz. The species has been recorded also from 
Tabasco. 



^In dealing with either sex of species of Pyrota it is usually necessary to relax 
s";) 'cimpns to determine the true form of this sternite. 



PBGC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, JUNE, 1957 137 

Pyrota hicurvata might be confused also with iroch ant erica, a far- 
western species treated below. Pending a much-needed revision of the 
genus Pyrota the following key will serve to distinguish hicurvata, 
divirgata, tenuicostatis, and trochanterica from one another. 

1. Basal two or three antennal segments pale 2 

Antennae entirely black _. 3 

2. Antennal segment III curved in both sexes, strongly compressed in male (fig. 
9); pronotum with two spots on each side before middle; male with last seg- 
ment of maxillary palpi not greatly enlarged, beneath with sensory surface 
covering basal half or less (fig. 1) ; female with sixth visible abdominal 

sternite obtusely emarginate (fig. 7) (Texas to San Luis Potosi) 

.__ hicurvata Selander 

Antennal segment III not modified ; pronotum with at most one spot on each 
side before middle ; male with last segment of maxillary palpi greatly en- 
larged, beneath with sensory surface covering all but apex (fig. 2) ; female 
with sixth visible abdominal sternite triangularly emarginate (Guerrero and 
Oaxaca to Veracruz) divirgata (Villada and Penafiel) 

3. Dark orange; elytra weakly costate; male with last segment of maxillary palpi 
extremely elongate, scaphiform (fig. 4), first three segments of fore tarsi 
strongly produced anteriorly at apex ; female with sixth visible abdominal 

sternite weakly notched at apex (Texas to Tabasco) tenuicostatis (Duges) 

Yellow-orange ; elytra not costate ; male with last segment of maxillary palpi 
pyriform (fig. 3), fore tarsi expanded but not asymmetrically produced; female 
with sixth visible alidominal sternite triangularly emarginate (fig. 8) (Baja 
California, Sonora, and Arizona) trochanterica Horn 

Pyrota trochanterica Horn 

This species has been recorded previously only from the type 
locality in Baja California. It is now known from a second locality 
in Baja California and has been found also in southern Arizona and 
Sonora, where it is represented by a distinct race. 

Yellow-orange. Head and pronotum marked with black. Antennae and maxil- 
lary palpi black. Labrum largely or entirely black or brownish. Elytra each with 
a large, oval black scutellar spot and a very broad back vitta, which, except where 
it is narrowed to avoid the scutellar spot, is at least three-fifths the width of the 
elytron. Tarsi black. Under surface black, with at most the margins of the 
thoracic sclerites and the hind margin of the abdominal sternites orange; sixth 
visible abdominal sternite of female almost always orange at tip. Upper surface 
subglabrous ; under surface sparsely clothed with short, pale pubescence. 

Head and pronotum smooth, shiny, with scattered larger punctures and fine 
micropunetures. Pronotum depressed anteriorly, one-fifth to nearly one-third 
longer than broad. Elytra rather coarsely, very densely punctate; surface finely 
granulose, distinctly rugulose, uneven, less shiny than head and pronotum, not 
swollen between costulae. 

First segment of hind tarsi with pad (pale pubescence) limited to apex. Hind 
tibial spurs thickened, obliquely truncate, the outer spur heavier; truneature of 
both spurs elongate, pointed. 

Male. — Antennae unmodified; segment III as long as or longer than IV, simi- 



138 HROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, JUNE, 1957 

Ijir to it ill whape, not at all expanded or curved. J.ast .segment of iiia.xillary palpi 
(fig. 3) modified, greatly enlarged; length nearly or fully equal to distance be- 
tween eyes on frontal area ; l)eneatli with sensory surface deeply concave, covering 
all but apex of segment. Fore tarsi somewhat expanded but not asymmetrically 
produced. Fifth visible a])dominal sternite noticeably emarginate. Sixth deeply 
and acutely emarginate ; membranous zone large, with setae of nearly uniform 
length. Genitalia as in figure 6, with a fairly wdde range of individual variation ; 
gonostyli divergent apically, strongly curved dorsad ; dorsal hook of aedeagus 
slightly hooked at apex. 

Female. — Maxillary palpi and fore tarsi not modified. Sixth visible abdominal 
sternite triangularly emarginate, as in figure 8. 

This species, like hicurvata, seems to be most closely related to 
(livirgata. Two subspecies of trochant erica may be recog-nizecl, as 
follows. 

Pyrota trochanterica trochanterica Horn 
Pyrota trochanterica Horn, 1894, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. (2)4:-l:39. 
More heavily marked with black than /. werneri. Neck, occiput, and gula black; 
vertex usually with black markings at sides, these often fusing with occipital 
marking; frontal area with a heavy spot, usually touching eyes and extending to 
lower margin of frontal area. Pronotum with a basic pattern of a pair of discal 
spots and a spot on each side anterior to the discal spots, but the pattern is 
masked to a greater or lesser extent by fusion of the spots ; black markings reach- 
ing basal margin of pronotum. Scutellar spot and vitta of each elytron narrowly 
separated or fused. Femora black. Tibiae black for apical third (occasionally 
entirely black). Abdomen, except, usually, tip of sixth visible sternite of fepiale, 
black. Length: 8-19 mm. 

Male. — Fore tarsi more strongly expanded than in t. werneri. 

Distrihution. — Cape region of Baja California. 

Records. — Baja California Siir: 10 mi. NW La Paz, Oct. 6, 1941, 
Ross and Bohart, 17; Sierra El Chinche, 2 (Horn type material). 

Type Locality. — Sierra El Chinche, Baja California Sur. The type 
locality is a small mountain range about 10 miles north of San Lucas, 
Baja California Sur, at approximately 23°N-110°W (see Michel- 
bacher and Ross, 1942, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4)24(1), pi. 3). 

The frontal black mark is reduced in 6 of the 19 specimens studied 
to the small spot or pair of spots found in some t. werneri. The pro- 
notal spots are fused on each side in all but 3 specimens and in these 
the lateral spots extend to the basal margin of the pronotum. In the 

Explanation op Figures 
Species of Pyrota as labeled. — Figs. 1 to 4, Eight maxillary palpus of males, 
dorsal view (broken line indicates extent of ventral sensory surface) ; figs. 5 and 
6, male genitalia, ventral and lateral views of gonoforeeps, and lateral view of 
aedeagus; figs. 7 and 8, sixth visible abdominal sternite of females; fig. 9, basal 
antennal segments of male, lateral and dorsal views. Localities for specimens 
figured: P. hicurvata, Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas; divirgata, Mexcala, Guerrero; 
tenuicostatis, Laredo, Tex.; trochanterica, Tucson, Ariz., (figs. 3 and 8) and 10 mi. 
NW La Paz, Baja California Sur (fig. 6). 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, .JUNE, 195^ 



139 





TROCHANTERICA 






TROCHANTERICA 





TROCHANTERICA 



140 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, JUNE, 1957 

most heavily marked specimens all but the midline of the pronotum 
is black. The scutellar spots are fused to the elytral vittae in 6 speci- 
mens. 

The original description of trochanterica was based on specimens 
from the collection of the California Academy of Sciences. Material 
returned to the Academy by Horn consists of 2 female syntypes. From 
this material I hereby designate as the lectotype of trochanterica the 
specimen labeled as follows: Sierra El Chinche, Horn type, No. 164B, 
10.744, Lectotype trochanterica^ [Van Duzee's unpublished designa- 
tion (Leech, in litt.)], Type No. 158. 

Pyrota trochanterica werneri, new siil)species 

Less heavily marked with bhu-k than /. trochanterica. Dorsal bhick marking 
of head reduced, confined largely or entirely to neck, usually divided to form 
three spots ; sides of vertex unmarked ; frontal area immaculate or with a small 
spot or pair of spots between eyes. Pronotum with a pair of discal spots behind 
middle and usually a smaller spot on each side .just anterior to discal spots; spots 
well separated, not approaching basal margin of pronotum. Scutellar spot and 
vitta of each elytron well separated. Femora and tibiae orange tipped with black. 
Hind margin of abdominal sternites occasionally orange. Length: 7-17 mm. 

Male. — Fore tarsi less strongly expanded than in t. trochanterica. 

Distribution. — Southern Arizona to Guaymas, Sonora. In all prob- 
ability the range of t. werneri is continiious through northern Sonora. 
The existence of a contact with the range of t. trochanterica^ seems im- 
probable. 

Type Material. — Holotype male and allotype female from Guaymas, 
Sonora, Aug. 5, 1940, R. P. Allen, in the collection of the California 
Academy of Sciences, Paratypes: Sonora : 1 female, Empalme, Aug. 
6, 1940, R. P. Allen ; 4 males, eutopotypical ; 1 male, 1 female, Guay- 
mas, Aug. 28, 1955, Z- B. Noon, Jr. [taken at light (Werner, in litt.)]. 

Additional Material. — Arizona : Organ Pipe Cactus National Monu- 
ment, Pima County, Aug. 6, 1955, F. G. Werner and G. D. Butler, 1; 
Thatcher, Aug. 13' and 16, 1950, E. J. Taylor, 2; Thatcher, Aug. 18, 
1951, W. Taylor, 1; Tucson, Aug. 1, 3937, F. H. Parker, 1; Tucson, 
Oct. 1, 1932, F. H. Parker, 1; Tucson, Sept., 1948, V. G. Cochran, 
1; Tucson Mountains (Desert Museum), Aug. 12, 1955, light trap, 
G. Butler and F. Werner, 7. Paratypes and other material in the 
collections of F. H. Parker, R. B. Selander, F. G. Werner, the Cali- 
fornia Academy of Sciences, the University of Arizona, and the Uni- 
versity of California at Davis. 

All specimens from Sonora are typical, as described above. Speci- 
mens from Arizona differ consistently in that the black femoral mark- 
ing is more extensive, esjoecially on the posterior surface and dorsal 
edge, covering as much as half the surface area of the segment. This 
condition presumably reflects the influence of t. trochanterica on the 
population in Arizona, but if such is the case, it is unusual that sam- 
ples of the population are, on the average, no more heavily marked 
with black on the head and body than material from Sonora, Al- 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, JUNE, 1957 



141 



thougii perhaps entitled to subspecific status separately, the popula- 
tion in Arizona is for the present assigned to t. werneri. 

Lytta arizonica, new species 

Closely related to mirifica Werner, from which it differs as follows : 

Head black, suffused with dark orange or piceous on frontal area. Pronotum 
yellow-orange, transversely oval in shape, proportionately broader (except in 1 
specimen), averaging (13 specimens) 0.1.5 (0.11-0.22) broader than long; sides 
more evenly rounded, especially from middle to apex. Apex of scutellum broader, 
pale in color. Elytra strongly, rather finely reticulate, all or nearly all cells less 
than 0.5 mm. in diameter. In arizonica the elytral reticulations are nearly as fine 
as in deserticola Horn; in mirifica they are as coarse as in reticulata Say. Imme- 
diate base of elytra sometimes washed with orange. Wings uniformly dark brown. 
Length: 13-20 mm. 

Male. — Genitalia with fused gonocoxites (basal piece) generally slightly shorter 
and more truncate. 

Tyjx' Material. — Holotype male and allotype female from Littlefield. 
Arizona, April 20, 1930, W. J. Gertsch, in the 'collection of the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History. Paratypes: 11 (male and female), 
eutopotypical. Paratypes in the collections of R. B. Selander, F. G. 
Werner, and the American Museum of Natural History. 

The type locality of arizonica is in the Valley of the Virgin River 
in the northwestern corner of Arizona; nwHfica is known only from its 
type locality at Anthony, New Mexico. Both species appear to be ex- 
tremely rare. 

(Date of publication. Vol. 59, No. 2, was May 8, 1957.) 






NEW AMMUNITION? 

Search for improved insecticides and fumigants 
gets high priority at Diamond's enlarged 
Research Center. Increasing sales of our own 
products give evidence of this interest. We 
welcome requests for cooperation on research 
and development projects. 






DIAMOND ALKALI 
COMPANY 

Cleveland 14, Ohio 




142 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, JUNE, 1957 



A Cyanamid Report 



Resistance 



Resistance to chlorinated hydrocarbon type 
insecticides has been proven or suspected in : 



cockroaclies 

mosquitoes 

Colorado potato beetle 

dog^ and cat fleas 

bed bug^s 

codling moth 

leafboppers 



house flies 
flea beetles 
cotton boll weevil 
body lice 
lygus bugs 
cotton leaf worm 
dog ticks 



Many researchers have found malathion to be 
a capable replacement for the chlorinated 
hydrocarbons and have made recommendations 
for its use. If you have a "resistance" problem 
in your area, you might well consider malathion 
for your 1957 research schedule. 



CYA.j%rj%.i%^jt jy 



Developers and producers of malathion and parathion 



Write for 

particular 

technical 

information 



AMERICAN CYANAMID COMPANY 

Agricultural Chemicals Division 

Insecticide Research 

30 Rockefeller Plaza, N. Y. 20, N. Y. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, JUNE, 1957 



145 



GREAT 
INSECTICIDES 



^^r:-> 



CHLORDANE 




Xheptachlor 



ENDRIN 



CONTROL THESE INSECTS 

CHLORDANE: Ants, Armyworms, Blister Beetles, Boxelder Bug, Brown Dog Tick, 
Cabbage Maggot, Carpet Beetles, Cattle Lice, Chiggers, Cockroaches, Crickets, 
Cutworms, Darkling Beetles, Dog Mange, Earwigs, Fleas, Flies, Grasshoppers, 
Household Spiders, Japanese Beetle Larvae, Lawn Moths, Lygus Bugs, Mole 
Crickets, Mosquitoes, Onion Maggot, Onion Thrips, Plum Curculio, Sarcoptic 
Mange, Seed Corn Maggot, Sheep Ked, Silverfish, Sod Webworms, Southern 
Corn Rootworm, Strawberry Crown Borer, Strawberry Root Weevils, Sweet 
Clover Weevil, Tarnished Plant Bug, Termites, Ticks, Wasps, White Grubs, 
Wireworms...and many others. 

HEPTACHLOR: Alfalfa Snout Beetle, Alfalfa Weevil, Ants, Argentine Ant, Army- 
worms, Asiatic Garden Beetle Larvae, Black Vine Weevil, Root Maggots, Clover 
Root Borer, Colorado Potato Beetle, Corn Rootworms, Cotton Boll Weevil, 
Cotton Fleahopper, Cotton Thrips, Crickets, Cutworms, Egyptian Alfalfa Weevil, 
European Chafer, Eye Gnats, False Wireworms, Flea Beetles, Garden Web- 
worm, Grasshoppers, Japanese Beetle, Leaf Miners, Lygus Bugs, Mormon 
Cricket, Mosquitoes, Narcissus Bulb Fly, Onion Maggot, Onion Thrips, Rapid 
Plant Bug, Rice Leaf Miner, Salt Marsh Sand Fly, Seed Corn Maggot, Spittle- 
bug, Strawberry Root Weevils, Strawberry Rootworms, Sugar Beet Root Mag- 
got, Sweet Clover Weevil, Tarnished Plant Bug, Tuber Flea Beetle, Western 
Harvester Ant, White Fringed Beetles, White Grubs (June Beetles), Wireworms 
...and many others. 

ENDRIN: Budworms, Cabbage Worms, Cotton Boll Weevil, Cotton BoUworm, Cot- 
ton Fleahopper, Fall Armyworm, Grasshoppers, Hornworms, Leafworms, Rapid 
Plant Bug, Spiny Bollworm, Sugar Beet Webworm, Tarnished Plant Bug, Thrips. 



WRITE FOR FULL PARTICULARS 






General Offices and Laboratories 

330 East Grand Avenue, Chicago 11, Illinois 

REPRfSfNfAT/VfS I 



Foreign Division 

350 Fifth Avenue, New York 1, N. Y, 



EzM^l 



PRINCIPAL 



C I J I B 5 



144 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 3, JUNE, 1957 

Pyrenone* 



HELPS TO PRESERVE 
PRINCIPLE OF NATURAL CONTROL 



Jtyrenone quickly kills destructive, annoy- 
ing and disease-carrying insects. 

In the absence of sunlight, it remains effective 
for long periods of time. In fact, a single application 
of Pyrenone protects stored grains from insect at- 
tacks for an entire storage season. 

On growing crops Pyrenone kills the accessible 
stages of insects fast — even between showers of 
rain. Yet natural factors of rain and sunlight do not 
permit Pyrenone to form long-lasting residues. Be- 
cause long-lasting residues are not present, the newly 
emerging parasites and predators are free to com- 
plete their life cycles and to continue to parasitize 
or feed upon destructive insect pests. 

This means that Pyrenone is completely com- 
patible with the natural control of crop-destroying 
insects. 



'Reg. U.S. Pat. Off., F.M.C. 



FAIRFIELD CHEMICAL DIVISION 

Food Machinery and Chemical Corporation 

441 Lexington Avenue • New York 17, N. Y. 



'^^ BRANCHES IN PRINCIPAL CITIES 




fa 



m 



In Canada: Natural Products Corporation, Toronto and Montreal 




White grubs (left) and wirewormt (right) magnified SO tinua. 

WHEN PESTS SEE 

eye -to -eye 

Creatures from the seienee-fietion world? No, just an ordinary white grub 
and a wireworm magnified twenty times. But they and their equally de- 
structive allies, such as rootworms and cutworms, ruin millions of dollars 
worth of cotton, corn, tobacco, wheat, cole crops and others — each season. 

Constant research is necessary to find the flaws in their armor ... to 
develop newer and better controls ... to hold their crop-destruction to a 
minimum. 

That's why Shell Chemical maintains a staff of researchers who, with the 
co-operation of federal, state, and local agencies, are continually searching 
and experimenting to develop new and more potent pesticides. 

Shell's contributions to agriculture include aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, Phos- 
drin* insecticides; D-D® and Nemagon* soil fumigants; and allyl alcohol 
weed seed killer. Others that are now in the laboratory stage will be avail- 
able for even more effective controls in the future. With you, we look to 
a better tomorrow for agriculture and industry through research in 
chemistry today. 

♦Shell Chemical Trademark 

SHELL CHEMICAL CORPORATION 

Agricultural Chemical Sales Division 
460 Park Avenue, New York 22, New York 





QUALITY INSECTICIDES 



Preferred by Home Owners, 
Food Processors and Dairymen 

QUICK ACTION GULFSPRAY (Liquid) 

A "space spray" for quick knockdown and kill of many 
kinds of flying and crawling insects. Contains 0.10% Pyre- 
thrins, 0.12% Piperonyl Butoxide, and 0.75% Methoxychlpr. 

GULFSPRAY AEROSOL BOMB 

Gulfs carefully researched formula provides quick knock- 
down action and high kill. Contains 0.25% Pyrethrins, 1% 
Piperonyl Butoxide, and 2% Methoxychlor. 

GULF MOTH PROOFER (Bomb) 

An easy-to-use pressurized spray for protecting woolens 
against moth and carpet beetle damage. Contains 3% DOT 
and 3% Perthane. 

GULF ANT AND ROACH BOMB 

A convenient pressurized spray containing contact and resid- 
ual insecticides for killing ants and cockroaches. Contains 
0.08% Pyrethrins and 2% Chlordane. 

SPECIAL GULFSPRAY (Liquid) 

A superlative-quality insecticide specially formulated for 
use where foodstuffs are processed, stored, served, and sold. 
Contains 0.25% Pyrethins and 0.20% Piperonyl Butoxide. 

GULF LIVESTOCK SPRAY 

Long proven formula with effective insect-killing power and 
repellent properties. Contains 0.07% Pyrethrins and 0.19% 
Piperonyl Butoxide. 

GULF OIL CORPORATION 

GULF BUILDING, PITTSBURGH 30, PA. 



^^OL. 59 



AUGUST 1957 



NO. 4 



PHDCEEDINGS 



of the 



ENTDMDLDGICAL SOCIETY 

., WASHINGTOIV 




U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 
WASfflNGTON 25, D. C. 

PUBLISHED BIMONTHLY 




CONTENTS 



BALDUF, W. V. — The Spread of Catorhintha tnendica Stal (Coreidae, 

Hemiptera) - 176 

BARB, A. RALPH. — A New Species of Cultseta (Diptera: Culicidae) from 

North America __ 163 

SERNEB, L. — ^A Mayfly Gynandromorph ,- 167 

CUNXIFFE, F. — Notes on the Anystidae with a Description of a New 

Genus and Species, Adamystis donnae, and a New Subfamily, Adamys- 

tinae (Acarina) .—._.., __ 172 

DBAELE, C. J. — ^An Undescribed Apterous Aradid from the Philippines - 169 
EMERSON, K. C. — ^New Species of Rall'icola (Philopteridae : Mallophaga) 185 
FROESCHNER, R. C. — Perillus lunatus Knight (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) 

in Montana _ 162 

HOOD, J. D. — A Note on Thilakothrips babuti Ramakrishna 194 

HUSSEY, R. E. — ^A New Gargarphia from Florida (Hemiptera: Tingidae) 175 
NELSON, G. H. — A New Species of Dendrocoris and a New Combination 

of Atizies (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) , 197 

SABROSKY, C. W. — Two Overlooked Sources of Type Designations for 

Genera 171 

TODD, E. L. — Five New Species of Gelasticoridae with Comments on 

Other Species (Hemiptera) . 145 

WALLIS, R. C. — Host Feeding of Cultseta morsitans 199 

WHEELER, G. C, and WHEELER, JEANETTE— The Larva of Simopelta 

(Hymenoptera: Formicidae) — ^ ^ 191 

WINKLER, J. R. — Notes on Bionomics and Ecology of Moss Mites 

( Acari : Oribatei) ^ 190 

BOOK NOTICE - 162 

SOCIETY MEETING _ - _ 203 

SUMMARY REPORTS: SOCIETY OFFICERS . _. _ .. 201 



■n. iNs< 



THE 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 

Obqanized Maech 12, 1884 

Eegular meetings of the Society are held in Room 43 of the U. S. National 
Museum on the first Thursday of each month from October to June, inclusive, at 
8 P.M. Minutes of meetings are published regularly in the Froceedings. 

MEMBERSHIP 

Members shall be persons over 18 years of age who have an interest in the 
science of entomology. Annual dues for members are $4.00; initiation fee is 
$1.00 (U. S. currency). 

OPFICERS FOR THE YEAR 1957 

Honorary President - E. E. SnodghASS 

President .._ - - F. L. Campbell 

First Vice President -E. I. Sailer 

Second Vice President — R. H. Nelson 

Recording Secretary _ Kellie O'Neill 

Corresponding Secretary Kelvin Doewahd 

Treasurer F. P. Harrison 

Editor - -Alice V. Renk 

Custodian H. J, Conkle 

Program Chairman J. F. G. Clarke 

Executive Committee __ A. B. GtmNBY, T. L, Bissell, R. A. St. George 

Nominated to represent the Society as Vice President of the Washington Academy 

of Sciences — C. F. W. Mtibsbbbck 

Honorary Members - C. F. W. Muesebeck, H. G. Barber 



The Corresponding Secretary, Editor, Custodian, and Treasurer should be ad- 
dressed as follows: 

Mr. Kelvin Dorward, Corr. Secy. Mr. Herbert J. Conkle, Custodian 

Plant Pest Control Branch, ARS Plant Quarantine Branch, ARS 

U. S, Department of Agriculture TJ. S. Department of Agriculture 

Washington 25, D. C. Washington 25, D. C. 

Miss Alice V. Eenk, Editor Dr. Floyd P. Harrison, Treas. 

Stored-Product Insects Section, AMS Department of Entomology 

U. S. Department of Agriculture University of Maryland 

Plant Industry Station College Park, Md. 
Beltsville, Md. 



Entered as second-clags matter at the Post Office at Washin^on, D. C. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Entomological Society of Washington 
vol. 59 august 1957 no. 4 



FIVE NEW SPECIES OF GELASTOCORIDAE WITH COMMENTS 
ON OTHER SPECIES 

(Hemiptera) 
E. L. Todd, Falls Church, Virginia 

This paper constitutes tlie results of an examination of more than 
3,000 specimens of Gelastoeoridae* that were not included in the re- 
vision of the family (Univ. Kansas Sci. Bui. V. 37 (Pt. 1, No. 11) : 
277-475, 1955). The number of specimens examined and the disposi- 
tion of those specimens are presented for each species so that future 
workers mig'ht locate desired material more easily. Eecords of distri- 
bution are presented for all the poorly known species, but for those 
species that are abundantly represented in collections, the records are 
given only when they extend the known ranges of the species. 



iChina and Miller (Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 12) 8: 267, 1955, suggest 
that the Family-Group names should be Galgulidae Billberg, 1820; Galgulinae Bill- 
berg, 1820, and Mononyehinae, Fieber, 1851. The first two names are based on 
Galgulus Latreille, 1802 (Hist. Crust. Ins. V. 3, p. 253), which is a homonym of 
Galgulus Brisson, 1760 (Ornithologia 1:30, 2:63). The Brisson genera were ac- 
cepted by Opinion 37 of the International Commission on Zoological Nomencla- 
ture and specifically excepted in the Paris action on the invalidation of binary 
works {See: Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 4: 65-66, 1950). Kirkaldy's action 
(Entomologist 30:258, 1897) in renaming the genus as Gelastocoris and changing 
the family name to Gelastocoridae was therefore correct. Thus Gelastocorinae 
Champion (Biol. Centr. Amer., Hemiptera Heteroptera V. 2, p. 437, 1901), is the 
proper name for the typical sulifaniily. Technically, Mononyehinae Fieber, 1851, 
is the correct name for the other sulifamily, but in fact, the stem based on Mono- 
nychus Schiippel {in Germar. Ins. Spec, nov., p. 241, 1824), has been used in the 
formation of Family-Group names in Coleoptera. When Family-Group names are 
homonyms of each other, the recommondation of the Copenhagen Colloqium is 
that the case be submitted to the International Commission, which body will cause 
one of the two names to be changed slightly. In this instance, however, it seems 
to me that a more satisfactory adjustment may be accomplished through the use 
of Nethrinae Kirkaldy, (Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 32: 149, 1906). I have used that 
name in my previous papers and accordingly continue its usage in this paper. 

In connection with the preoccupation of Galgulus Latreille by Galgulus Brisson, 
a question has been raised corcerning my use (Univ. Kansas Sci. Bui. 37 (Pt. 1, 
No. 11) : 288, line 18, 1955,) of Pliny as author of Galgulus [Aves]. The sentence 
is poorly worded and should be modified to read as follows: Dumeril (Mem. Acad. 
Sci. rinst. Imp. France, 1860. 31 (2): 1040) considered Galgulus flnsecta] to 
be preoccupied by GalguJu-s [Avesl. but he credited the names to Fabricius and 
Plinv rather than to Latreille and Brisson. 



146 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 

I am extremely grateful to the following individuals and institu- 
tions for the privilege of studying' specimens from their personal col- 
lections or collections in their charge. For the sake of brevity, insti- 
tutional names and private collections are referred to in the body of 
this paper by the letters, names of cities, or names of individuals 
placed in parentheses in the following list. K. I. Sailer, United States 
National Museum, (USNM) ; M. A. Cazier, American Museum of 
Natural History, (AMNH) ; W. E. China. British Museum (Natural 
History), (BMNH) ; E. S. Ross, California Academy of Sciences at 
San Francisco, (CAS); F. S. Truxal, Los Angeles County Museum, 
(LACM) ; E. Handschin, Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel, Switzer- 
land, (Basel) ; M. Beier, Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien, Austria, 
(Wien) ; H. C. Blote, Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historic, Leiden, 
Netherlands, (Leiden) ; Eva Halaszfy, Musee d 'Historic Naturelle de 
la Hongrie, Budapest, Hungary, (Budapest) ; J. C. M. Carvalho, 
Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, (NMB) ; R. L. Usinger, 
Berkeley, Calif. (Usinger Coll.) ; C. J. Drake, U.S.N.M., Washington, 
D. C, (Drake Coll.) ; J. C. Lutz, Philadelphia, Pa. (Lutz Coll.) ; G. F. 
Knowlton, Utah State Agricultural College, Logan, Utah, (Utah St.) ; 
H-. P. Chandler, Red Bluff, Calif. (Chandler Coll.), and G. Kruzeman, 
Zoologisch Museum, Amsterdam, Netherlands, (Amsterdam). My spe- 
cial thanks go to H. B. Hungerford who permitted me to examine all 
recent accessions of Gelastocoridae of the Francis Huntington Snow 
Entomological Collection, University of Kansas, (KU), and who ob- 
tained through other sources much of the other material on which 
this study is based. 

GELASTOCORINAE Champion, 1901 
Gelastocoris rotundatus Champion 
Biol. Centi-.-Amer., Rhync-hota Heteioptera, V. 2, p. .347, 1901. 

Number of specimens e.ramined.—44: (USNM 15, AMNH 11, KT^ 6, 
Usinger Coll. 8, and Drake Coll. 4). 

DistrihntionaJ data. — The eig'ht specimens in the Usinger collection 
are from San Bernardino Co., Calif. These are the only specimens 
that I have seen from that State, but there are reports in the literature 
of its occurrence there. 

Gelastocoris bufo (Heiiich-Schaffer) 
Die Wanzenartigen Inseeten V. 5, p. 88, 1839 (1840). 

Numher of specimens examined.— ^9 (USNM 30, AMNH 3, KU 1, 
Leiden 1, and Drake Coll. 4). 

Gelastocoris fuscus Martin 
Univ. of Kansas Sci. Bui. 18 (4) : 364, 1929. 

Number of specimens examined. — 24 (USNM 7, AMNH 2, KIT 1, 
Leiden 2, Usinger Coll. 1, and Drake Coll. 11). 

Distribuiional data. — Specimens from Bueno Vista, Ichilo (KU) ; 
Rurrenabaque, Rio Beni (USNM); and Huachi, Beni (USNM), are 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 147 

the first I have seen from Bolivia although the species v^^as reported 
from that country by De Carlo through the description of the syno- 
nym G. martinezi (Mision de Estud. de Patol. Region. Argentina, 

24 (83-84) :97). 

Gelastocoris vicinus Champion 
Biol. Central-Amer., Ehynchota Heteroptera, V. 2, p. 349, 1901. 

Niimher of speciynens examined. — 20 (USNM 16, AMNH 1, and 
Leiden 3). 

Gelastocoris viridis Todd 
Univ. Kansas Sci. Bui. 37 (Pt. 1, No. 11): 338, 1955. 

Numher of specimens examined. — 3 (USNM 1, AMXH 1, and Drake 
Coll. 1). 

Distrihuf tonal data. — The two specimens in the collections of the 
United States National Museum and the American Museum of Natural 
History are from La Victoria, Montozintla, Chiapas, Mexico. The 
other specimen is from Union Juarez, Chiapas, Mexico. 

Gelastocoris angulatus (Melin). 
Zool. Bidrag Fran Uppsala 12: 169, 1929. 

Number of specimens examined. — 13 (USNM 5, Basel 2, Wien 2, 
Drake Coll. 3, and BMNH 1). 

Distrihutional data. — These specimens nearly double the number of 
specimens of this species that I have examined. They are from the 
following localities. Paraguay: Paso-Yobay (Basel), Molinascue 
(Basel), and S. Bernardino (Wien). Brazil: Near Para (USNM), 
Bahia (USNM), Manaos (USNM), and Santarem (Drake Coll.). 
Bolivia: Ixiamas (USNM), Rurrenabaque, Beni (USNM). British 
Guiana: Kutari Sources (BMNH). 

Gelastocoris major Montandon 
Ann. de Mus. della E. Univ. di Napoli (n. s.) 3 (10) : 2. 1910. 

Numher of specimens e.ramined. — 30 (USNM 23, Leiden 1, and 
Drake Coll. 6). 

Distrihutional data. — Specimens previously examined were from 
Panama, Colombia, and Ecuador. The six specimens from the Drake 
Collection are from Barinitas, Venezuela. The specimen from the 
collection in Leiden is labeled "Chile." 

Gelastocoris hungerfordi Melin. 
Zool. Bidrag Fran Uppsala 12: 168, 1929. 

Numher of specimens examined.— 109 (USNM 34, AMNH 10, KU 
44, Leiden 2, Wien 1, LACM 1, and Drake Coll. 17). 

Distrihutional data. — This common species, which is widely dis- 
tributed from Mexico to Colombia, is now recorded from Barinitas, 
Venezuela (4 specimens in the Drake Collection). 



148 PROr. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 

Gelastocoris nebulosus (Giieiiii-Meneville) 
Iconograpliie du Kegne Animal de B. Cuvier, Pt. 7, p. 351, 1844. 

Numher of specimens examined.— AT Q (USNM 69, AMNH 8, KU 
332, Leiden 28, NMB 11, \Yieii 1, and Drake Coll. 27). 

Distrihuiional data. — Specimens from Kabelstation, Dutch Guiana 
(Leiden), and Paso de Arriera River, Uruguay (USNM) are the first 
specimens I have seen from those two countries. Specimens from 
Argentina (six localities in the KU, Wien, and Drake collections) 
confirm the reports in the literature of the occurrence of this species 
in that country. 

Gelastocoris peruensis Molin 
Zool. Bidrag Trail Uppsala 12: 160, 1929. 

Number of specimens examined. — 5 (USNM 1 and Drake Coll. 4). 
Distrihutional data.— AW the specimens from Peru. 

Gelastocoris amazonensis Meliii 
Zool. Bidrag Fran Uppsala 12: 158. 1929. 

Numhe7- of specimens examined — l(Wien). 

Distrihutional data. — This specimen is labeled "Rio Branco, Ilase- 
man." It is presumed that the locality refers to the Rio Branco in 
Amazonas, Brazil, but it could refer to other rivers of that name in 
other states of Brazil or even of other countries. 

Gelastocoris oculatus oculatus (Fabricius) 
Supp. Ent. Syst., p. 525, 1798. 

Number of specimens examined. — Approximately 1,000 (USNM, 
approx. 600, AMNH 127, KU 62, Leiden 13, Utah St. 5, Budapest 10. 
LACM 16, and Drake Coll. 149). 

Distrihutional data. — Specimens from the following localities ex- 
tend the known range of the typical subspecies to the north and to 
the south. Canada: Vancouver, British Columbia (USNM). Mexico: 
''L. Cal." (USNM), Truinbo. Baja California (Drake Coll.), Hermo- 
sillo, Sonora (AMNH), 6 mi. NE. Meoqui, Chihuahua (AMNH), 
"Chihuahua" (USNM and Drake Coll.), and Oaxaca (Drake Coll.). 

Gelastocoris oculatus variegatus (Gnerin-Meneville) 
Iconographie due Regne Animal de B. Cuvier, Pt. 7, p. 352, 1844. 

Number of specimens examined. — 96 (USNM 43, AMNH 7, KU 16, 
Usinger Coll. 1, and Drake Coll. 29). 

NERTHRINAE Kirkaldy, 1906 
Nerthra stygica 8ay 

Heteropt<irous Hemiptera of North America, New Harmony, Indiana, p. 37, 1832. 
Number of specimens examined. — 10 (USNM 9, and Drake Coll. 1). 
Distribvtional data. — All specimens from Florida. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 149 

Nerthra mexicana (Melin) 
Zool. Bidrag Fran Uppsala 12: 187, 1929. 

Number of specimens examined. — 2 (KU and Drake Coll.). 
Distrihntional data. — Both specimens are from Mexico. The locali- 
ties are El Salto, San Luis Potosi (KU), and "C. Valles" (Drake 

Coll.). 

Nerthra martini Todd 
Pan-Pacific Ent. 30: 113, 195-4. 

Number of specimens examined. — 13 (LACM). 

Nerthra parvula (Signoret) 
Ann. de la Soc. des Ent. de France. 33: 588, 1864. 

Number of specimens examined. — 32 (IISNM 4, KU 11, BMNH 2, 
and Drake Coll. 15). 

Distributional data. — Chile: Las Brisas, El Canelo, Toulemo, El 
Manzano, Guayaean (all KU), Valparaiso, and Valparaiso Prov. 
(USNM and Drake Coll.). The two specimens from the British Mu- 
seum and two specimens from the Drake Collection are labeled 
"Chile." 

Nerthra raptoria (Fahricius) 
Systema Eleutheratorum V. 3 (Systema Ehyngotarum ) p. Ill, 1803. 

Number of specimens examined — 12 (Leiden 3, Wien 3, and Drake 
Coll. 6). 

Distributional data. — Guatemala: Los Amates (Drake Coll). Pan- 
ama: Gatun (Leiden) and Canal Zone (Leiden). Colombia: "Colom- 
bia" (Leiden). Dutch Guiana : Kabelstation (Leiden). Brazil: 
Monte Alegre, Para (Drake Coll.) and Rio Grande do Sul (Wien). 
Country Unknown: "Rio Branco" (Wien) and "Barinas" (Drake 
Coll.). 

Nerthra ranina (Herrieh-Schaffer) 
Die Wanzenartigon Insecten V. 9, p. 896, 1853. 

Number of specimens examined. — 555 (KT^ 480, BMNH 2, Leiden 9, 
Basel 1, NMB 7. Wien 19, and Drake Coll. 37). 

Nerthra nepaeformis (Falnicius) 
Systema Entomologiae V. 2, p. 693, 1775. 

Number of specimens examined. — 7 (Leiden 4, BMNH 2. and Drake 
Coll. 1). 

Distributional data. — One of the specimens from the collection in 
Leiden is labeled "Valpariso. " If this label refers to Valpariso, Chile, 
the specimen confirms the reports in the literature of the occurrence 
of this species in that country. 

Nerthra terrestris (Kevan) 
Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (ser. 11) 14 (119): 813, 1948. 



150 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 

Number of specimens examined. — 14 (KU 1, Leiden 10. Basel 2, and 
Drake Coll. 1). 

Distrihutional data. — One of the specimens from the collection in 
Leiden is from Jarug'ui, Ecuador, and it is the only specimen I have 
seen from that country. A few other specimens, from the British 
Museum, have also been examined, but as I failed to record the num- 
ber at the time of examination, they have not been included above. 

Nerthra borealis (Melin) 
Zool. Bidrag Fran Uppsala. 12: 179, 1929. 

Numher of specimens examined. — Approximately 30 (BMNH). 

Distrihufional data. — -The specimens are labeled "Surinam, In 
coffee field" and "Surinam. Around roots of coffee." 

Nerthra tenebrosa Todd 
Univ. Kansas Sci. Bui. .37 (Pt. 1): 376, 1955. 

Numher of specimens e.ramined. — 6 (BMNH 5, and Amsterdam 1). 

Nerthra unicornis (Melin) 
Zool. Bidrag Fran Uppsala. 12: 179, 1929. 

Number of specimens examined. — 3 (Wien). 

Nerthra peruviana (Montandon) 
Ann. Mus. Nat. Hungarici. 3: 403, 1905. 

Number of specimens examined. — 7 (KU 6, and Drake Coll. 1). 

Nerthra montandoni (Melin) 
Zool. Bidrag Fran Uppsala. 12: 195, 1929. 

Number of specimens examined. — 5 (BMNH 1, and Drake Coll. 4). 

Distributional data. — The four specimens in the Drake Collection 
are from "Los Canales, Naiguata." This locality is presumed to be 
in the Federal District of Venezuela. The other specimen is from the 
mountains north of Petare, Venezuela. 

Nerthra amplicoUis (Stal) 
Ofvers. Kongl. Vetensk. Akad. Forhjindl. 11: (3): 239, 1854. 

Number of specimens examined. — 5 (KU 1, BMNH 1, Wien 1, and 
Drake Coll. 2). 

Nerthra ecuadorensis (Melin) 
Zool. Bidrag Fran Uppsala. 12: 185, 1929. 

Numher of specimens examined. — 4 (BMNH). 

Nerthra rudis (Melin) 
Zool. Bidrag Fran Uppsala. 12: 182, 1929. 

Number of specimens exanmied. — 2 (BMNH). 

Distributional data. — One specimen is from Cachabe, Ecuador. The 
other is labeled "Mexico." 



PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 151 

Nerthra fuscipes (Guerin-Meneville) 
Rev. Zo(.l. Trav. Ined. p. 114, 1843. 

Number of specimens examined. — 15 (Leiden 2, BMXH 7, Drake 
Coll. 4, and Usinger Coll. 2). 

Nerthra hungerfordi Todd 
Univ. Kansas Sei. Bui. 37 (Pt. 1): 398, 1955. 

Numher of specimens examined. — 11 (Leiden 10, and BMNH 1). 
Nerthra manni Todd 
Univ. Kansas Sci. Bui. 37 (Pt. 1): 396, 1955. 

Number of specimens examined. — 7 (AMNH). 

Nerthra praecipua n. sp. 
(Fig. 9) 
There is a unique female specimen in the Drake Collection, via the 
Reed Collection, which has been badly damaged by dermestids. The 
damage consists of loss of the legs, lobes of the ovipositor, parts of the 
venter of the thorax, part of the head, and most of the internal organs. 
Even so, the specimen is so distinct from the known species of the New 
W^orld that it is described as follows. 

Size. — -Female: Length 8.2 mm., width of pronotum 5.3 mm., width of abdomen 
6.0 mm. 

Color. — General color reddish-lirown. Because of the condition of the specimen 
cleaning was not attempted. There are some irregular spots of a lighter brown 
color on the hemelytra, but it is believed that they are the result of the derm?stid 
damage. 

Structural cltaractiristic.^. — Apex of the head excavate; superapical and lateral 
tubercles present, but very weak and irregular ; ocelli absent. Pronotum distinc- 
tive, nearly rectangular, short, about one-third width, widest at level of transverse 
furrow; anterior portion of lateral margin nearly transverse, median portion 
slightly concave ; posterior margin nearly straight, slightly sinuous before bases 
of hemelytra. Scutellum with lateral and apical elevations. Hemelytra entirely 
coriaceous, fused together, not extending to end of abdomen, covered with network 
of indistinct longitudinal and transverse carinae. Connexivum very prominent, 
strongly serrate. Abdominal sternites symmetrical, last visible sternite projecting 
posteriorly in median area about as far as the lateral lobes of that sternite. 

Distributional data. — Holotype, female, labeled ''Chile, Reed Coll." 

Location of type. — In the Drake Collection, U.S.N.i\L. Washington, 
D. C. 

Remarks. — This species will not run in my key to the species of 
Nerthra, as it does not agree with either choice of couplet 4. In the 
New World two species, N. wiUiam.'^i Todd and N. americana (Montan- 
don), resemble it superticially, but diflPer in that the last visible ab- 
dominal sternites of the females are emarginate. The projecting 
median portion of the last abdominal sternite and general appearance 
w^ould seem to indicate that this species is most closely related to the 
species of the alaticollis group found in Australia. The fused heme- 
lytra and absence of ocelli will, however, separate it from those species. 



152 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 

Nerthra grandicoUis (Gevmar). 
Sill)ermann's Revue Entoiiiologique V. •"), p. 122, 1837. 

Number of specimens examined. — 149 (KU 1, Leiden 46, BMNH 79, 
Basel 2, CAS 1, Wieii 8, and Bndapest 12). 

Nerthra indica (Atkinson). 
Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal. 57 (Pt. 2), 345, 1888. 

Number of specimens examined. — 33 (BMNH 29, Leiden 2, and 
KU2). 

Distributional data. — The specimens from the British Mnseum are 
from varions localities in Sikkim and Assam, India. The other speci- 
mens are labeled "Tonkin, E. le Moult." 

Remarks. — The specimens from Tonkin differ slightly in the shape 
of the lateral margin of the pronotum which appears more like the 
margin of the pronotum of N. lobata (Montandon), but the absence 
of lateral tumescences on the last visible abdominal sternite of the 
female and shape of the clasper of the male reveal their relation to 
iV. indica (Atkinson). 

Nerthra serrata (Montandon). 
Ann. Mus. Civique di Storia Nat. Genova 1:365, 1897. 

Remarks. — I have yet to see specimens that agree with Montandon 's 
detailed description. The type localities, "Carin Ghecii" and "Carin 
Cheba, " are now known to be in that section of Burma between the 
Salwin and Sittang rivers, east and northeast of Toungoo. 

Nerthra unguistyla n. sp. 

(Fig. 5) 

Size. — Male: Length 9.5 mm., width of pronotum 6.8, width of abdomen 7.0 
mm. Female: Length 10.5 mm, width of pronotum 7.5 mm., width of abdomen 
8.2 mm. 

Color. — Yellowish-brown above, basal halves of abdominal segments of con- 
nexivum darker. Abdominal sternites dark brown medially and at the basal one- 
half laterally. Mesosternal and metasternal processes of thorax dark, nearly 
black. Legs yellowish-brown, femora faintly ringed with darker brown. 

Structural eJiaracteristics. — Apex of head with a weak tubercle, not visible from 
above; frons with a pair of superapical tubercles and a median elevation, none 
strongly developed ; ocelli present. Pronotum widest at level of transverse furrow, 
not so wide as abdomen ; disc very strongly elevated, provided with clumps of 
black clavate bristles. Lateral margins of pronotum with anterior portions con- 
verging toward the eyes; median portions straight, parallel; posterior portions 
only about one-half as long as median and anterior portions, converging obliquely 
toward bases of the hemelytra. Posterior margin of pronotum sinuous, concave 
before scutellum, crossed by five longitudinal carinae in the male and by seven 
in the female. Scutellum large with small rounded depressions medially and with a 
strong apical and slight latero-basal elevations, the latter densely covered with 
black clavate bristles. Hemelytra coriaceous, without membranes ; reaching end of 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 



153 




Figs. 1 to 3, Lateral margin of prouotuni and einboliuni of left side ; fig. 3A, 
lateral niargiu of pronotum of riglit side ; figs. 4 to 8, ventral view of clasper of 
male; fig. 9, dorsal view of female. Fig. 1, Nerthra nieuwenhuisi n. sp. from 
Borneo; fig. 2, X. lobata (Montandon) ; figs. 3 and 3A, N. e.rimia n. sp. from 
Sumatra; fig. 4, X. annulipes (Horvath) ; fig. 5, X. unguistyla n. sp. from India; 
fig. 6, X. staJi (Montandon); fig. 7, A", hamata n. sp. from New Guinea; fig. 8, 
X. sinnosa Todd; fig. 9, X. praecipita n. sp. from Chile. 



154 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 

abdomen in the male, l)ut not in the female; basal expansion of embolium broadly 
triangular. Connexivmn prominent in both sexes, but more so in the female. 
Terminal abdominal sternites of male asymmetrical, rather large ; ninth sternite 
ovate, nearly twice as wide as long; eighth sternite longer than ninth sternite, 
nearly twice the length of the seventh sternite. Abdominal sternites of female 
nearly symmetrical ; posterior margin of last visible sternite broadly and shallowly 
emarginate. Lobes of ovipositor produced posteriorly as in lobata but shorter 
and more rounded apically than in that species. Clasper of male nearly straight, 
tapering apically and terminating in a slightly curved, claw-like process at apex. 

DistrihufioHal data. — Ilolotype, male, Mayavaram, South India, 
October 8, 1945, P. S. Nathan, and allotype, female, Coimbatore, South 
India, December 18, 1945, P. S. Nathan. 

Location of type. — Ilolotype and allotype in the J. C. Lutz Collec- 
tion at Philadelphia, Pa. 

EemarJis. — Because this species lacks membranes of the hemelytra, 
it will run to couplet 11 in my key to the species of Nerthra, but it 
does not agree with either choice of that couplet. The species clearly 
belonps to the grandicollis group of species, but the absence of mem- 
branes of the hemelytra, distinctive clasper of the male, and the shape 
of the pronotum will separate this species from any of those species 
that I have assigned to that group. 

Nerthra lobata (Montandon). 
(Fig. 2) 
Bui. Soc. des Sci. de Bucarest-Roumanie 8(4/5) : 397, 1899. 

Nuinher of specimens examined. — 21 (Leiden 19, and BMNH 2) 
Distributional data. — Previously known from Sumatra and Java, 
the specimens in the collection of the British Museum extend the 
known range of this species to the mainland of Asia. These specimens 
are from Sungai Taban and Kuala Tekis, both located in Pahang, 
Federated Malay States. 

Nerthra asiatica (Horvath). 
Termesz. Fuzetek 15(3) :136, 1892. 

Nuniher of specimens examined. — 1 (Stockholm). 

Remarks. — ^^This specimen, a female, is from the same locality (Mou- 
Pin, Thibet, 1869-70, A. David) as the specimen previously examined 
by me. It is slightly larger, length 12.2 mm., width of pronotum 
8.1 mm., and width of abdomen 8.5 mm. 

Nerthra nieuwenhuisi n. sp. 

(Fig. 1) 

Size. — Female: Length 12.5 mm., width of pronotum 8.5, width of abdomen 
8.3 mm. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 155 

Color. — Orange-brown above except bristles and scutellum which are black, 
membranes of hemelytra darker than rest of hemelytra. Abdominal sternites 
orangislibrown laterally, brown medially. Legs with tibiae and tarsi brown, 
trochanters and femora yellowish-brown, except apices of femora which are black. 

Structural characteristics. — Apex of head rounded, without an apical tubercle; 
a pair of moderate superapical tubercles present ; median tumescence of f rons 
scarcely developed ; ocelli present. Pronotum slightly wider than abdomen, widest 
at level of transverse furrow ; disc strongly elevated, posterior portion with seven 
weak to moderate longitudinal carinae ; lateral margin of pronotum distinctive, 
median and posterior portions nearly straight, converging medially from lateral 
angle, anterior portion with a dentation at middle ; posterior margin of pronotum 
sinuous, concave before scutellum. Scutellum large, strongly elevated, tumescent 
laterally and at apex. Hemelytra reaching end of abdomen, but not covering lobes 
of ovipositor; membrane well-developed; lateral margin of embolium straight 
at basal one-fourth then expanded to middle, apical one-half of lateral margin 
nearly straight. Connexivum prominent, broadly expanded, six segments of ab- 
domen visible. Intermediate and hind legs long and slender, the combined length 
of femur, tibia, and tarsus of hind leg exceeding body length. Abdominal sternites 
nearly symmetrical ; posterior margin of last visible sternite broadly emarginate, 
caudo-lateral angle of left size of sternite slightly decumbent, lateral tumescences 
absent. Clumps of short, clavate bristles present on hemelytra and elevations of 
scutellum. 

Distrihniional daia. — Holotype. female, Boveii (upper) Mahakkam 
River, Borneo, 1894, Borneo Exped. Dr. Nieiiwenliuis. 

Location of iype. — In the Rijksmusenra van Xatuurlijke liistorie, 
Leiden, Netherlands. 

Remarks. — This species will not run in my key to the species of the 
g-enus Nerthra as it does not agree with either choice of couplet 17. 
The dilation of the lateral margin of embolium and the posteriorly 
projecting ovipositor lobes of this large species reveal that it belongs 
to the grandicoJUs group of species. It is slightly larger than N. 
asiatica (Horvath), from which it may be easily separated by the 
dilated margin of the embolium, distinctive lateral margin of the 
pronotum, and proportionally longer hind legs. The size, shape of the 
lateral dilation of the embolium, and the shape of the lateral margin 
of the pronotum will separate this species from the other species of 
the grandicoUis group. 

Nerthra eximia n. sp. 
(Fig. 3 and 3A.) 

Size. — Female: Length 11.2 mm., width of pronotum 8.0 mm., width of abdomen 
7.9 mm. 

Color. — YelloAvish-brown above except scutellum, basal one-third of each segment 
of the connexivum, and clumps of bristles, which are dark brown. Abdominal 
sternites mostly dark brown, but with a contrasting marginal area of orangish- 
brown. Head, pronotum, and basal segments of legs (trochanters and femora) 



156 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 

yellowish-brown. Tibiae and tarsi of middle and hind legs and tibio-tarsi of front 
legs dark brown. 

Structural characteristics. — Apex of head with a small tubercle, not visible from 
above; a pair of moderately large tooth-like superapieal tubercles present; medial 
elevation of frons smaller than superapieal tubercles; ocelli present. Pronotum 
widest at level of transverse furrow, only very slightly wider than abdomen; disc 
strongly elevated, posterior portion crossed by seven weak to moderate longitudinal 
carinae; lateral margin of pronotum irregularly dentate, the dentations rounded; 
posterior margin of pronotum sinuous, concave before scutellum. Scutellum large, 
strongly elevated, tumescent laterally and apically. Hemelytra reaching end of 
abdomen, but not covering lobes of ovipositor; membrane well-developed; lateral 
margin of embolium straight at basal one-fourth then roundly expanded about to 
middle, apical one-half very slightly convex. Connexivum prominent. Clumps of 
clavate bristles on hemelytra and elevations of the scutellum. Abdominal sternites 
nearly symmetrical; posterior margin of last visible sternite broadly, triangularly 
emarginate, slightly decumbent on tlie left side of sternite at the caudo-lateral 
angle. 

Distvihutioiial data. — Ilolotype, female, "Tanaii«italoo, Ophir-Siim., 
1915, A. de Koek. " This locality is presumably near Mt. Ophir, 
Sumatra. 

Location of type. — In the Rijksmuseum van Xatuurlijke llistorie, 
Leiden, Netherlands. 

Bonarlifi. — This species, like N. 7iieuwenhusi n. sp., runs to couplet 
17 in my key to the species of Nerthra, but does not ao-ree with either 
choice of that couplet. It is very closely related to the preceding- 
species and may subsequently prove to be but a form of that species, 
but for the present T prefer to describe it as a separate species. 
This species agrees with N. nieuwenhuisi n. sp. and differs from 
A^. lohafa (Montandon), the only species previously reported from 
Sumatra, by the absence of lateral tumescences of the last visible 
abdominal sternite, by the strouo-ly elevated scutellum. and by the 
greatest width of the pronotum being at the level of the transverse 
furrow. It differs from N. nieuwenhuisi n. sp. by its smaller size, 
differently shaped lateral margins of the pronotum. and differently 
shaped lateral margin of the embolium. It should be pointed-out, 
however, that the two sides of the pronotum of this sjiecimen are not 
alike, and therefore differences of the shapes of the lateral margins 
of the pronota of the two species may not be significant in this in- 
stance. The facts that these are insular species and from different 
islands was another factor in my decision to treat this specimen as a 
separate species. 

Nerthra nigosa (Desjardins) 
Ann. Soc. Ent. de France 6:239, 1837. 

Number of specimens examined. — 1 (BMNH). 

T>istrihntiona] data. — The specimen is labeled "N. G., Hat. Ver., N. 
Holl." 1 have been unable to determine the meaning of the label, but 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGtlST, 1957 157 

I presume that the ''N. Holl." portion probably refers to Australia. 

Nerthra macrothorax (Montiouzier) 
Ann. des Sciences Phys. et Nat. d'Agr. et d'Indus. [Lyon], 2:110, 1855. 

Nnrnbcr of specimens examined. — 14 (CAS 2, Leiden 9, BMNH 2, 
and Wien 1). 

Disirihuiional data. — Specimens from the following' localities have 
been examined. New Guinea : Maffin Bay, Dutch New Guinea (CAS) ; 
Liki I., near Maffin Bay, Dutch New Guinea (CAS), and "N. 0. 
Kuste" (Wien). Celebes: Gorontalo (Leiden). Philippine Islands: 
"Philippines" (BMNH). Solomon Islands: Rendova (BMNH). 
Maratua (or Maratoea) Island: "Maratoea" (Leiden). Tonga 
Islands: "Tonga Ins." (Leiden). Postilion (or Postiljon) Islands: 
Sapoeka besar Postiljon Eil. (Leiden). Comoro Islands: "Mayotte" 
(Leiden). The record from the latter locality, while remote from the 
others, is not surprising when the distribution of the closely related 
A. rugosa (Des.jardins) is considered. 

Remarks. — A number of articles relating to the distribution of this 
species were missed in my previous treatment (LTniv. Kansas Sci. Bui. 
37 (Pt. 1):414, 1955. The articles are as follows: Esaki, insects of 
Samoa, pt. II, Hemiptera, fasc. 2, p. 75, 1928; Esaki, Mushi 9:43, 
1936; Sonan, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 24(No. 130.) :21, 1934; 
Ohshima, Japanese Zool. and Bot. 1:410, 1933; Miyamoto, Nymph 
(Rep. Biol. Club 2nd Branch Kjaishu University) 2:35, 1953; Miya- 
moto, Shin Konchu 7(1/2) :28, 29, 1954. Localities recorded in the 
above papers are as follows : Samoa Islands : Leone Road, Tutuila. 
Ke (Kei or Key) Islands: Ke Dulan. Caroline Islands: Truk. 
Kasho to Island. Koto Sho Island. Ryukyu Islands : Yaeyama 
Group ; Kikai Jima Island, Amami Group ; Takajimi Island, Tokara 
Group. Japan : Satano Misaki, Osumi, Kyushu. 

Nerthra mixta (Montandon) 
Bui. Soc. des Sciences de Biuaiest-Roumanie 8(4/5) :406, 1899. 

yuynher of specimens examined. — 26 (Fsing-er Coll. 1, Leiden 7, 
BMNH 6, and Amsterdam 12). 

Distributional data. — All the specimens are from localities in New 
Guinea. Dutch New Guinea: Hollandia (Usinger Coll. and BMNH) ; 
Sabron. Cyclops Mts. 930' (BMNH); Humbolt Bay (BMNH). and 
"N. New Guinea" (Leiden). North-East New Guinea: Mt. Nomo. 
S. of Mt. Bouiiainville (BMNH). Territory of Papita : Ishurava 
3000' (BMNH). The specimens from the Zoologisch Museum in 
Amsterdam are labeled "Timmena" and "Tamarus. " I have been 
unable to find these localities in the sources available to me. 

Nerthra omani Todd 
Univ. Kansas Sci. Bui 37(Pt. 1 ) :422, 1955. 

Number of specimens examined. — 9 (Leiden 2, Wien 1, and BMNH 
6). 

Distrihutional data. — This species was previously known only from 



158 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 

Guadalcanal Island in the Solomons. Specimens examined are from 
the following localities. Solomon Islands: Bougainville l^Wien) ; 
Guadalcanal 5000' (BMXII), and "British Solomons" (BMNH). 
New Guinea: "N. Guinea" (Leiden) and "N. New Guinea" (Lei- 
den). 

Nerthra macrostyla Todd 
Univ. Kansas Sci. Bui. 37(Pt. 1) 428, 1955. 

Number of specimens examined. — 1 (BMNH). 

Distrihutionol data. — The specimen is labeled as follow^s: "Jack 
Harbour, Lady Leever Est., Kolombangara, Solomon Islands, April 11, 
1934, H. T. Pagden." 

Remarks. — This male is larger than the holotype. The measurements 
are : Length 12.0 mm, width of pronotum 8.0 mm., and width of 
abdomen 8.0 mm. 

Nerthra robusta Todd 
Univ. Kansas Sci. Bui. 37 (Pt. 1):429, 1955. 

Number of specimens examined. — 1 (Chandler Coll.). 

Distributional data. — This specimen is from the type locality, 
Nadzab, Markham River Valley, New Guinea. 

Nerthra hamata ii. sp. 
(Fig. 7) 

Si^e. — Male: Length 111. 7 nini., width of pronotum 8.7 mm., width of abdomen 
8.9 mm. 

Color. — Uniformly dark reddish-brown both above and l)elow. 

Structural charade ri.stic.s. — Head with five large, pointed tubercles, four on 
anterior margin and one at apex, the latter ventrad and slightly caudad of the 
other tubercles; ocelli present, on rounded elevations. Pronotum moderately ex- 
panded, widest at the level of the transverse furrow, but only very slightly wider 
than at the anterolateral angle, not so wide as abdomen ; anterior and posterior 
portions of lateral margin converging toward the eye and base of emliolium 
respectively; median portion of lateral margin nearly straight, slightly convergent 
anteriorly, the two sides subparallel; disc strongly elevated and rugose; posterior 
third of pronotum crossed by three strong and two weak longitudinal carinae; 
posterior margin of pronotum concave before scutellum. Scutelluin strongly 
elevated laterally, slightly elevated apically. Hemelytra reaching end of abdomen ; 
membrane well-developed; embolium nairow at base, lateral margin slightly con- 
cave basally, broadly convex for apical three-fourths. Connexivum not visible 
from above. Body covered with short, black, elavate setae, some of which are 
in clumps on elevations of the scutellum and pronotum, near the anterolateral 
angle of pronotum, on the hemelytra at medial angle of embolial suture and 
another between that and the claval suture. Abdominal sternites asymmetrical, 
ninth sternite wider than long, moderately large, slightly shorter than eighth 
steruite, twice as long as seventh sternite, the latter only slightly wider than the 
iiintli sternite, posterior margin of sixth sternite less than one-half width of pos- 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 159 

teiior margin of fourth sternite. Clasper distinctive, very similar to that of N. 
robusta Todd except for the large median thornlike projection of the swollen apical 
portion of the clasper. 

Distributional data. — Ilolotype, male, Milne Bay, New Guinea, 
December, 1948. (). H. Graham. 

Location of ti/pr. — In the collections of the United States National 
Museum, \Vashinj>ton, D. C. 

Remarks. — This species will key to .Y. rohusta Todd, but may easily 
be separated by the presence of the thorn-like projection of the median 
margin of the clasper. 

Nerthra grandis (Montandon) 
Bui. Soc. des Sei. de Bucharest-Koumanie 8(6) :6, 1900. 

Nuniher of specimens examined. — 2 (Wien). 

Distrihntional data. — The specimens are labeled "Plason, Aus- 
tralien. ' ' I have not been able to find this locality in the sources avail- 
able to me. 

Remarks. — These specimens appear to have a vestige of a membrane 
and therefore agree Avith the statement in the original description that 
the membrane is reduced. The two specimens I had previously exam- 
ined appeared to have the hemelytra entirely coriaceous. 

Nerthra femoralis (Montandon) 
Bui. Soc. des Sci. de Bucarest-Roumanie 8(4/5 ): 407, 1899. 

Number of specimens examined. — 12 (BMNH). 

Distributionat data. — The specimens are all from Western Australia. 
The localities are: Yanchep, 32 mi. N. of Perth; Mundaring Weir; 
and Banbury. 

Nerthra luteovaria (Distant) 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (ser. 7) 14:63, 1904. 

X umber of specimens examined. — 1 (BMNH). 

Distributional data. — The specimen is from Redlynch, N. Queens- 
land, Australia. 

Nerthra sinuosa Todd 
(Fig. 8) 

Univ. Kansas Sci. Bui. 37(Pt. 1):440, 1955. 

Number of specimens examined. — 1 (Stockholm). 

Distributional data. — This specimen, a male, is from Tolga, Queens- 
land, Australia. 

Remarks. — I am tentatively identifying this specimen as N. sinuosa 
Todd, to which it will run in my key to the species of Nerthra. It 
agrees with the females previously described in the nature of the 
tubercles of the head, the reduction of the membranes of the hemelytra, 
and the shape of the lateral margin of the embolium, which is straight 



160 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 

or slijihtly concave basally, the width of the embolium reduced basally. 
The median portion of the lateral margin of the pronotum is not so 
strong'ly concave as in the females. The measurements of the specimen 
are as follows : Length 7.6 mm. ; width of pronotum 5.0 mm., width of 
abdomen 5.2 mm. The abdominal sternites are asymmetrical, the 
ninth sternite rather large, wider than long, but nearly as long as the 
seventh and eighth sternites combined, width distinctly greater than 
one-half the width of the posterior margin of the right side of the 
fourth sternite. The clasper is simjile, sickle-shaped, the apex some- 
what produced, curving mesad. 

Nerthra annulipes (Hoivath). 
(Fig. 4) 
Termesz. Fuzetek 25:611, 1902. 

Numher of specimens exami)ied. — 2 (Budapest and Drake Coll.). 

Dist rib uti anal data. — The specimen from the Musee d'Historie 
Naturelle de la Ilongrie, Budapest, Hungary, is the type. It is a 
female from Clarence River, New South Wales, Australia. The other 
specimen, a male, is from Stanthorpe. Queensland, a locality near the 
headwaters of the Clarence River. 

Remarks. — Through the cooperation of Doctor Eva Halaszfy, I have 
been permitted to examine the type of this species. Unfortunately, 
the head and pronotum are missing, but the size and the characters of 
those parts remaining, especially the embolia, the greatly reduced 
membranes of the hemelytra, and the dark annulations of the inter- 
mediate and hind legs are sui¥icient to identify the species. The male 
from Stanthorpe, Queensland, which I now place as this species, agrees 
with the type in the characters mentioned above. It is smaller than 
the type, the measurements being as follows. Length 6.9 mm., width 
of pronotum 4.7 mm., width of abdomen 4.7 mm. The abdominal 
sternites are asymmetrical, the ninth sternite oval, wider than long, 
slightly longer than eighth sternite, not so long as length of seventh 
and eighth combined, width about equal to one-half the width of the 
posterior margin of the right side of the fourth sternite. The clasper 
is simple, apex not produced as in N. .nniiosa Todd. This species w'ill 
key to N. .nnuo.w Todd, but may be separated by the embolium which 
is broader basally, the lateral margin being convex. And if T have 
correctly identified the males of the two species also by the wider 
pronotum (as wide as abdomen), simjile clasper of male (apex not 
produced mesad) and by the smaller ninth sternite of the male. 

Nerthra niidata Tmld 
Univ. Kansas Rei. Bui. 37 (Pt. 1) 42.1, W",. 

Numher of specimens examiued. — 6 (Drake Coll.) 

Distrihnfional data. — The specimens are from Brisbane, North Pine 
River, and Ashgrove, all of which are in Queensland, Australia. 

Bnnarl's.- — The figure number under this name in the oriuinal 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 19.57 161 

description has been reversed with that nnder A^. omani Todd (loc. 
eit., p. 422) ; however, the correct names are assigned to the figure 
numbers on the "Explanation of Plate XI." The elaspers of the 
specimens now before me (two of the specimens are males) do not 
agree with my statement in the original description to the effect that 
a portion of the aedeagal furrow is visible (ventral view) near the 
apex of the clasper. These specimens do not show any indication of 
the aedeagal furrow in that area ; however, there is a difference in the 
pigmentation and sclerotization which nnder low magnification resem- 
bles a furrow. Since I do not now have any of the males of the type 
series available for restudy, 1 cannot state whether the apparent 
difference is real or whether I was originally in error. This species 
is obviously related to N. annuUpes (Horvath) and N. sinuosa Todd, 
but it may be readily distinguished from those species by its larger 
size, the almost complete absence of tubercles of the front of the head, 
and by the well-developed membranes of the hemelytra. 

Nerthra tixberculata (Montandon). 
Bui. Soc. des Sci. de Biu-arest-Roumanie 8(4/5) :403, 1S99. 
NuDiher of specimens examined. — 9 (BMNIT). 
Distnln(tio)toJ data. — From Flinders Bay, AVestern Australia. 

Nerthra alaticollis (Stal). 
Ofversi. Kongl. Yetensk.-Ak;id. Forhandl. Arg. 11: 239, 19.")4. 

Number of specimeus examined. — 13 (BMNH, 4, Leiden 1, and 
Drake Coll. 8). 

Distrihntional data. — The specimens in the Drake Collection are 
from Mt. Mee, Brisbane. Stanthorpe, and Caloundra, all in Queens- 
land, Australia. The other specimens are just labeled "Australia." 

Remarks. — Some of the specimens have the postero-lateral angle of 
the pronotum less rounded than others and in this respect resemble 
N. siali (Montandon), but the presence of posterior projections at the 
caudo-lateral angle of the last visible abdominal sternite of the female 
and the acuminate clasper of the male will permit its separation from 
the latter species. 

Nerthra stall (Montandon'). 
(Fig. 6) 

Bui. See. des Sci. de Bucarest-Roumanie 8(6) :5, 1900. 

Numher of specimens examined. — 2 (BMNH). 

Disfrihntional data. — The specimens are from Yanchep, 32 miles 
north of Perth, Western Australia, and "N. H. Swan River." 

Remarks. — The specimens, both males, resemble the females but 
are more elongate. The measurements are as follows : Length 8.4 mm, 
width of pronotum 6.2 mm., wid+h of abdomen 6.5 mm. The abdominal 
sternites are asymmetrical. The terminal steriiites are small, the ninth 
sternite snbeqnal to the eighth sternite in length, longer than the 



162 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 195V 

.seventh sternite. The clasper, stout basally, recurved, and bluntly 
knobbed apieally. 

Nerthra adspersa (Stal). 

Berliner Ent. Ztschr. 7:407, 1863. 

Numher of specimens examined. — 2 (BMNH). 

Distrihufional data. — From Quindilup and Yanehep, 32 miles north 
of Perth, in AVestern Australia. 

Remarks. — These specimens differ considerably in color from the 
specimen previously studied. One is mostly white with small black 
maculations, disc of pronotum yellowish-browai ; below much darker. 
The other specimen is more yellowish and with larger maculations. 
This species will probably prove to be as variable in color as N. alati- 
collis (Stal). The specimens, both females, are also slig-htly larger 
than the one previously studied. The measurements are as follows : 
Length, 6.3 nnn, widtli of pronotum, 5.4 mm, width of abdomen, 
5.2 mm. 

PERILLUS LUNATUS KNIGHT (HEMIPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE) IN 

MONTANA 

Richard C. Froesohner, Montana State College 

The discovery of three Montana specimens of Perillus liDiatiis while 
organizing the insect collection at Montana State College marks a sig- 
nificant northward extension of range for this species. Although P. 
lunatiis was first named from Colorado by Knight in 1952 (Ann. Ent. 
Soc. Amer. 45:230-231). it was first described by Van Duzee in 1904 
(Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 30:65-66) as "var. b" of PeriJIus craptus 
(Say). Van Duzee there reported this "gaudily marked" form from 
Colorado and Wyoming. These localities, coupled with the western 
Montana records listed below and Knight's note "near 7,000 ft.," in- 
dicate that this is a mountain form of the northwestern states. 

Montana records: Bridger Mts., Gallatin County, July 10, 1926, 
G. M. Kohls; Bridger Mts., Sacajawea Peak, 7,200 feet, Gallatin 
Countv, July 2, 1954, C. V. Davis; Lakeview, Beaverhead County, 
May 13, 1931. 

BOOK NOTICE 

Bohart, R. M., and R. C. Beehtel. The Social Wasps of California. Bull. Calif. 
Insect Survey 4(3): 73-102, 1957. Univ. Calif. Press, Berkeley, 75c. 
This latest contribution to our knowledge of the California insect fauna 
treats the 17 species and subspecies of social wasps (Vespinae and Polistinae) 
known from that state. As is customary in this useful series, there are keys 
to the genera and species, numerous figures and maps, and an abundance of 
distributional records. — Karl V. Krombein, Entomology Research Division, U. S. 
Department of Agriculture. 



PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 163 

A NEW SPECIES OF CULISETA (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) FROM 
NORTH AMERICAi 

A. Ealph Barb 
Department of Entomology, University of Kansas 

111 identifying mosquitoes in Minnesota the author became aware 
that Culiscta Corsiians (Theobald) was being taken abundantlj- in 
light traps in the early spring. Since only overwintered mosquitoes 
were being taken at this time the appearance of morsitans seemed 
odd ; this species is reported to overwinter in the larval and not in 
the adult stage. AVheii these female mosquitoes were compared with 
specimens of morsitans, it was apparent that the females were of a 
different species. The author's wife Sylvia first separated the males 
of tlie two species. A description of the female follows : 

Culiseta minnesotae new species 

Adult feninle. Head. — Auteiiiui with about 15 segments including torus and 
ringlike proximal segment; somewhat longer than proboscis; torus light reddish 
brown with small dorso-medial patch of elongate, dark scales; flagellum dark with 
light pubescence and a whorl of a half dozen or so dark bristles at base of each 
segment; basal segment of flagellum with the whorl at middle and with an extra 
group of bristles proximally. Palps about a quarter the length of the proboscis, 
clotlied with darkish brown scales, appearing somewhat paler at the tip. Proboscis 
about as long as tibia of fore leg, with dark scaling (about the color of that of 
the palps) but with a sprinkling of pale ones medially and particularly ventrally 
so that the proboscis is definitely lighter in the middle but lacks a distinct pale 
band. Vertex with dark, erect scales and narrow, silvery, appressed ones, the 
latter becoming more abundant on the sides of the head ; there is a group of dark 
bristles bordering the eyes from one side of the head to the other, the bristles being 
more numerous dorsally betw'een the eyes. 

Thorax. — Mesonotum. Integument dark brown with a pair of lighter, reddish- 
brown stripes in the middle, the two stripes rather narrowly separated by a darker 
brown stripe. Vestiture of tiny, narrow, recumbent, coppery brown scales, and 
with lines of dark bristles anteriorly, laterally, and medially, which become much 
larger posteriorly. Somewhat posterior of the middle of the mesonotum and lying 
lateral of the two mesonotal lines are a pair of patches of silvery scales; posterior 
of each of these is a line of silvery scales extending to the antescutellar space. 
There are additional silvery scales in a patch between these two lines and on the 
sides of the posterior third of the mesonotum. Scutellum with many large, dark 
bristles, and a few narrow, pale scales. Anterior pronotal lobe with dark bristles 
and a few long, narrow, pale scales. Posterior pronotum with small, narrow, 
recumbent, dark scales, a few pale ones on the ventral margin and a row of dark 
bristles posteriorly. Propleuron with many bristles and clothed with pale scales. 
The sclerite ventral of the post-pronotum is bare except for a patch of pale 



^Contribution No. 931 from the Department of Entomology, University of 
Kansas. 



164 PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 

scales posteriorly. Spirjicuhtr bristles present. Dorsal part of sternopleuron well 
bristled dorsally (pre-alars ) and with a patch of bristles (upper sternopleurals) 
and pale scales ventrally. Ventral portion of sternopleuron with a patch of nar- 
row, elongate, pale scales and a line of bristles (lower sternopleurals) posteriorly. 
Mesepimeron witli a patch of pale scales medially and a patch of bristles in its 
upper part (upper aiesepimerals), as well as a line of about three larger l)ristles 
(lower mesepimerals) anteriorly in the lower portion. 

Wing. — Wing scales brownish for the most part; a few lighter ones on the basal 
half of the costa. The apical half or third of the costa has a fringe of distinctly 
pale or yellowLsh scales. There is a slight concentration of scales at the base of 
the third longitudinal vein (Ri + r,). Halteres brownish; knobs somewhat darker 
than the stems and densely clothed with pale scales. 

L((/.s. — Coxa of fore leg well bristled and scaled, the scales being dark Init 
becoming pale dorso posteriorly. Coxae of mid and hind legs also with bristles 
and pale scales. Femora dark scaled above (or anteriorly) and pale scaled below 
(or posteriorly), with definite white knee spots; dark portions with a light siirin- 
kliiig of pa'e scales. Tibiae with dark and pale scales, more in lines than being 
intermingled ; in general with pale scales posteriorly and dark ones anteriorly but 
with a line of pale scales down tlie middle of the dark anterior portion. Tarsi in 
general dark scaled but with lines of i)ale ones particularly on the posterior surface 
of the basitarsi, and with lings of pale scales l)asally on the segments as well as 
at the tips of the immediately preceding segments. These rings occur principally 
between the first and second, and the second and third segments of the tarsi, but 
one or two smaller ones may also l)e evident on the hind tarsi. 

Abdomen. — Medial portions of the tergites with brown scales, liasal and apical 
margins largely pale sealed. The pale scales are not white but are of a dingy 
yellowish or light brownish color. First tergite with apical medial patch of pale 
scales. Tergite of second segment with apical liand of pale scales interrupted 
medially, and with scattered pale scales on the rest of the sclerite. Tergites of 
segments 3 to 7 with broad bands of pale scales liasally and apically, tending to 
be interrupted on the median line, particularly on the apical l)and. The pale bands 
do not have distinct edg-s but r;it]ier grade into the darker, median, transverse 
portions of the tergites. Tergites of eighth segment extensively pale scaled. 
Venter of abdomen largely but unevenly pale sealed. 

Holotype. Female taken May 4, 1953, by the author in a light trap 
near the greenhouKe at Oleott Park, City of Virginia, St. Louis 
County, Minnesota (U. S. Natl. Mus. Type No. 62409). 

The author has designated a series of 62 females as paratypes, 11 
of which have been deposited in the T"^. S. National Museum under 
the same number as the holotype. The remainder are in the eolleetion 
of the University of Minnesota and in the personal eolleetion of the 
author. The paratypes are from Virginia, St. Louis Co., Minn. : Itasca 
State Park, Clearwater Co.. Minn., and Hennepin Co. (Crystal Bay 
area), Minn. The dates on the'e specimens are April 19 and 28; Mav 
4 to 7, 9, 10, 23 to 26, and 28; June 29; Sept. 13. 15, 17, 18; and 
October 1. Most, if not all. appear to have been taken in light traps 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AT'GUST, 1957 165 

and appear to be females which were either eiiteriiip' or leaving 
hibernation. 

The female of minnesotae appears to be unicjue among North Amer- 
ican Culisetas by virtue of the peculiar banding of the abdomen, the 
bands covering the apical portion of one segment and the basal portion 
of the next. Other interesting characters are the pale scales of the 
proboscis which are occasionally so conspicuous that the proboscis 
appears to be ringed ; the pale markings of the mesonotum ; the pale 
scaling on the anterior edge of the costa which is sometimes seen only 
on the outer part of the wing but often is found on the entire costa ; 
the rather indefinite concentration of scales at the base of R4 + .5; and 
the pale tarsal bands which cover the apex of one segment and the 
base of the next. The clump of scales at the base of R4 + .5 is sometimes 
distinct but often not so. There occasionally appear to be similar 
aggregations at the base of the radial sector, at the branching of 
R2+3, and at the branching of the medial vein, but these spots are even 
less distinct than the one at the base of R4 + 5. These concentrations of 
scales should be further studied in perfect specimens. The two reddish 
brown mesonotal stripes of the holotype are usually evident only when 
the specimen is slightly rubbed. 

All of the females of ""Ciilisefa niorsifaiis" from Minnesota in the 
University of Minnesota collection pertain to iniituesotae, including a 
series identified by Owen (1937) ; there are no females of mor:^itaiis 
from Minnesota in the collection. It would appear that most previous 
records of morsitans from Minnesota pertain to minnesotae . 

Thompson (1953) mentions a form resembling morsitans that he 
took in Nebraska (and has been taken in Boston). This form has 
apical but not ba>-al bands on the tergites. In a letter to the author 
(June 1953) Thompson stated that it is not the same as the presently 
described species. 

The description of morsitans females by Stage ct al. (1952) pertains 
at least in part to minnesotae (". . .Abdomen brown-scaled with scat- 
tered yellowish-white scales, most heavily concentrated along the 
apices and bases of segments, or these may occasionally form basal 
pale bands only . . ."). These authors illustrate the male genitalia of 
mi)inry(/tae under the name nirjrsita)is. 

Male. — Males of both minnesotae and morsitans are commonly taken 
in liiht traps in Minnesota. The author can separate them only by 
the male terminalia. The terminalia of nwrsita/ns (illustrated on next 
page) are as figured from eastern specimens by many authors (e.g., 
Carpenter and LaCasse 1955). The terminalia of minnesotae (illus- 
trated on next page) have been figured by Stage et al. (1952) from 
western specimens. It appears likely that minnesotae is a western re- 
placement of morsitans. 

The appearance of the adult male is as follows: Antenna plumose on basal two 
thirds, apical third with short hairs. Palps dark brown with about 4 pale ot 
definitely white rings, the penultimate and antepenultimate segments with many 



166 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 

long hairs; about one-third again as long as the proboscis. Proboscis dark but 
with a sprinkling of pale scales. Abdominal tergites with definite, basal, white 
bands covering the anterior third to half of the tergite. Eighth segment with 
dorsal selerite (sternite) extensively covered with white scales. Sternites for the 
most part pale scaled basally and dark scaled apically but with posterior sternites 
(including tergite of eighth segment) largely pale-scaled. Wings with little or 
no pale scaling on costal margin; concentration of scales at base of R4+,-.^ usually 
not evident. Legs with fewer pale scales than in the female. 

Terminalia. — The terminalia of minnesota are similar to those of 
niorsitans but differ in the shape of the aedeagus, as can be seen in 
the illustrations below. 

Systematic Position 

It would appear that minncsotac is closely related to niorsitans but 
the species cannot be assigned to a subgenus wath certainty until 
larvae have been examined. The author has not yet collected immature 
.stages^ of this species. 





Left: Ciiliseta minnesotae. Right: C. morsitaiis. 

Biology 

The larvlae would be expected to occur in semi-permanent marshes. 

Females, but no males, were taken in a light trap at Virginia, Minn., 

from May 2 to 7, 1953, along- with females of Anopheles earlei, Culiseta 

inornata, and Culex territaMS {^apicalis auct.). All appeared to be 

^Currently being described by Dr. Roger Price at tlie University of Minnesota. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 167 

old, overwintered females. This would suggest that minnesotae hiber- 
nates as an adult female and not as a larva, as has been suggested for 
morsitans. In these light-trap collections, Aedes adults first appeared 
on May 9, which was consistent with the larval survey. No males of 
Anopheles, Culex, or Culiseta were taken until June 10, when an 
inornata male was captured. Adults have not been taken in hand 
catches. 

Distributio)L — In Minnesota females have been tentatively identi- 
fied from Lake, St. Louis, Beltrami, Clearwater, Polk, and Hennepin 
Counties. Males have thus far been identified from Blue Earth (Man- 
kato) as well as Beltrami (Bemidji), Clearwater, and Hennepin Coun- 
ties. The species appears to be present also in the Pacific northwest. 

Acknowledgements 

The author would like to express his thanks to Dr. Alan Stone, of 
the V. S. National Museum, for comparing females of minnesotae with 
those of morsitans and paroelites and for his many helpful suggestions, 
and to Sylvia Barr for preparing the illustrations and for her advice 
and criticism. 

References 

Carpenter, S. J., and LaCasse, W. 1955. Mosquitoes of North America. Univ. 
Calif. Press. Berkeley and Los Angeles, vi -f 360 -f 127 pi. 

Owen, W. B. 1937. The mosquitoes of Minnesota, with special reference to their 
biologies. Minn Univ., Agr. Expt. Sta., Tech. Bull. 126, 75 pp. 

Stage, H. H., Gjullin, C. M., and Yates, W. W. 1952. Mosquitoes of the North- 
western States. U. S. Dept. Agr. Hndbk. 146, 95 pp. 

Thompson, G. A. 1953. Cherchez I'homme. Mosq. News, 13:3. 

A MAYFLY GYNANDROMORPH 

Lewis Berner, Department of Biology, Univeraity of Florida, Gainesville. 

While working through a large series of Hexagenia adults collected 
at the Pearl River, Lawrence County, Miss., on August 16, 1954, I 
was attracted to one with a most unusual color pattern. Closer ex- 
amination revealed that the specimen was a gynandromorph. As 
there are only two species, Hexagenia hilineata (Say) and H. munda 
elegans Traver, present in the collection, I am referring the gynan- 
dromorph to elegans. This reference is justified on the basis of the 
^\ing pattern and the structure of the genitalia. 

This odd individual represents the first gynandromorph reported in 
the family Ephemeridae. As there are relatively few mayfly abbera- 
tions known, I felt that this additional find should be brought to the 
attention of entomologists. 

The specimen (Figs. 1-4) is predominantly female. The wings have 
the tj-pical maculation of this sex, lacking the dark coloration of the 



1()8 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 




Hexar/enia munda elegans gynandromorph.— Fig. 1, Right side; fig. 2, left 
side; tig. 3, dorsal aspect; fig. 4, ventral aspect. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 169 

coastal border found in the male. The eyes are small and widely- 
separated, as is true of females of this genus, and the fore legs are 
relatively short as in a normal female. The color pattern of the legs 
and the abdomen is a mixture of the male and female patterns, with 
the right side being predominantly male and the left mostly female, 
although on neither side is the coloration typiral. The distribution of 
pigment on the legs and on the abdomen is shown in the figures. In 
a normal male the color of the thoracic venter is uniform and on both 
dorsum and venter of the abdomen it is much darker and more heavily 
emphasized than in the female. Here there is a mixture. 

The genitalia are incomplete. There is a perfectly formed penis 
and clasper on the right side, whereas on the left side the male organs 
are completely lacking. Tails are malelike. No study of the internal 
anatomy has been made, although the specimen is still virtually in- 
tact. It is hoped that a histological examination can be made in the 
future. 



AN UNDESCRIBED APTEROUS ARADID FROM THE PHILIPPINES 

(Hemiptera) 
Carl J. Drake, Smiflisonian Institution, Washington, 1). C. 

This paper characterizes a new species of apterous aradid from the 
Philippine Islands. .Singularly enough, the specimens were found in 
the mouth and stomach of a preserved frog {Rana m. leyensis) 
collected on Julo Island in the Sulu Islands. As the specimens (1 male 
and 2 females') are in almost perfect state of preservation, it seems 
fairly certain that the aradids must have been snapped up by the 
frog shortly before the frog itself was caught, killed, and preserved. 
Apterous aradids, both adults and nymphs, have been collected on 
several occasions in the ground litter of natural forest growth by 
means of a Berlese funnel. Although these insects generally live 
beneath the loose bark of trunks and branches of dead and decaying 
trees, biotic conditions oftentimes are quite favorable for them to 
breed and multiply in the decaying surface litter on the forest floor. 

As the new species of aradid falls into the Genus Acaricoris Harris 
& Drake, our present conception of the zoogeography of the range 
and distribution of genera is thus disrupted and will need to be modi- 
fied as more forms are discovered. Up to the present writing, the 
genus Acaricoris has been represented solely by the genotype from 
the Gulf States, though I have another undescribed species from the 
West Indies. 

In addition to the above material from the Philippines, Dr. H. S. 
Dybas, of the Chicago Natural Histoiy Musenm. has also kindly per- 
mitted me to study several specimens of an undescribed species 



170 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 

which he had recently sorted out of ground litter from the palm and 
oak forest of Highlands Hammond State Pai'k, Fla. April 15, 1955, 
with the aid of a Berlese funnel. The species was breeding in the 
ground litter, as nymphs (four different instars) outnumbered the 
imagroes. Specimens of A. ignotus have been taken in the states of 
Louisiana, Mississippi, and Georgia. 

In all the measurements given in the following description, 80 units 
equals 1 millimeter. 

Acaricorls dybasi, n. sp. 

Body ol)Ov;ite, reddish fuscous, widest near middle of al)donien, narrowed 
anteriorly, often coated with an incru.station, without lateral lobes or other modifi- 
cations. Head with median longitudinal length nearly equal to width across eyes 
(50:.56), strongly narrowed posteriorly behind eyes, with a prominent granulosa 
swelling just behind each eye, each granule of which bears a short, recumbent, 
setalike, white hair; juga extending a little in front of tylus, there divergent; 
eyes small, pale, granular ; labium short, not reaching to base of cliannel ; channel 
wide, not reaching to base of head ; antenniferous tubercles sharply conical, 
divergent anteriorly. Antennae dark brown, with segment I swollen and terminal 
segment pubescent on apical third; segment I, 3n ; II, 18; III, 30; IV, 25. Legs 
short, dark brown. 

Thorax slowly widened posteriorly, with broad median logitudinal part behind 
pronotum depressed, flattened, smooth, shining, and raised behind, with outer 
third of all thoracic divisions longitudinally roughened and ridged; lateral margins 
a little granulate; mesonotum and metanotum fused, without any sign of trans- 
verse suture on smooth median part; first two abdominal tergites also fused with 
metanotum, the transverse ridge behind metanotum interrupted at middle. Abdo- 
men above with tergites III, IV, and V fused and ridged on median longitudinal 
line, with the usual impressions and ridges ; tergite VI separated from V by a 
transverse suture ; connexival segments distinct, separated from abdominal tergites 
and each other by sutures, except tlie first three segments fused. Body beneath 
with meso- and metasternum and first two ventrites fused, ventrites III, IV, 
and V distinguishable and sutured off from each other. Spiracles lateral, all 
plainly visible from dorsal aspect, II to VI (inclusive) situated on top of tiny 
lateral swellings, VII on a larger lateral swelling, VIII on the apical end of a 
short, posterior, fingerlike projection of genital segment. 

Type (male) and allotype (female) : Jola Island, Sulu Islands, 
Philippine Islands, both removed from the mouth and stomach of a 
preserved frog {Rana m. leytensis), in the collection of the Chicago 
Museum of Natural History. Paratype: one specimen, found in the 
stomach of the same frog as the type. The aradids were found during 
the process of studying the contents of the stomach after the frogs 
were shipped to Chicago. The allotype and paratype both have the 
last two antennal segments missing. 

This apterous aradid is similar in form, size, and general aspect 
to the American Acaricoris ignotus, but can be easily separated from 



PBGC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 171 

it by the longer antennae, grandular swelling just back of each eye, 
feebly elevated lateral spiracles, and the smooth, depressed, median, 
longitudinal part of the fused mesometanotum, which is without any 
trace of a transverse suture. In ignotus the fused part of the meso- 
metanotum bears several low% narrow, longitudinal ridges. 

TWO OVERLOOKED SOURCES OF TYPE DESIGNATIONS FOR GENERA 

Curtis W. yABKOSKY, Entoinologi/ Ilc.siarch Diii.sion, U. S. Depart ineiit of 
Agriculture, Wasliington, D. C. 

Two recently noted sources of type-species designations are called 
to the attention of taxonomists. The designations appear to have been 
generally overlooked, although possibly known to some workers but 
antedated by other designations and hence left unrecorded. At least 
the books have not been mentioned in a sample that I have examined 
of comprehensive papers dealing- with type species of a large number 
of genera, including Blackwelder (1952) on the beetle family Staphy- 
linidae, Hemming (1934) on the Holarctic butterflies, Muesebeck and 
Walkley (1956) on the hymenopterous sui^erfamily Proctotrupoidea, 
Sandhouse (1943) on the bees, and Stone (1941) on tlie dipterous 
genera of Meigeu (1800 and 1803). 

(1) Blancharcl, Emile. 1845. Histoire des Insectes, traitant de leurs 
moeurs et de leurs metamorphoses en general, et comprenant une 
nouvelle classification fondee sur leurs rapports naturels. 2 vols. Paris, 
Didot, 398 and 524 pp. The two volumes, bound as 1 and 2 on insects, 
form numbers 8 and 9 of Comte's "Traite complet d 'histoire natur- 
elle" (13 vols.). The first volume on insects contains Ilymenoptera 
and Coleoptera (part), the second the remainder of the Coleoptera 
plus ten other' orders. In point of time, this work comes between tw^o 
other publications by Blanehard, in 1840 and 1849, which are often 
cited as original sources for type designations. 

(2) Chenu, J. C, and collaborators. 1851-61. Encyclopedie d 'his- 
toire naturelle. Paris, Marescq et Co. Insects are treated in 3 volumes 
on Coleoptera (1851-60, with E. Desmarest), 2 on Lepidoptera (1853- 
57, wdth H. Lucas), and 1 on "Anneles" (annulate animals) (1859, 
with E. Desmarest). The last volume (312 pp.) contains 12 orders 
of insects, as well as myriapods, arachnids, and some uon-arthropods. 
I am not sure that the volumes on Lepidoptera contain any type 
designations, but many were quickly noticed in the 3 volumes on 
Coleoptera and that on "Anneles." The wording of the introductions 
signed by Desmarest leads me to believe that the authorship of these 
4 volumes should be credited to Desmarest, rather than to Chenu, or 
to Chenu and Desmarest. For each of the insect volumes there is a 
"Table alphabeticiue" prepared by Desmarest, giving all vernacular 
names used and their equivalent scientific names. 

The designations, although often buried in the text, are clear and 
unequivocal, in such expressions as "le type du genre," "ayant pour 
type le. . . ," "le type est. . . ," and "comme type, nous nommerons 



172 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 

le. . . ." Types are not eited for all iiu-luded generic names, bnt a 
considerable number are involved. For example, in the order Diptera, 
type species are cited for 22 genera by Blanchard (1845) and for 27 
genera by Desmacest ( 1859 ) . 

In the dipterous genera, there is fortunately little to disturb 
existing nomenclature, and it is to be hoped that this will also be 
true for other groups. Because many of the genera were common 
and well known, their types had usually been designated earlier 
by Latreille, Curtis, or Westwood, and almost always the same species 
was cited by Blanchard or Desmarest, or else the genera were mono- 
basic. In two eases in Desmarest, the designations long antedate 
those presently accepted, but they are invalid because the species were 
not originally included. In two other instances, however, valid type 
designations in Desmarest antedate by fifty years those now recog- 
nized. The most prominent genus involved is Cuterehra, whose type 
was designated by Desmarest as "C. cuniculi Fabr." {=Oestriis 
cuniculi Clark), luckily the same species designated by Coquillett in 
1910, a half century later. A possibly troublesome problem in another 
family is being studied further. 

NOTES ON THE ANYSTIDAE WITH A DESCRIPTION OF A NEW GENUS 

AND SPECIES, ADAMYSTIS DONNAE. AND A NEW SUBFAMILY, 

ADAMYSTINAE (ACARINA) ' 

By Frederick Cunliffe, Kdtisas H'l.sh nan Uinrer.sifi/, SaJina, Kansas 

The family Anystidae has been characterized as having a palpal 
thumb-claw con)plex, chelicerae hinged posteriorly so that they are 
free to move laterally, and movable chelae hooked, distal, and not 
opposed to the fixed che^a'\ The long, prominent palpal thumb or 
tarsus and the hooklike distal movable chela have been used as key 
characters to distinguish the Anystidae from the other members of the 
Anystoidea (Teneriffiidae, vl'seudocheylidae, and Pterygosomidae). 
Also, such characters as the setation of the legs and the body, the coxal 
arrangements, and the structure of the tarsi and tarsal claws and 
pulvilli, the peritremes, and genitalia ditferentiate the Anystidae from 
the others. Baker and Wharton (1952) state that no genital discs 
are present, but examination by tlie phase microscope revealed two 
pairs of discs in both sexes. 

Two undescribed species of mites have been found which apparently 
belong to the Anystidae. They constitute a new genus, the Adamystis. 
This genus is differentiated from all others in having a simple palpus 
without the thumb-claw complex. The body and leg setal patterns are 
also more simplified. Perhcips the genus may eventually form the 
basis for another family, but until more groups are found and studied 
it is thought best to leave it in the Anystidae, but in a separate sub- 
family. Oudemans (1936) divided the Anystidae into two subfamilies, 



lA eonh-ibution of the Pinellas Biological Lal)oratory, Inc. 



PROC. ENT. SOG. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. -i, AUGUST, 1957 173 

the Anystinae with the coxae contiguous and the leys radiating, and 
the Erythracarinae with coxae I-II and III-IV in separate groups and. 
with the first two pairs of legs pointing anteriorly and the last two 
pairs pointing posteriorly. The palps of both subfamilies have a thumb- 
claw complex. This new genus is here considered to constitute a new 
subfamily, the Adamystinae, distinguished from the others in having 
simple palpi without the thumb-claw complex and in having contigu- 
ous coxae and an elongate body. The simplified palpal arrangement 
(fig. 3) is not a sudden transition from a strong thumb-claw complex 
as found in the genus Bechsteinia (fig. 9), as a weak but definite one 
is to be found in the genera Anystis and Walzia (fig. 8). It might be 
appropriate here to mention that much work remains to be done at the 
generic and specific levels in the Anystidae. Descriptions are vague 
and synonyms appear to be inevitable. 

ADAMYSTINAE, new subfamily 
Witli the tartsal flaws, eiiipudia, c-lielieerae, peritremes, and genitalia of the 
Anystidae. With simple palpi, contiguous coxae and radiating legs, and elongate 
body. Dorsum of body entirely covered by smooth shield ; striae found only later- 
ally and ventrally. 

ADAMYSTIS, new genus 
Palpus without thumb-claw complex, the tarsus terminal to til.)ia, thus differ- 
ing from all other genera in the family. Chelicerae with single dorsal seta, mov- 
able chela distal, hook-like. Peritreme external, but lying under anterior fold 
of body. Dorsum of body with two pairs of eyes; entire dorsum covered by a 
smooth shield, with short setae. Genital opening posterior, lying in a genital plate 
or non-striated area, surrounded l)y striae. Coxae contiguous, legs radiating, body 
elongate. 

Adamystis donnae, new species 
Palpus -i-segmented, the basal segment without setae, the others as figured 
(fig. 3). Chelicerae typical for the family (fig. 7). Peritremes and anterior lobe 
lying beneath fold of body. Dorsum of body entirely covered by smooth shield 
with short stout setae (fig. 1 ) ; with 2 ])airs of eyes present anteriorly and dor- 
sally. Ventrally, the genital opening lies in a smooth plate surrounded by fine 
striations; the number of genital setae appears to vary between 12 and 14 pairs 
hetw-een individuals and sexes; the para-anals vary between 7 and 8 pairs. The 
ventral body and leg setae are arranged as figured (fig. 2). The coxae are con- 
tiguous; tarsal claws are rayed and the empodium claw-like; leg setae are fewer 
and weaker than in the known genera, and rodlike sensory setae are 2iumerous 
on both tarsus I and II (figs. 4 and 6). The male holotype (figured) is 574/ci long 
and 'M9fji wide. The female is 700/^ long and 434,u wide. Both sexes are similar. 
The holotype, U. S. National Museum No. 2326, and 13 paratj^pes 
(3 males and 10 females) are deposited in the U. S. National Museum. 
They were collected from lodgepole pine cones, Tahoe City, California, 
July 23, 1948, by E. Cott and S. F. Bailey, of the laiiversity of Cali- 
fornia at Davis. 



174 



ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 




Adamystis dmmae, new species.— Fig. 1, dorsum of male; fig. I, venter ot male, 
fig 3 palpus; fig. 4, tarsus and tibia I; Adamystis sp.— Fig. 5, palpus; fig- ^^ 
tarsus and tibia I; detail of tarsus I; fig. 7, chelicera; Walzia sp.— Fig. 8, palpus; 
Bechsteinia sp. — Fig. 9, palpus. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 175 

A sinyle specimen of a related mite was collected at Duke Univer- 
sity from pine needle duff June 22, 1953, by Andrew Spielman, now 
with the U. S. Navy. The condition of the mount is such that detailed 
description and figures are difficult to give. The mite is similar to 
the California species, differing principally in having a seta on the 
basal segment of the palpus (fig. 5) and in possessing lens-like organs 
on the lateral and posterior margins of the body — 6 pairs surround 
the anal opening. No name is given to this species but it is mentioned 
here to strengthen the erection of the new genus. 

Beferences 

Baker, E. W., and G. W. Wharton. 19.52. An introduction to acarology. Mac- 

millan. New York. 
Cunliffe, F. 1955. A proposed classification of tlie tronil>idiforme mites (Acarina"). 

Proe. Ent. Soc. Wash. 57: 209-218. 
Oudemans, A. C. 1936. Neues iiber Anystidae (Acari). Arcliiv. f. Naturgesch. 

(n. s.) 5: 364-446. 

A NEW GARGAPHIA FROM FLORIDA 

(Hemiptera: Tingidae ) 
EoLAND F. HrssEY, Biology Depariment, University of Florida, Gainesville 

Through the courtesy of Mr. Harold A. Denmark, of the Department 
of Entomology, State Plant Board of Florida, I have been privileged 
to exaiinne some collections of Hemiptera from various parts of the 
state. Among these were two specimens of the new species described 
here. The locality from which they come is in northwestern Florida, 
less than a mile from the southwestern corner of the State of Georgia. 

Gargaphia sororia, new species 

Length 4.05 nun., maximum width across hemelytra 1.76 mm., across discoidal 
area 1.66 mm., across paranoia 1.17 mm. 

Cephalic spines nearly as in G. amorphae (Walsh), basal spines more nearly 
horizontal and very slightly longer than the median one, median spine oblique, 
not surpassing tips of the rather short frontal spines which are contiguous at tips 
and do not reach middle of first antennal segment. Lengths of antennal segments 
I-IV = 31:14:163:45, first two segments heavily infuscated, nearly black, third 
segment brow'n, fourth segment black, first segment one-fourth longer than verti- 
cal height of an eye (31:25),! third segment much longer than transverse width 
of pronotum across paranoia (163:117). Hood about as long as its height above 
dorsal margin of eye (31:33). 

Paranoia more nearlj' vertical than in G. amorphae but formed much as in that 
species, rather evenly rounded at sides, with four rows of cells at widest part, the 
veinlets mostly brown or brownish piceous, cells hyaline. Median carina of pro- 
notum scarcely higher than lateral carinae, these not extending forward quite 
as far as posterior end of hood. 



^All comiDarative measurements are expressed in hundredths of a millimeter. 



17G PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, .\UGUST, 19.57 

Costal area of heiueh tra with four rows of fairly large erils at its widest 
part, and with four rows of smaller cells opposite discoidal area ; veinlets piceous 
to black opposite apical half of discoidal area and enclosing lightly embrowned 
cells, so as to form a fairly distinct transverse fascia which attains costal mar- 
gin; veinlets of apical third or more of hemelytra less heavily embrowned, their 
cells entirely hyaline; veinlets on short basal part of costal area and on its 
middle portion largely pale. Subcostal area l)iseriate from base to middle of 
hemelytron, uniseriate beyond that point, but with an occasional extra interpo- 
lated cell in region of transverse fascia. Discoidal area two fifths as long as 
hemelytra (112:280), its apical angle strongly displaced outwardly, as in G. 
amorphae, its widest part with four rows of cells about equal in size to those 
of adjacent subcostal area. Pronotum (except apical part of posterior process), 
subcostal area in part, discoidal area (except middle portion), and body be- 
2ieath, black or piceous. Legs brown, apical segment of tarsi Ijlack. 

Apparently nearest allied to G. amorphae (Walsh, 1864), but of 
somewhat more slender form and distinctly darker coloration, with 
the first two antennal segments brownish black to black, and with the 
transverse fascia on the costal area more distinct. In (i. amorphae the 
more obliqne position of the paranota makes the transverse width 
across then nearly equal to the length of the third antennal segment 
(140:159), the subcostal area is triseriate over that portion Avhich is 
biseriate in the present species, and the discoidal area is nearl.y half as 
long as the hemelytra (127:271). 

The black first antennal segment causes this new species to run to 
a. solam Held, in the keys of Drake (1917, Ent. News 28: 227) and 
Blatchley (1926, Heter. E. N. Amer. 473). It is very distinct from 
that species, which has the paranota much more widely expanded, 
with subangularly rounded lateral margins, so that the transverse 
width across them is distinctly greater than the length of the third 
antennal segment (174: 152). 

In Gibson's key (1919, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 45: 190) G. sororia, 
n. sp. runs to couplet 6, but does not fit either alternative there since 
the discoidal area is plainly less than half as long as the hemelytra 
but is much wider than the subcostal area. 

Holotype S : Gadsden County, Florida, 1 August 1956 (P. W. 
Mead), in University of Florida collections. Paratype S -. Same data 
as type, in collection of State Plant Board of Florida. Mr. Mead 
informs me that these two specimens were collected by sweeping mis- 
cellaneous vegetation on the narrow flood plain of the Apalachicola 
River at Cliattahoochee, Florida. The host plant was not identified. 

THE SPREAD OF CATORHINTHA MENDICA STAL 

(CoRKiDAE, Hem iptbra) 
W. V. BALDur, University of Illinois, Urbana. 

Caiorhintha mendica Stal (1870) is of interest here first for the 
manner in which it has extended its range within its native North 
America, and second because the study of its spread indicates the 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. i, AIGUS. 19 37 !77 

kinds of evidences that may be applicable in investigations of intra- 
eontineiital distribution of other insects also. 

Evidences are given below which show that G. uiendica was indi- 
genous to the Great Plains of North America but has now spread 
eastward almost, or possibly quite, to the Atlantic Coast. 

This bug is more than ordinarily fa^, orable for a consideration of the 
time, direction, and means of spread than some others, because it 
appears to be monophagous, at least from Illinois eastward, where 
most of my observations were made. Therefore, information about 
the source and subsequent spread of its food plant affords data that 
apply to the dispersal of the bug itself. The indicated food plant is 
a species of Nycfaginaceae, — MirahiJis nycfaginea (Michx.) (Syn- 
onyms: OxyhapJius n., Allionia n.) . 

The basic questions involved in this investigation of the intra- 
continental spread of Caforhintha mcndica are: (1) What were the 
borderlines of its original or native geographical range, (2) the 
agencies that implemented its dispersal, and (3) the j^eriod of time 
of the dispersal? 

MirabilLs nyctaginea 

Center of Disirihniinn. Whereas M. nycfaginea now occurs more 
or less generally from the Rocky Mountains to the Atlantic Coast, it 
was confined to much narrower limits until white settlers occupied 
the western part of the Mississippi drainage basin. The data from 
correspondence and the literature leave little doubt that the plant 
Avas originally restricted to the Great Plains. Typical of evidences 
on this point are the following instances. The Major S. H. Long 
expedition up the Missouri found it in Nebraska in the first decade 
of the 19th century (James, 1825). Nuttall (1818) reported it as 
common "on the Alluvions of the Missouri," and it was discovered 
by botanists associated with Lewis and Clark in 1806 on their explora- 
tions up the Missouri river into and beyond the Dakotas (Pursh. 
1807; Thwaites, 1904). 

Researches by Gilmore (1911, 1918), Densmore, (1918) and other 
ethnologists provided the information that M. nycfaginea was well 
known and widely used for medicinal and other purposes by the 
Indians of Teton Dakota, Oglala Dakota, and the Omaha, Ponca, and 
Pawnee of Nebraska. This fact indicates that this plant lived for 
centuries in the areas of these tribes, and also constitutes a type of 
evidence that it was native in the Great Plains. 

Not only have contemporary botanists of the Plains declared 
-¥. nycfaginea to be native there, but also the nature of the habitats 
described in the literature of that area strongly indicate it is indi- 
genous: such as "rocky riverbank," "waste hillsides," "grassy 
slopes," "virgin prairie," "grassy butte," "banks of sloughs," and 
"wooded bluffs." 

There is evidence that M. nycfaginea was native also in the western 



178 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 

parts of Illinois, or even so far eastward as the Illinois River valley. 
Mead (1846) fonnd it along- the banks of the Mississippi River, and 
Patterson (1876) had it from the sandy river banks and barrens at 
Oquawka, in adjacent Henderson county. Gleason (1910) reported 
its occurrence in sandy areas at Havana, Quincy, and Dixon. The 
Missouri Botanical Gardens has specimens taken before 1843 by 
Charles Geyer at Beardstown on the Illinois, and Brendel (1887) 
found it on banks and in fence rows at Peoria. 

In addition to the above positive indications that 3/. nyctaginea is 
native from western Illinois westward, there is even more convincing 
evidence of a negative sort that shows it originated in the Great 
Plains. The earliest botanical surveys made in America show* the food 
plant of Caiorhiniha mendica was lacking in eastern Illinois and the 
states to the east. This is clear from the publications of Pursh (1807), 
Xuttall (1818), Barton (1818), Brace (1822), Torrev (1824, 1943) 
andBigelow (1824). Kellerman (1900) and Sehaft'ner (1914) reported 
the plant as infrequent in Ohio and introduced from the west. 

In a personal communication, Dr. C. C. Deani, veteran botanist of 
Indiana, informed me that none of the local floras of his state listed 
M. n^'ctaginea before 1900. Likewise, the botanical reports of Short 
(1845), Lapham (1857), Bebb (1858, 1860), and Babcock (1872) 
concerning eastern Illinois do not include it. 

Prom the above positive and negative indications, it is more than 
probable that M. nyctaginea was indigenous to the vast territory 
bounded on the south by Texas, the west by the Rocky Mountains, 
the north by Manitoba, and the east by the Mississippi, or perhaps 
the Illinois River. 

Agencies of Dispersal. However, M. nyctaginea now occurs widely 
in eastern Illinois, in Indiana and Ohio, and in states east of Ohio. 
What then were the means whereby it was enabled to spread beyond 
its original borders? Annotated herbarial specimens, published floral 
lists, and personal field notes combine to show that this species occurs 
predominantly on the rights-of-way of railroads, in freight yards, and 
about feeding stations. This fact identifies freight cars loaded wdth 
surplus agricultural products from the west as the obvious and 
principal vehicles of dispersal. Moreover, I have observed that it is 
very largely the east-west roads that link the agricultural midwest 
and the large populational centers of the east, which have transported 
the plant eastward. 

The nature of the evidence that involves railroads as the agencies 
of dispersal is illustrated herewith. Pepoon (1927) reported M. nycta- 
ginea as then being very common about Chicago in the sand and gravel 
ballast of railroads, and added that it ' ' does not seem to grow in other 
habitats." For Indiana, Deam (1940) described it as "infrequent 
to frequent in railroad ballast throughout the state — more frequent 
before the right-of-ways were kept clean." Also correspondence with 
curators of herbaria in eastern universities showed that their samples 



PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 179 

of nyctaginea originated chiefly along railroads. In eastern Illinois, 
Dr. A. G. Vestal, University of Illinois, found it only along railroads 
in 25 years of field work. In 1945 it was present on all northern 
Illinois railroads where I searched for it, and in 1942 I discovered it 
in several widely separated counties in Indiana and Ohio. 

Dates of Introduction. Two prerecjuisites were necessary to the 
outward movement of M. nyctaginea from the Great Plains to the 
older, more densely populated centers east of Ohio — the prairies had 
to be subjected to the plow for the production of crops, and man- 
made means of transporting the agricultural surpluses had to be 
developed. These two conditions began to coexist in the decade of 
1850-1860 when, according to Petersen (1937), the ferries over the 
Mississippi River from Illinois to Iowa were busy day and night 
transporting farmers from the east. Likewise, steamers on the river 
were jammed between 1850 and 1871 with future settlers for 
Minnesota. 

The Illinois-Michigan canal opened in 1848 and was the first 
artificial means of east-west transportation in the Illinois-Iowa area. 
It linked the Great Plains with the Great Lakes, and thereby estab- 
lished a continuous waterway to the Erie canal, the Hudson, and the 
Atlantic. The volume of goods carried on the canal increased until 
1882 (Coard, 1941). Before that year, some excess farm produce was 
being moved eastward from Iowa and adjacent areas, hence the canal 
may have performed an early minor role in the spread of M. nycta- 
ginea. 

But railroads were the main means of spread. The Michigan 
Southern, later a component of the New York Central from New York 
to Chicago, entered the breezy city in 1850. At the same time the 
Chicago and Rock Island line pushed west parallel to the I-M canal, 
and was the first railroad to bridge the Mississippi River, an event 
of 1855. However, railroads permeated the new agricultural region 
of the Mississippi basin largely after 1860. The decade following 
1880 was the era of great railroad construction in America (Conger, 
1932). This, with the fact that seven-eighths of the agricultural 
surpluses produced in 1879 north of Arkansas crossed the river on 
rails between St. Louis and St. Paul (Dixon, 1909), indicates that 
the dispersal of M. nyctaginea was then approaching its peak rate. 
The Great Plains were being rapidly transformed from a vast prairie 
to an enormous farm. 

Since large parts of the surplus agricultural products from Iowa, 
iMinnesota, ancl the Dakotas were carried eastward by freight trains 
through Chicago, the early records of occurrence of M. nyctaginea for 
this city give additional indication of the time the plant moved out of 
the Plains. In their flora of Cook County, 111., and adjacent Lake 
County, Ind., Higley and Raddin (1902) reported their discovery of 
a few specimens of this species in 1885 and 1887. Its scarcity at that 
time compared with its present abundance in the vicinity of Chicago 



180 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. -i, AUGUST, 1957 

indicates its iiitrodiR-tion had just be<>iin. Also the report from Deam 
(personal corresi)ondeiR'e) that none of the loeal floras of Indiana 
contained the species before 1900, and the information given by the 
Kellermans (1900) and Schaffner (1914) that it was then infrequent 
and "non-indigenous" in Ohio, supplement the records of Higley 
and Raddin to show that the spread of nyctagmea eastward from the 
Plains M^as in progress about 1880 to 1900. However, its earliest 
escape can have been effected as early as 1870. Moreover, the early 
establishments along the tracks are doubtlessly being intensified at 
the present time. Obviously, also, the plant has been aided to spread 
eastward by many other railroads than those passing through Chicago. 

How RailroacU Transport the Plant. It is easy to determine how 
M. nyctaginea came to be included in the farm surpluses shipped 
from its native area. There the plant grew spontaneously among the 
wild and cultivated forage crops. The forage was either placed as 
food in cars loaded with cattle and sheep destined for eastern markets, 
or shipped in large quantities to feeding stations or markets along 
the railroads. Such feeding stations, numerous along the main 
railroads, were established in response to a Federal law, which requires 
that live stock be unloaded at intervals for rest and food. Some stations 
also house stock to fatten it for later sale in the east. I have informa- 
tion from some managers of feeding stations in northern Illinois that 
bulk wild hay has been, and is still being, imported from Nebraska 
for such purposes. In harvesting the hay, some M. nyctaginea bearing 
more or less ripened seeds is included. 

In a similar manner, the seeds may gain entrance into grains in 
the threshing process where the plant grows in or bordering fields 
of wheat or similar crops. Reports from State and Federal seed-testing 
laboratories show that seeds of M. nyctaginea sometimes are present 
in samples of grain originating in the Plains. 

Whether in grain or hay, the seeds obviously have fallen from 
railroad cars as the trains bearing farm crops or live stock roll and 
jolt along hundreds of miles of trackway, or as the materials are 
unloaded at their destinations, or even as the stock cars lie temporarily 
on side tracks. Falling here and there, through the years, upon the 
shoulders and slopes of the roadbeds, some seeds drop to favorable 
soil to develop and establish the species. The present degree of 
continuity of its distribution along the tracks depends on the char- 
acter of the soil medium, the age of the railroad, and the kind of 
treatment the roadbeds have received since their construction. The 
stands of the plant are found to be more dense and contiiuious where 
vegetation has been allowed to grow somewhat spontaneously, on the 
right-of-way, but patchy and infrequent where the roadbeds have been 
modified from time to time by the addition of sundry ballast that 
tends to suppress the plant, or eradicate it locally. Sprays, fires, and 
mowing also are common means of retarding the local establishment 
and intensification of M. nyctaginea. 



PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. i, AIGUST, 1957 181 

Catorhintha mendica Stal 

Its Xatire Area. The stroiig-est support for 1113' belief that Cator- 
hintha mendica was originally indigenous to the Great Plains eonies 
trom the faet, established above, that its food plant, Mirabilis nycta- 
(jinea, is native to that area. Certainly it is now nionophagous in 
Illinois and in Wisconsin, Indiana, and Ohio for, in all eases, I 
obtained it by sweeping only this four o'clock. Three other species 
of Nyctaginaeeae are listed by Pepoon (1927) for the Chicago area, 
and by Deani (1940) for Indiana, but they are rarely seen and not to 
be regarded as established sp)ecies of the flora, hence are not likely 
to serve as food plants of the bug. 

Also the character of its present distribution in the Plains States 
gives confirmation to its native occurrence there. Not only does 
C. mendica appear to be more frequent there than eastward, but it 
inhabits the area generally, including the spacious landscapes lying 
lietween raihvays. This may be deduced from the wide and relatively 
intensive appearance of its food plant. Also the records of the 
collections of the bug in those states show it is more plentiful and 
uniformly distributed than in Illinois and eastward. I am indebted 
largely to the entomologists of the Plains States, who sent me records 
on which my view is based. These records indicate that C. mendica 
was native at least in Texas, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, Iowa, South 
Dakota, and Minnesota. To illustrate how such records bear positively 
on the question of nativity, I cite, in general terms, the facts for 
Iowa. Through the cooperation of Professor H. E. Jaques, Iowa 
Wesleyan College, Mt. Pleasant, who conducted the "Iowa Insect 
Survey" in recent years, I have data that show C. mendica Avas taken 
in 25 counties that represent all sections of the state from north to 
south and west to east. Additional records supplied by Doctors C. J. 
Drake and H. M. Harris from the collections of the Iowa State College, 
Ames, show the bug occurs in still other counties of Iowa. Accord- 
ingly it may be presumed to occur all over Iowa, where M. nyctaginea 
also is indigenous and generally distributed. 

My visit of June 1945 to Oquawka, 111., along the Mississippi River, 
disclosed that C. mendica is present on M. nyctaejinea growing among 
native prairie plants in the sandy areas remote from railroads. In 
the same month, I obtained the bug from this plant at woodland roads 
through the sandy areas at Havana. Hart (1907) recorded it from 
the sa ne type of habitat at Havana, and at Camp Point, near Quincy, 
in Adams County, and at Dixon, Lee County, 111. In these areas of 
Illinois, C . mendica therefore has, like M. nyctaginea, the appearance 
of being native. 

However, the presence of both M. nyctaginea and C mendica only 
along railroads at Savanna, Hanover, Fulton, and Cordova, in w^estern 
Illinois, and their absence in sandy areas adjacent to the trackways 
indicate the bug w^as not native to these places, but migrated down 
the right-of-ways from the west after Mirahilis had established itself 



182 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 

here. Moreover, they were not found in parts of sand tracts remote 
from railroads at Atkinson and Wiehert, 111. AA^ere they native, they 
would certainly have occurred here where the extensive acreage of 
undisturbed sandy soil is favorable to the food plant. 

Other explorations of June 1945 produced data which show that 
the bug and its food plant were adventive in the more easterly parts 
of northern Illinois. In all the following instances, the insect was 
netted from M. nyctagiyiea growing- only along railroads. The localities 
are g-iven in the order of their position in the state, from north to 
south ; Huntley, Des Plaines, Bristol, AA'enona, Sparland, LaSalle, 
Peoria, Minonk, Crescent City, Hudson, Carthage, Quincy, Mt. Ster- 
ling, Harris, Oakwood, and many stations along railroads in Cham- 
paign Co. Records from AA^. J. Gerhard, Chicago Museum of Natural 
History, others from the Illinois State Natural History Survey, and 
some from individuals, show that C. mendica was present also in Rock 
Island, Mercer, Fulton, Morgan, and Union Counties. The latter is 
the only county in the southern half of the state. 

M}^ records for AS^isconsin also were obtained by sweeping the 
insect from M. nifctaginea, along or near railroads. In the 1940 's, 1 
took it west of Madison ; at Millston, in Jackson County, and at Fall 
Creek, Eau Claire County. It occurred also on nyctaginea g-rowing 
on the berm along U.S. route 53 near Solon Springs in Douglas 
County. Here the plant probably originated on a nearby railroad 
property. 

Since, as Deam (1940) states, M. ujicfaghiea probably occurs in 
every county of Indiana, and is confined almost entirely to railroads, 
it is logical to assume that this monophagous bug, C. mendica, is 
e(iually limited to railroads, although it may not yet have pervaded 
to all possible locations. Entomologists have found C. mendica in 
Indiana as follows : Miller, Lake Co. ; Monticello, AA^hite Co., on 
M. nyctaginea, at rairoad; Roanoke, Huntington Co., on M. nycta- 
ginea, at railroad ; Lafayette, Tippecanoe Co. ; Marion Co. and 
Knox Co. 

For Ohio, I have the following records : Cedar Point, Erie Co. 
(H. M. Parshley), and Columbus, Franklin Co. (C. J. Drake). In 
June 1942 I swept C. mendica from M. nyctaginea growing along 
east-west railroads at Antwerp, Paulding Co. ; Oak Harbor, Ottawa 
Co. ; Fitchville, Huron Co. ; and AA^est Lafayette, Coshocton Co. 

Through the cooperation of Dr. T. L. Guyton, State Department of 
Agriculture, Harrisburg, I received specimens of C. mendica taken 
by him along a railw^ay at Lickdale, Lebanon Co., Pa. This is the 
easternmost point of its occurrence known to me, but it probably has 
radiated north, east, and south in Pennsylvania and neighboring 
states. However, considering its innate mode of dispersal as compared 
with the human lifts given the plant, it may not even today have 
spread to the extent it may eventually attain. 

Mode of Dispersed. I regard C. mendica as dependent on M. nycta- 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 183 

giriea for food and habitat from Illinois eastward. Therefore, its 
spread in this direction depends on the previous establishment of the 
plant. Again, since the plant rarely occurs there anywhere but on 
railroads, and the bug has been found only along railways, these 
man-made means of transport constituted the main avenues down 
which the insect made its way. 

Whereas M. nyctaginea Avas carried by fast-moving freight trains 
and therefore became spread and established along the entire courses 
from the midwest to New York, probably in a few years, the bug, 
C. mendica, probably migrated eastward very largely on its own 
locomotor powers. 

C. niendica is quick on foot and also flies well. When the food plant 
is growing and succulent in ]May to June and again in August to 
October, there would appear to be no inducement to migrate. How- 
ever, in midsummer, and again in late October and November, most 
plants have become woody, hard, and leafless, and the bug population 
either reaches a veiy low level, or appears so owing to migration from 
the trackway (Balduf, 1942). These migrations are more or less 
random, hence involve some degree of hazard, for there is little reason 
to suppose that the bug flies strictly along the railroad, keeping 
between the line fences. When stands of the plant are as much as a 
half mile, and often more, apart, as I have observed them, the bug 
may be imagined sometimes taking oif across the adjacent farmlaiul 
and perishing for lack of the one essential food plant that occurs only 
on railways. 

The rate of spread was probably slow in the early years after 1880. 
The food plant was at first scarce, spotty, and occurred at long spatial 
intervals. As trains dropped more and more seeds year after year, and 
more intense stands developed locally also from seeds of the original 
clumps, the growths of M. Hifctaginea approached greater degrees 
of continuity, which facilitated the successive hops of the insect down 
the narrow rail paths that stretched long miles eastw^ard. 

Although this favorable condition of the plant was sometimes 
attained, as is evidenced by its common and somewhat continuous 
occurrence along some roads I have visited since 1940, the establish- 
ment of the plant and its bug was, in many cases, hindered by 
modifications of the roadways since tlie railroads were first con- 
structed. The roadbeds needed to be strengthened as larger locomotives 
and heavier car loads came into vogue, single track lines were en- 
larged to two-way tracks, the banks were reinforced with ballast, and 
the vegetation often destroyed by section crews. 

Summary 

Inasmuch as it is monophagous on Mirahilis nyctaginea, Cator- 
hintha niendica can have established itself east of the Great Plains 
only when and to the extent that the food plant had previously 
invaded that eastern area. Records at hand show that C. mendica 



184 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 

has HOW moved eastward down the nijciaginea trails on railroads so 
far as about three-fourths across the state of Pennsylvania. 

Eeperences 

Babcock, H. H. 1872, 1873. Tlu- flora of Chieago and vicinity. The Lens, v. 1, 

1872; V. 2, 1873. 
Balduf, W. V. 1942. Bionomics of CatorlihiiJta mendica Stal (Coreidae, Hemip- 

tera). Bui. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 37: ir)8-l(i6. 
Barton, W. P. C. 1818. Compendium florae Philadelphicae, v. 1, 2.')1 pp.; v. 2, 

234 pp. 

Bebb, M. S. 1858. List of plants occurring in the northern counties of the state 

of Illinois, in addition to the catalogue given by Dr. I. A. Lapham. 111. State 

Agr. Soc. v. 3 (1857-1858), pp. 586-587. 
. 1860. The floi'a of Ogle and Winneljago counties. Prairie Farmer, 22: 

182-183. 
Bigelow, J. 1824. Florula Bostoniensis, a collection of i)lants of Boston and its 

vicinity, 422 pp. 
Blatchley, W. S. 1926. Heteroptera or true bugs of eastern North America, pp. 

246-247. 
Brace, J. P. 1822. List of plants growing spontaneously in Litchfield (Conn.) and 

in its vicinity. Amer. Jour. Sci. and Arts 4:69-87. 
Brendel, F. 1887. Flora Peoriana, the vegetation in the climate of middle Illinois, 

Peoria, 89 pp. 
Goard, Helen C. 1941. The Illinois and Michigan canal as an influence on westward 

migration. Urbana, 111. 
Conger, J. L. 1932. History of the Illinois River Valley, v. 1, 496 pp. Chieago. 
Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana, 1236 pp., Indianapolis. 
Densmore, Frances. 1918. Teton Sioux Music, Bur. Amer. Ethnology, Bui. 61, 561 

pp. 
Dixon, F. H. 1909. A traffic history of the Mississippi Eiver system, Document 

No. 11, National Waterways Commission, pp. 1-110. Washington, D. C. 
Gilmore, M. E. 1911. Uses of plants of the Indians of the Missouri Eiver region, 

33rd. Ann. Ept. Bur. Amer. Ethnology, 1911-1912 (1919), p. 78. 
. 1913a. A study in the ethnobotany of the Omaha Indians. Nebr. State 

Hist. Soc. Colls. 17:314-347. 
. 1913b. Some native Nebraska plants with their uses by the Dakota. 



Nebr. State Hist. Soc. Colls. 17:358-370. 

Gleason, H. A. 1910. The vegetation of the inland sand deposits of Illinois, Bui. 
111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. Surv. v. 9 (art. Ill), 174 pp. 

Hart, C. A. 1907. Zoological studies in the sand regions of the Illinois and Mis- 
sissippi River valleys. Bui. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 7:195-272. 

Higley, W. K., and Raddin, C. S. 1902. The flora of Cook County, Illinois and a 
part of Lake County, Indiana. Bui. Chicago Acad. Sci. 2(1), xiii and 166 pp. 



PROr. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. -1, AUGUST, 1957 185 

James, E. 1825. Catalogue of plants collected during a journey to and from the 

Eocky Mountains during the summer of 1820. (James was botanist on the 

Major S. H. Long expedition of the U. S. Engineers). Trans. Amer. Phil. 

Soc. (n.s.) 2:172-190. 
Kellermaii, W. A., and Mrs. 1900. The non-indigenous flora of Ohio. Ohio State 

Univ. Bui. (ser. -4), No. 27, pp. 1-28. Reprinted from Jour. Columbus Hort. 

Soc, March 1900. 
Lapham, I. A. 1857. Catalogue of the plants of the state of Illinois. 
Mead, S. B. 1846. Catalogue of plants growing spontaneously in the state of 

Illinois, the principal part near Augusta, Hancock County. Prairie Farmer 6: 

35-36, 60, 93, 119-122. 
Nuttall, T. 1818. The genera of North American plants, and a catalogue of the 

species to the year 1817. Philadelphia. 
Patterson, H. N. 1S76. Catalogue of the phaenogamous and vascular cryptogamous 

plants of Illinois, native and introduced. Oquawka, 111., pp. 1-54. 
Pepoon, H. S. 1927. An annotated flora, of the Chicago area. Chicago Acad. Sci. 

Bui. Nat. Hist. Surv. 8, 554 pp. (p. 294). 
Petersen, W. J. 1937. Steaml)oating on the Upper Mississippi, the waterway to 

Iowa. 575 pp. Iowa City. 
Pursh, F. 1807. Journal of a botanical expedition in the northeastern parts of the 

states of Pennsylvania and New York during the year 1807. (Reprinted, 

1823). 
Schaffner, J. 1914. Catalog of Ohio vascular plants. 

Short, C. W. 1845. 01)servations on the botany of Illinois, more especially in ref- 
erence to the autumnal flora of the prairies. Western Jour. Med. and Surgery, 

Mar., pp. 185-198. 
Stal, C. 1870. Enumeratio Hemipterorum. Svenska Vetensk. Akad. Handl., p. 187. 
Thwaites, A. G. 1904. Early Western Travels, 1748-1846. 8 vols. 
Torrey, J. 1824. A flora of the northern and middle sections of the United States, 

V. 1, 518 pp. Albany. 
. 1843. A flora of the state of New York. 2 vols., 1056 pp. Albany. 



NEW SPECIES OF RALLICOLA (Philopteridae: Mallophaga) 

By K. C. EiiERSON, Stillwater, Oklahoma 

Since reviewing the genus Rallicola (Emerson 1955), additional 
material has been examined. The status of two subspecies can now be 
clarified, and two new forms are described. 



186 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 

Rallicola ortygometrae californicus (Kellogg and Chapman) 
The original description was based on material eollected from RaUus 
ohsoIetus^Rallus longirostris obsolcfus Ridgway, and RaMus vir- 
gmia7ms=^Rallus liniicola limicula Vieillot. For my review, specimens 
from Rallus limicola liniicola Vieillot were not available. From mate- 
rial now available, it is established that the tw'O hosts harbor different 
forms of the genus Rallicola. I designate Rallus longirostris obsoletus 
Ridgway as the type host of Rallicola oriygometrae californicus (Kel- 
log-g and Chapman, 1899). This host is the first one listed by the 
authors in their original description. The redescription and figures 
given in my review are based on material from Rallus longirostris 
subspecies. The specimens found on Rallus elegans elegans Audubon 
also appear to be this subspecies. 

Rallicola ortygometrae guami Carriker 

Through the courtesy of Dr. Ronald Ward, material from the type 
host of this species has been examined. The series consisted of : Six 
females and four males from Rallus owstoni (Rothschild), collected 
Aug'ust 22, 1931, on Guam by W. F. Coultas. The form is properly 
a subspecies of Rallicola ortygometrae. In my key, it can be separated 
from Rallicola' ortygometrae affinis (Piaget) by tergite III in the 
male; which in guami is continuous, and in affinis is interrupted. 
These specimens differ slightly from the description given by Carriker 
(1949), so the following notes prepared by Dr. Ward and the author 
are presented. 

In the male, abdominal tergite II interrupted medianly, III interrupted medi- 
anly for about one-third of the segment length, and the remainder are entire. 
Male genitalia as shown in figure 1. In the female, abdominal tergites II-VI in- 
terrupted medianly, VII-VIII transversely continuous. Sternites III-VT, in both 
sexes, with four long setae on posterior margins. 

Measurements : 

Length of head 
Width of head 
Width of prothorax 
Width of pterothorax 
Width of abdomen 
Total length 



gites II-III with large anterior median indentation ; but posterior one-third of 
these two tergites continuous. Abdominal tergites and sternites, in both sexes, 
each with four long setae. Male genitalia as shown in figure 2. 



Male 








Female 


0.47mm 








0.49mm 


.36 








.38 


.23 








.24 


.30 








.33 


.38 








.35 


1.55 








1.66 


1 subporzanae 


n. 


sp. 




ransversel; 


y continuous 


. Abdominal ter- 



Measurements : 


Male 


Female 


Length of head 


0.48mm 


0.44mm 


Width of head 


.38 


.36 


Width of prothorax 


.22 


.21 


Width of pterothorax 


.32 


.32 


Width of abdomen 


.48 


.21 


Total length 


1.43 


1.51 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 



187 



Type host. — Porzana Carolina (Linnaeus), Sora rail. 

Type material: Holotype male, allotype female, and paratype 
female collected in Douglas County, Kansas, during May 1909, are 
in the Snow Entomological Collection, University of Kansas. Para- 
type female collected at Mattituck, Long Island, New York, on Sep- 
tember 10, 1936, by B. Latham, is in the collection of Cornell Univer- 
sity. 

This subspecies is closest to RaUicola ortygometrae ortygoinetrae; 
but can be separated from it in that tergite IV is continuous in the 
new form, and interrupted medianly in Ballicola ortygometrae orty- 
gometrae ( Schrank ) . 

RaUicola mystax (Giebel) 
The type host of this species is Porzana porzana (Linnaeus), which 
is found in Europe. Two collections have been examined that indicate 

, 0.1 m m ^ 






Male genitalia of Ballicola sp., drawn to the same scale: — Fig. 1, R. ortygomet- 
rae guami Carrilcer ; fig. 2, R. ortygometrae subporzanae n. spp. ; fig. 3, R. kelloggi 
n. sp. 



188 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, XO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 

the species is also found on Par zona Carolina (Linnaeus) in North 
America. Two males collected at Moscow, Idaho, on May 2, 1952 
by T. D. Bnrleii>h, and one male eolleeted at Tlacotalpam, Vera Crnz, 
Mexico, on February 19, 1940, by M. A. Carriker, apparently agree in 
all details with specimens from the type host. These records tend to 
confuse the situation, as heretofore it has been thought that each 
species of host was parasitized by only one species of Rallicola. 
Further collections will be necessary to determine if this exists for 
other hosts. 

Rallicola kelloggi n. sp. 

Male: Head slender, with ii wide hyaline margin. First segments of antennae 
enlarged and elongated, eacdi with an appendage. Third segments of antennae 
prolonged distally beyond the junction with segment IV. Posterior margin of 
[)terothorax with four pairs of long setae. Second abdominal tergite interrupted 
medianly, the remainder transversely continuous ; each tergite with a pair of 
setae located medianly on posterior margin. Abdominal sternites III-VI with 
four setae on posterioi- margins; and sternites VII-VTII with two setae on pos- 
terior margins. Male genitalia as shown in figure 3. 

Female: Antennae filiform. Al)domiual tergites II-III interrupted medianly, 
IV indented medianly, and the remainder transversely continuous. Chaetotaxy, 
except for the terminal abdominal segments, as in the male. Lateral margins of 
abdominal sternite IX, each with a fringe of ten medium length setae. 
Measurements: Male Female 

Length of head 0.42nmi 0.45mm 

Width of head .35 .36 

Width of prothorax .21 .23 

Width of pterothorax .28 .30 

Width of abdomen .38 .45 

Total length 1.26 1.42 

Type host. — Rallus limicola limicola Vieillot, Virginia Rail. 

Tyi)e material. — Holotype male, paratype male, and five paratype 
females in the U. S. National Museum, were collected at Vienna, Mary- 
land, March 6, 1951. Allotype female, two paratype females, and one 
paratype male in the collection of Ohio State University were col- 
lected at Bu-'keye T^ake, Ohio, on May, 15, 1925. Two paratype males 
in the collection of Dr. G. J. Spencer were collected at Haney, British 
Columbia, on June 14, 1951, by A. Peake. Three paratype males are 
in the collection of Cornell University; these specimens are without 
data except for the host. A paratype male and female in the U. S. 
National Museum were collected at Leon la. New Jersev, on September 
6, 1929, by J. A. AA^eber. 

This form is near R. sarothurae Clay, B. hoogstraali Emerson, and 
R. cusjndatu.s (Scopoli). The mesosome of the male genitalia is not 
elongated and pointed as in R. sarothurae, or broadly rounded as in 



PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, XO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 189 

R. hoogsiraali. Tergite V of the female is interrupted mediauly in 
R. cuspidatHs, and transversely continuous in R. kelloggi n. sp. 

Host List 

The following list includes all species of the genus Rallicola found 
in the United States. Canada, and Alaska, together with their norma] 
hosts. 

BaUicola advenus (Kellogg), 1896. Fulica amcricana amcricana Gnielin, Ameri 
can coot. 

BaUicola ellioiti Emerson, 1955. Porphyrula marfinica (Linnaeus), Purple gal 
linule. 

Ballwola fulieae (Denny), 18-42. Fulica afra aira Linnaeus, European coot. 

BaUicola funehris (Nitzsch), 1866. Aramus scolopaceiis pictiis (Meyer), Florida 
limpkin. 

BaUicola Icelloggi n. sp. Balhis liinicola limicola Vieillot, Virginia rail. 

BaUicola minutus (Nitzsch), 1866. GaJlinula chloropiis cachinnans Bangs, Flor- 
ida gallinula. 

BaUicola myatax (Giebel), 1874. Porzana Carolina (Linnaeus), 8ora rail. 

BaUicola ortygometrae calif amicus (Kellogg and Chapman), 1899. Ballus 
longirostris subspecies, Clapper rails, and Balhis elegans elegans Audubon, King 
rail. 

BaUicola orl ygometrae ortygometrae (Schrank), 1781. Crex crex (Linnaeus), 
Corncrake. 

BaUicola ortygometrae .siibporzanae n. ssp. Porzana Carolina (Linnaeus), 8ora 
rail. 

BaUicola porzanae (Piaget), 1880. Cotnrnicops novehoracensis novehoracensis 
(Gmeliii), Yellow rail. 

The black rails. LatferaUus jainaicensis subspecies, are the only 
hosts from this area likely to harbor a form of Rallicola that have 
not been examined to date. 

References 

Carriker, 'SI. A. 1949. On a collection of Mallophaga from Guam, Marianas 
Islands. Proc. U. S. Xatl. Mus. 100 (3254): 1-24. 

Emerson, K. C. 1955. A review of the genus BaUicola (Philopteridae, Mallo- 
phaga) found on Aramidae, Psophiidae, and Rallidae. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 
48: 284-299. 

Kellogg, Y. L. and Chapman, B. L. 1899. Mallophaga from birds of California. 
Occas. Papers. Calif. Acad. Sci. C: 53-143. 



NOTICE 

Memoir No. 5, A Classification of the Siphonaptera of South America, by 
Phyllis Truth Johnson, is now available. Price $10.00. Send orders to Mr. 
Herbert J. Conkle, Custodian. Entomological Society of Washington, Plant 
Quarantine Branch, ARS, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington 25, D. C. 



190 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGTTST, 1957 

NOTES ON BIONOMICS AND ECOLOGY OF MOSS-MITES I. 
(ACAEI: ORIBATEI) 

Josef R. Winkler, Museum sluko Olomouc, Czechoslovakia 

(Communicated to Tyler A. Woolley, Colorado A & M College) 

Migration on Large Plants 

Studies of mierocavernieoloiis life histories demonstrate the occur- 
rence of certain oribatid mites in soil layers, decaying leaves, under 
stones, beneath the bark of trees, and in similar biotopes. The mites 
are often very abundant also on small plants growing in the immedi- 
ate neighborhood of the earth (mosses, lichens, etc.), but their pres- 
ence on larger plants is rather exceptional and only a small number 
of migrant species is known. Some oribatid species, for instance Cym- 
haeremacns cymha (Nic), Neoliodes theleproctus (Herm.), and N. 
farinosns (Koch) are often mentioned in the literature as arboricolous 
mites. Collections on forest-steppes in the Karlstejn area (Central 
Bohemia) help to revise these data. On oaklets of this locality Neo- 
liodes farinosus was procured in great numbers together with Phaulop- 
pia lucorum in sweepings of the area. Both of these also occurred in 
sweepings from the serpentine-steppes of Mohelno (SAV Moravia) 
made by the writer in May 1955. 

On localities in the lower parts of the Sumava Mts., (Bohmerwald), 
Phauloppia lucorum and Cymhaeremaeus cymha were collected to- 
gether. The former was distributed rather individually ; the latter 
occurred in great abundance in overgrowths of Cladonia and on the 
trunks of firs. P. lucorum was not found in any of the samples of 
litter from beneath these trees. Specimens of C cymha were rather 
rare in the litter and those found were usuallv dead and defective. 
(Schwarzbach in Bohmenwalde, 18.9.1953, J. R. Winkler) 

The writer also studied the migration of Camisia lapponica (Tragh.) 
on leaves of bilberry {Vaccinium vitis) in the locality of Pestrice 
(Stogenwald) not far from Bohmenwalde. Clu.sters of Vaccinium 
were infested by the scale Chionaspis salicis and the aleurodid Aleuro- 
tuherculatus similis Tahahashi (Det. Dr. J. Zahradnik). In this in- 
stance the author observed slow, distinct migrations of C. lapponica 
in spite of low temperatures of —1° to —20° C. These observations 
are unique, for data concerninig migrations of this species on plants 
are not found in the literature. 

The occurrence of Trichorihates incisellus (Krammer) on culti- 
vated lucerne {Medicago sativa) was observed July 7, 1955, near 
Karlstejn (Central Bohemia). No data concerning migration of this 
species on plants of a greater size are known. 

Occurrence of cerotegument on Xenillus tegeocranus (Herm.) 
For some species of mites the presence of cerotegument covering 
the body is characteristic. In certain instances it may be a valid and 
prominent taxonomic feature. The carabodid species (Xenillus tegeo- 
cranus (Herm.) usually has no cerotegument and there are no cases 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 191 

described in the literature. The writer obtained this rather common 
species in a number of Bohemian localities. All collected specimens 
were of normal appearance. In one Bohemian (Liehkov, 3.9.1954) 
and three Moravian localities (Vlaske 29.8.1954 and Hanusovice, 
15.8.1954), however, the author found specimens covered by a thick, 
dirty amorphous, yellowish-brown cerotegument. The layer covered 
both propodosoma and hysterosoma and made peneric and specific 
identification impossible. The lamellae were of fantastic form and 
size. The cerotegument layer was suppressed by boiling specimens in 
chloralphenol and washing them in carboxylol. They were then 
mounted in Canada balsam and all characters became visible. The 
cerotegument, if present, is very adhesive, which necessitates a drastic 
method of removal. Although the writer boiled specimens in lactic 
acid and cleared them mechanically, he had better success with the 
former technique. Factors influencing the production and adhesion 
of cerotegument are unknown to the writer ; he is also at a loss to 
explain the lack of cerotegument in some mites of the same species, 
as described above. 

THE LARVA OF SIMOPELTA (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE) 

George C. Wheeler and .Jeanette Wheeler 
Department of Biology, University of North Dalota 

The larva of Simopelta deserves to be ranked with those of Lepta- 
nilla and Proccraiium as the most aberrant and bizarre among the 
ants. In fact, when we first looked at Borgmeier's (1950) sketch, we 
doubted that it could be a formicid larva. It had a somewhat dipter- 
ous habitus and there are myrmecophilous larvae among the Diptera. 
So we a^ked Dr. Borgmeier if he would send us some material for 
study. His response was most generous — 70 larvae. 

A detailed study of this material revealed the presence of most for- 
micid larval characters, but since we still had doubts, we sent some 
to Dr. Willis AV. Wirth at the United States National Museum. Dr. 
Wirth^ has written us that ' ' the complete series of abdominal spiracles 
indicate that they are not dipterous. I know of no Diptera higher 
than the Fungivoridae-Itonididae series which have a complete series 
of abdominal spiracles. Traces of the usual pair of apical spiracles 
and the lack of a posterior differentiated pair of spiracles are practi- 
cally always to be found in the higher Diptera."^ 

Genus SIMOPELTA Mann 

Body rather stout and nearly straight. Diameter greatest at abdominal somite 

IV, decreasing to the anterior end of the abdomen, then increasing to the meso- 

thorax. Prothorax conoidal and capable of being retracted to a limited extent 

into the mesothorax; basal diameter (in preserved material) aliruptly offset from 



iQbiter dictum: Dr. Wirth showed the larvae to a colleague, who said that if 
they were ant larvae, he was ready to believe anything. 



192 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 

the anterior end of the niesothorax. Terminal abdominal segment forming a 
small knob directed postero-ventrally. Tubercles sparse (72) ; fungiform, door- 
knob-shaped or irregu'ar. Body and head hairs lacking. Antennae very small and 
situated high on the head, each with two sensilla. Mandibles falcate; base not 
dilated; without spinules or medial teeth; apex directed posteriorly, simulating 
the mouthhooks of maggots. Labial palps lateral. 

Simopelta belonos to the .section Eupoiieriiiae of the subfamily 
Poiierinae ; the larvae of this section are characterized by havinu' body 
tubercles. Tlie tubercles of Simopelta appear somewhat similar to the 
glutinous dorsal tubercles of Povera and Eupoyiera, but otherwise 
there is little resemblance to other members of the tribe Ponerini. 
Head shape, hi<:h antennae, and the lack of hairs on the head suggest 
Leptogenys in the tribe Leptogenyini. On the other hand, Simopelta 
is unique among known ant larvae in (1) the general shape of the 
body and the shape of the thorax in particular; (2) the partial re- 
tractability of the prothorax; (8) complete absence of hairs; and (4) 
the shajie and position of the mandibles. The lateral position of the 
labial palps is unusual but not unique. 

Simopelta pergandei (Forel) 
Young larva — Straight length l.(i mm; length through spiracles 1.7 mm. Body 
rather stout and nearly straight. Dianu^er greatest at abdominal somite IV, de- 
creasing gradually to the posterior end, which would be In'oadly rounded were 
it not for the terminal somite that forms a small knob directed posteroventrally ; 
decreasing anteriorly to the an':erior end of the abdomen, then increasing to the 
niesothorax. Prothorax conoidal and capable of being retracted to a limited ex- 
tent into the niesothorax; basal diameter (in preserved material) abruptly re- 
duced from the diameter of the anterior end of the niesothorax, giving an offset 
appearance. Head on the anterior end. Anus posteroventral. Leg and gonopod 
vestiges present. Segmentation indistinct. Body beset with 72 tubercles which 
are fungiform, doorknob-.shaped, or irregular (in preserved material). Tubercles 
arranged in 8 longitudinal rows ; the mesothoraeic through the seventh abdomi- 
nal somite each bearing 8 tubercles. Segmentation indistinct. Integument thickly 
beset with minute papillae (about 0.0012 mm in diameter). No body hairs. Cra- 
nium longer than broad; widest at the liases of the mandibles; dorsal outline 
rounded. Head with 10 small sensilla but no hairs. Antennae very small ami 
high on the cranium; each with 2 sensilla, each of which bears a minute spinule. 
Labruni narrow, slightly longer than broad, thick ; the blunt ventral surface with 
8 sensilla; each lateral surface with 1 sensillum; posterior surface spinulose, the 
spinules rather long (about 0.009 mm) and arranged in subtransverse rows, the 
rows so close together that their spinules overlap. Mandibles heavily sclerotized; 
falcate; ''ase not dilated; without medial teeth; surfaces smooth; apex directed 
posteriorly. Maxillae not distinctly marked off from the head; the apex bearing 
a few long slender spinules; palp a low knob with 1 lateral (bearing a spinule) 
and 3 terminal (2 small with a spinule each and 1 large and encapsulated) sen- 
silla; galea a tall frustum bearing 2 apical sensilla. Anterior surface of labium 
spinulose, the spinules long and in sulitransverse rows, the rows so close together 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 



193 




o o o 






Fig. 1.^ — Simopelta pergandei (Forel), A, head in anterior view, X205 ; B, larva 
in side view, X44 ; C, larva in ventral view, X44 ; D, surface view of cuticular 
spines, X635; E, left mandible in lateral view, X282; F, mouth parts in sagittal 
section, X625 ; G, tubercle and adjacent bulb in section, X635. Bh, bulb; Cm, 
cuticle; Ed, hypodermis; Hp, hypopharynx; Li, labium; Lr, labrum; S, duct of 
sericteries; Tu. tubercle. 



194 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 

that their spinules overlap; palps lateral, each a low knob with 1 lateral (bearing 
a spinule) and .3 terminal (2 small with a spinule each and 1 large and encapsu- 
lated) sensilla; opening of serieteries a long transverse slit on the ventral surface 
of the labium. Hypopharynx densely spinulose, the spinules long and in numerous 
transverse rows, the rows so close together that their spinules overlap. (Material 
studied: numerous larvae from San Jose, Costa Eica, collected by H. Schmidt.) 
Borgmeier 1950 (p. 376) states (translation from Portuguese): "I was able 
to examine more than 70 larvae of this species. None of them appears to have 
attained complete development, but at most scarcely 2 mm. in total length (the 
worker is 3 mm.). Some specimens were treated with lactic acid, and the form 
and structure were perfectly visible under liigh magnification. The color is cream. 
The thoracic segments are sharply marked off from the abdominal segments. There 
is a slight constriction in the height of abdominal segments 2-3 and they are 
enlarged in the posterior half of the abdomen. In specimens preserved in alcohol 
the form is more flattened and more enlarged posteriorly, and thoracic segments 
2-3 are usually retracted. Abdominal segments 1-9 bear on the dorsal and ven- 
tral surface transverse rows of 4 circular papillae. The integument is naked, 
without hairs." (Fig. 12 on p. 375, larva in dorsal view.) 

Reference 
Borgmeier, T. 1950. A femea dichthadiiforme e os estadios evolutivos de Simopelta 
pergandei (Forel), e a descrigao de »S. hicolor, n. sp. Rev. de Ent. 21: 369- 
380, ilhis. 

A NOTE ON THTLAKOTHRIPS BABULI RAMAKRISHNA 

J. Douglas Hood 

The deseriptioii of Thilakothrips hahiili Kamakrishna (Mem. Dept. 
Agr. India, 10(7) :276-277, 1928) was evidently based in large part 
upon material crushed in the process of mounting and examined with 
no great care. To the species were attributed several nonexistent char- 
acters. I have a paratype which was collected with the holotype ; i.e., 
it was taken at the same place, on the same day, in the same kind of 
galls, on the same plant, and labeled by the original describer in his 
own handwriting. This specimen, after treatment with potassium 
hydroxide, was manipulated into what appears to be a close approxi- 
mation of its original form, and then remounted. It is the basis for 
the notes and drawings given below. 

Little resemblance is to be seen between the present illustrations 
(Figs. 1-3) and those accompanying the text of the original descrip- 
tion ; and several statements made in the description itself need also 
to be corrected. 

Thus, the head is not "dome shaped, converging toward the eyes 
and widening toward base, where there is a slight lateral expansion 
like a lappet on each side." Rather, it is nearly parallel-sided, nar- 
rowed basally, and not at all out of the ordinary in general form. 
Nor do the cheeks have "distinct crenulations, which appear more or 
less like warts, but have no spines or tubercles"; instead, they are 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 



IU5 




Thllakothrips babiiU Ramahrishna. Head and protliorax, $, para type; right 
fore leg omitted. 



196 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 





TMlaTcothrips hahuli: Metanotum, ?, paratype (upper); tergum of abdomen, 
9,paratype (lower). 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 197 

well covered with distinct, though not large, tubercles, and each tuber- 
cle, with few exceptions, bears a large, curved, and somewhat tinger- 
like seta. The prothorax is nearly smooth on the disc and without 
reticulation of any sort. It is set with numerous, heavy, tapering setae 
— fashioned much like the cephalic ones — and has the conventional six 
pairs of major setae, in their usual positions : four on the pronotum, 
one on the epimera, and one on the fore coxae. All of these last have 
conspicuously dilated tips. In the original description, this part of the 
body is said to be "not so distinctly reticulate" as the head, and 
"fringed with numerous curved hyaline bristles which are dilated 
at the tip, the postero-lateral bristle long, curved . . . other bristles 
comparatively small." 

Following are measurenients, in iiiii-roiis exfei)t as otherwise noted, of the 
single specimen, a de-alated niacropterous female: Length al)0ut 1.6 mm. (dis- 
tended, 1.86 mm). Head, total length 24.5, width across eyes 148, least width 
just behind eyes 129, greatest width across cheeks 151, least width near base 123, 
width across basal collar 129, greatest width in front of eyes 93, width of frontal 
costa 19. Eyes, dorsal length 64, dorsal width 40, dorsal interval 68. Median 
ocellus, diameter 15. Postocular setae, length 63, interval 107, distance from eyes 
20. Mouth-cone, length beyond posterior dorsal margin of head 146. Prothorax, 
median length of pronotum 16(i, width across coxae 290, length of antero-marginal 
setae 50, antero-angulars 54, mi<l'nt;'rals 55, epimerals 82, postero-marginals 67, 
eoxals 50. Mesothorax, width across anterior angles 302. Metathorax, greatest 
width posteriorly 315. Abdomen, greatest width (at segment III) 343; tube 
(segment X, only), length 163, width across basal collar 62, greatest subbasal 
width 57, least apical width 29, terminal setae 94; segment IX, seta T 92, II 80. 
Lengths of antennal segments: I 50 (dorsal, exposed length only 29), II 60, 
III 60, IV 56, V 54, VI 53, VII 53, VIII 27; total length of antennae 413. 

A NEW SPECIES OF DENDROCORIS AND A NEW COMBINATION OF 

ATIZIES 

(Hemiptera, Pentatomidae) 
Gr. H. Nelson, College of Medical Evangelists, Loma Linda, California. 
Since the author's recent revision of the genus Dendrocoris (Proc. 
Eut. Soc. Wash. 57 : 49-67, 1955), a new species of Dendrocoris, herein 
described, and a new combination of Atizies have been recognized. In 
the revision Atizifs was placed as a synonym of Dendrocoris on the 
basis of A. snffultus Distant. Another species of Atizies, called to the 
author's attention by Mr. D. Leston, of London, England, was de- 
scribed by L. Ancona N. in "Los jumiles de Taxco (Gro.) Atizies 
taxcoensis spec, nov." (An. del Inst, de Biol. 3:149-162, 19 ) As 
the reference was not available to the author. Dr. R. I. Sailer, of the 
IT. S. National Museum, kindly checked the original description and 
drawings. He states that the drawing of the underside shows the 
bifurcate metasternal plate or metaxyphus that is so characteristic of 
the Edessini and that A. taxcoensis belongs to the genus Edessa and is 
possibly a synonym of E. conspersa Stal. 



198 



PROC. ENT. SOO. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 



Dendrocoris parapini, new species 

This species resembles J), pini Montaiidon closely but has a relatively narrower 
head (especially noticeable in that part anterior to the eyes) and concave antero- 
lateral pronotal margins, which are straight or slightly convex in pini (see figs. 
1 and 2). 

Color. — Pale yellow ochraceous above and beneath, with ferruginous tints on 
head above. Punctures concolorous with body except for dark brown to black 
punctures along lateral margins of juga, anterolateral margins of pronotum, and 
a few along lateral margins of hemelytra. Antennae rufo-ferruginous, paler to- 
ward base. Rostrum colored as body with dark markings typical of this genus. 
Legs colored as body, tarsi rufo-ferruginous. Abdominal segments with dark 
antero- and posterolateral angles as seen from a lateral view. Spiracles colored 
as body. 

Structure. — General form oval. Head width to length a ratio of 1.05 to 1, 
obliquely narrowed to rounded front; vertex and base of tylus convex; juga con- 
tiguous in front. Disk of pronotum with a few irregular raised smooth areas 
laterally and anteriorly ; humeri not prominent, lateral margins before humeri 
slightly concave. Scutellum with impunetate areas along lateral margins and on 
disk. Hemelytra with impunetate areas located irregularly on their surface. 
Length: $ , 6-7 mm. Width: $, 3.4-3.8 mm. 

Fem,ale genitalia. — Essentially as in pini except that the genital plates are 
largely or completely hidden by sixth abdominal segment. 

Variation. — Dark punctures occur on the posterior margin of pronotum in one 
specimen. Coloration and structure ciuite constant in the specimens available. 

Type Material. — Described from seven females. 

Holotype : New Mexico : Las Vegas, August 12, H. S. Barber and 
Schwarz. U. S. National Museum Type Cat. No. 63453. 

Paratypes : New Mexico : 1 Las Vegas, August 16, Barber and 
Schwarz; 1 Santa Fe, July 21, 1926, E. C. Van Dyke; 1 Jemez 





Fig. 1, Dendrocoris parapini Nelson, outline of head and pronotum; fig. 2, D. pini 
Montandon, outline of head and pronotum. 



Springs, July 1, 1916, J. Woodgate; Texas: 3 Jeff Davis Co., June 
20, 1952, July 4, 1953, and July 6, 1953, D. J. and J. N. Knull. These 
paratypes are distributed in the following collections : 2, U. S. Na- 
tional Museum; 3, Ohio State University Collection; 1, California 
Academy of Sciences. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 199 

It is possible that additional specimens of parapini are present in 
some collections under the name pini Montandon: Specimens identi- 
fied as pini are especially suspect if they were collected in New Mexico 
or Texas. 

HOST FEEDING OF CULISETA MORSITANS 

Robert C. Wallis, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven 

The ecology and bionomics of mosquitoes feeding- on avian hosts have 
recently become important, as epidemiolog'ical studies involve wild 
birds and domestic pheasants as hosts of eastern equine encephalitis. 
However, knowledge of many mosquito species, particularly of the 
host-feeding- preference, is not available. This article reports observa- 
tions on the biology of one of these little known species, Culiseta 
morsitans. 

The biology of the larvae of this species was published by Horsfall 
in 1955, but little has been reported on the feeding- habits of the adult. 

Carpenter and LaCasse (1955) say the females of the species rarely, 
if ever, feed on man. They indicate that C. morsitans probably feeds 
on bii'ds and cite an account of a female feeding upon the blood of a 
breenfinch (Natvig 1948). However, there is little evidence concern- 
ing the source of the blood meal of this species. There is no indica- 
tion that this mosquito even requires blood, since engorged specimens 
have not been reported. Wesenberg-Lund ( 1921 ) examined thousands 
of wild females and found none with blood in the alimentary tract. 

E.rperiniental. — Biweekly collections of mmsitans adults were ob- 
tained from diurnal resting places in the vicinity of a domestic pheas- 
ant pen at Shade Swamp, Connecticut, throughout the early summer 
of 1956. During two 4-week periods, prior to and after 6-week-old 
pheasants were placed in the pen, the number of female C. inorsitans 
containing fresh blood were counted and recorded. Blood smears from 
specimens containing fresh blood meals were prepared for microscopic 
examination. 

Results. — Within a 4-week period, from June 16 to July 14, 1956, 
pheasants were placed in the pen, the number of female C. morsitans 
contained fresh blood meals out of a total of 115 females of this spe- 
cies collected. However, the collection taken during the first week 
after the pheasants were in the pen, July 14 to July 21, contained 18 
blooded specimens out of 27. The incidence of blooded specimens in 
collections during the next 2 wrecks remained high and then dropped 
in the fourth week. In the second week, July 21 to July 28, 6 were 
blooded out of 14 collected. In the third week, July 28 to August 4, 
6 were blooded out of 23 specimens. During the fourth week, August 
4 to August 11, 1 out of 14 had engorged with blood. In this 4-week 
period after the young pheasants were placed in the pen, a total of 
31 blooded specimens out of 88 C. morsitans were collected. The per- 
centage incidence of blooded specimens for this 4-week period was 
35.2 percent as compared with 2.6 percent for the previous 4-week 



200 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 

period. Blood smears prepared for microscopic examination revealed 
that 6 out of 6 blood-engorged specimens contained nucleated red 
blood cells. 

Discussion — During the past 3 years this laboratory has been con- 
i-erned with the ecology of mosquitoes feeding on pheasants, because 
of the repeated occurrence in Connecticut of eastern equine encepha- 
lomyelitis in domestic pheasants. Particular observations have been 
made of Culiseta (Wallis 1953) since Chamberlain et al. (1951) re- 
ported isolation of the virus from C. mclanura and Holden et al. 
(1954) reported isolation of three strains of virus from pools of the 
same species collected near a pheasant ]ien in Ncm^ Jersey. 

During the early summer months, adult C. morsitons were routinely 
■collected in diurnal resting places in past years, but it was not until 
1956 that careful observation of blood-engorged specimens could be 
t^orrelated with the stocking of the pheasant pen. The sharp increase 
in the number of specimens containing blood was startling, and could 
not be connected with any other change in the environment. AVild bird 
and other potential host populations within the area were apparently 
constant during the two periods. It may be postulated that since a 
smaller total number of adults was in the cave collections in the lat- 
ter 4-week period, the percentage of fed specimens would naturally 
increase. Also, the females in the population may not have been ready 
to feed earlier in the season. However, the proportion of blood-en- 
gorged specimens during the first week the pheasants were available 
was considerably higher than for subsequent weeks. From this, it ap- 
pears that a backlog of females ready to feed was built up in the popu- 
lation and the young pheasants provided a suitable host population. 

References 

-Carpenter, S. J., and LaCasse, W. J. 1955. Mosquitoes of North America, Berke- 
ley, Calif. Univ. Calif. Press. 6, 386 pp. 

Chamberlain, R. W., Rubin, H., Kissling, R. E., and Edison, M. E. 1951. Recovery 
of virus of Eastern equine encephalitis from a mosquito, C)iliseta melanura 
(Coquillett). Proe. Soc. Expt. Biol, and Med. 77: 396-397. 

Holden, P., Miller, J. B., and Tobbins, D. M. 1954. Isolations of eastern equine 
encephalomyelitis virus from mosquitoes (Culiseta melanura) collected in 
New Jersey 1953. Proe. Soc. Expt. Biol, and Med. 87: 457-459. 

Horsfall, W. R. 1955. Mosquitoes. Their Bionomics and Relations to Disease. 
Ronald Press Co., New York. 723 pp. 

Natvig, L. R. 1948. Contributions to the knowledge of the Danish and Fennoscan- 
dian Mosquitoes: Culeini. Norsk. Ent. Tidsskr., Sup. 1, 567 pp. 

Wallis, R. C. 1953. Notes on the Biology of Culiseta melanura (Coquillett). 
Mosquito News. 14: 33-34. 

Wesenberg-Lund, C. 1920-1921. Contributions to the biology of the Danish Culi- 
cidae. Host and Son, Copenhagen. 210 pp. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. i, AUGUST, 1957 201 

SUMMARY REPORTS OF SOCIETY OFFICERS FOR 1956 
CORRESPONDING SECRETARY 

Membership as of January 1, 1956 (adjusted figure) 506 

Reductions : 

Resigned 1 

Dropped 21 

Deceased 1 

Total 23 

Elected to membership 26 

Net gain in membership i 3 

Total membership, on Dec. 31, 1956 509 

Classes of Membership 

Active dues paying — . 486 

Life 5 

Retired 14 

Honorary ___ ___ 4 

509 

The membership is distributed among 41 States, the District of Columbia, and 
21 foreign countries. 

Circulation of the Proceedings (October 1956 issue) : 
Unstamped, poundage rate 

States 396 

District of Columbia — . 34 

U. S. Possessions 15 445 

Stamped, foreign countries . 153 

Chain mail - 118 

Total 716 

Distribution : 

To members 473 

To subscribers 243 

Total 716 

The Proceedings go to members and subscribers in 47 States, the District of 
Columbia, 4 Territories, and 46 foreign countries. 

Respectfully submitted, Kelvin Dorward, Corresponding Secretary. 



202 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 

TREASURER 
General Fund 

Cash on liand— January 1, 1956 - - - I 535.17 

Receipts during 1956 - - - -- 3,599.75 

Total $4,134.92 

Cash on hand— December 31, 1956 268.20 

Expenditures during 1956 ._.. 3,866.72 

Total $4,134.92 

Publication Fund 

Cash and securities on hand — January 1, 1956 — _. $6,044.28 

Receipts and Earnings during 1956 1,296.10 

Total $7,340.38 

Cash and Securities on hand — December 31, 1956 6,724.98 

Expenditures during 1956 615.40 

Total $7,340.38 

Copies of the Treasurer's report, approved by the Auditing Committee, are 
on file with the Corresponding Secretary and the Treasurer. 

Respectfully submitted, P. X. Peltier, Treasurer 

CUSTODIAN 

During the calendar year 1956 the office of the Custodian sold 53 Memoirs for 
$288.10; Proceedings, including one complete set, for $384.40; and reprints and 
miscellaneous papers amounting to $15.10. The total value of sales amounted to 
$684.60. 

Memoirs on hand December 31, 1956 were as follows: No. 1, 108; No. 2, 47; 
No. 3, 253 ; and No. 4, 984. Orders have been indicated or actually received for 
about 20 of the new Memoir No. 5. 

It might be interesting to note that in 1953 items sold amounted to $1,918; 
1954, $544; 1955, $554; 1956, $690. 

We have already received one order for a complete set of the Proceedings this 
year [1957]. This brings up again the problem of providing complete sets after 
the present supply of about 15 complete sets is exhausted. A few numbers are 
in very short supply and one number is completely exhausted. The Executive 
Committee is giving consideration to this matter. 

Respectfully submitted, H. J. Conkle, Custodian. 

EDITOR 

Six numbers of Volume 58 of the Proceedings, a total of 368 pages, have been 
published in 1956. Eighteen pages were devoted to advertising (exclusive of 
back covers) and 350 pages to scientific papers, notes, book reviews, obituaries, 
and minutes of meetings. This is in contrast to 304 pages published in 1955, 
294 of which were devoted to scientific papers and notes, obituaries, book reviews. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 203 

and minutes of meetings. During 19.56, 8 published pages were paid for by their 
authors; in 1955, 8^/^ were so paid. Volume 5S contains 55 original contributions 
averaging 6^/^ pages in length. Volume 57 contained 50 original contributions 
averaging 5% pages in length. 

Memoir No. 5, entitled "A Classification of the Siphonaptera of South Amer- 
ica," by Dr. Phyllis Johnson, is in preparation. The manuscript has been 
edited, set in galley, and proofread by the author, and the dummy has been 
prepared. 

Eespectfully submitted, Richard H. Foote, Editor. 

SOCIETY MEETING 

The 65Sth regular meeting of the Society was held in room 4.3 of the U. S. 
National Museum, Thursday, January .3, 1957. President Frank L. Campbell 
called the meeting to order at 8 p.m., and there were 35 members and 20 visitors 
present. The minutes of the previous meeting were read, corrected, and approved. 

President Campbell announced the following committees for 1957. Advertising : 
Price G. Piquett, chairman, A. H. Bender, John H. Fales, and George S. Langf ord ; 
Auditing: Harold Morrison, chairman, and L. B. Reed; Membership : William E. 
Bickley, chairman, Engel L. R. Gilbert, Jack C. Jones, M. P. Jones, Robert T. 
Mitchell, Edgar A. Taylor, and Rose E. Warner; Memoirs: Reece I. Sailer, 
chairman, Richard H. Foote, Alice V. Renk (ex officio), Jerome G. Rozen, Jr., 
and G. W. Wharton; Notes and Exliibition of Specimens: R. H. Nelson, chairman, 
Louis G. Davis, Elizabeth E. Haviland, and W. N. Sullivan, Jr.; Program: J. F. 
Gates Clarke, chairman (elected), Theodore R. Gardner, Karl V. Krombein, How- 
ard B. Owens; Seserve Stock: H. J. Conkle, chairman (elected), Paul X. Peltier, 
and Helen Sollers. 

H. M. Armitage, President of the Entomological Society of America, brought 
greetings from the Pacific Coast Entomological Society and the Entomological 
Societies of Northern and Southern California. In a few lively remarks in be- 
half of the Entomological Society of America, he said that he would not remind 
Society members they should join the E. S. A., as he was sure they already be- 
longed. President Campbell observed that the E. S. A. was also represented at the 
meeting by its immediate past president, B. A. Porter, but gave Dr. Porter a well- 
earned rest by calling on R-. H. Nelson for a report on the recent meetings. The 
E. S. A. has about 3,700 members and hopes that the number may grow to 4,000 
in 1957. 

R. I. Sailer exhibited third and fourth instars of the wheel bug, Arilits cristatus 
(L.). These wheel bug nymphs had hatched in early December from eggs laid in 
late September. The nymphs had fed exclusively on nymphs of the stink bug 
Eu^chistus servus Say. Specimens of adult wheel bugs mounted with various spe- 
cies of prey were also shown. The prey included a honey bee, wasp, mantispid, 
scarab, mantid, and a walking stick. T. J. Spilman asked how the bug managed 
to pierce the armorlike exoskeleton of an insect such as a scarab. Dr. Sailer re- 
plied that in the case of stink bugs he had seen the wheel bug insert its stylets 
through the intersegmental membranes of the abdomen and legs. In one instance a 
stink bug was killed by a thrust through the basal articulation of its rostrum. 
[Author's abstract.] 



204 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 

B. A. Porter exhibited a can of "maguey Avorms," lepidopterous larvae used 
as food in Mexico. The cans are widely offered for sale in Mexican grocery stores. 
Dr. Armitage commented that he had sampled the fried grasshoppers, and that 
."0,000 cans from Tokyo were placed on the U. S. market this year; he did not 
recommend them. 

The principal paper of the evening Avas ' ' The Development of Commercial En- 
tomology in the United States," by Mortimer D. Leonard, of the Shell Chemical 
Corporation. [The paper as read will l)e published in the Proceedings of the Tenth 
international Congress of Entomology.] "Commercial Entomology" refers to 
activities of entomologists, and "Oflficial Entomology" to their activities in Fed- 
eral, State, and other nonprofit agencies. The first commercial entomologist started 
in 1904. The growth in numbers of entomologists employed by business and indus- 
try was indicated and some of the reasons for the increase were analyzed. The 
continually widening field of activities was traced and the present more important 
kinds of business which employ graduate entomologists were briefly described. 
Although it is estimated tliat only about 15 percent of all professional en- 
tomologists are presently connected with profit-making activities, an increasing 
number of trained entomologists will undoubtedly enter the commercial field as 
time goes on. The rate of increase will depend to a considerable extent on the 
imagination and aggressiveness of entomologists themselves, in pointing out how 
business can profit by a greater use of their specialized knowledge and services. 
The development of more adequate curricula in our colleges and universities can 
contribute greatly to better enable students to enter the commercial field and 
attention should be given toward this end. [Author's abstract.] The paper was 
discussed by President Campbell and by members Porter, Nelson, Bishopp, and 
Armitage. 

The Shell Chemical Corporation furnished the second part of the scheduled pro- 
gram, a new film, "The Rival World," on the insect menace. The film was 
exhibited by Robert E. Hamman, Washington representative of the Agricultural 
Chemicals Division of the Corporation. Dr. Bishopp commented on the improve- 
ment in the migratory locust problem. He remarked "This film is splendid in its 
coverage and technical qualities. I feel, however, that it overstresses the migratory 
locust problem although that is a spectacular example of the destructiveness of 
insects. Unfortunately it conveys the impression that no headway has been made 
in conquering the migratory locust. The impression I have gained from contacts 
in Egypt and the Middle East is that the systematic scouting and timely use of 
insecticides by the various countries has greatly reduced the losses and terror 
chargeable to the locusts. In this the good Avork of Bill Mabee, of the U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture, and his associates have played an important part." 

The visitors introduced were Mrs. Bishopp ; F. D. Butcher, entomologist with 
the U. S. Army Forces in the Far East, stationed in Camp Zana, Japan, and his 
wife and son Frederick ; Dr. Keizo Yasumatsu, who will shortly return to his home 
in Japan; and G. W. Dekle, of the Florida State Plant Board. Honorary Member 
H. G. Barber was also presented. 

The meeting ad.iourncd at 10 p.m. — Kellie O'Neill, Becording Secretary. 



PBGC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 205 

THE PUBLICATION FUND 

Now that Memoir No. 5 has been published, the Executive Commit- 
tee of the Entomological Society of Washington wishes to call atten- 
tion to the Publication Fund of the Society. Our Constitution, as 
amended in December 1956, states, 

"The Society shall maintain a separate fund to be known as the Special 
Publication Fund. At the discretion of the Executive Committee, any unrestricted 
portion of the Special Publication Fund may be used for publishing memoirs, 
handbooks, or other special publications. In any one year, a sum not exceeding 
the previous five years' income from interest on the Special Publication Fund 
monies may be taken from this Fund and applied toward the publication of the 
Proceedings; such sum to be returned to the Special Publication Fund at the 
discretion of the Executive Committee. The Special Publication Fund will be 
derived from bequests and gifts, from the sale of complete sets of the Proceedings 
of the Entomological Society of Washington, from the sale of Memoirs, Hand- 
books, or other special publications, from the fees of life and sustaining members, 
and from the sum of fifty cents from the annual dues of each member." 

The Publication Fund was started by a bequest of $1,400 by the 
late Frederick Knab in 1918. In 1927 a "donation of $1,000 by the late 
E. A. Schwarz was added to it. Since that time no bequests or gifts 
have been added to this fund. The Executive Committee wishes to 
arouse the interest of members and friends of the Society in obtain- 
ing additional funds for the publication of Memoirs by the Society. 
Further contributions of any amount will be welcome. At present 
the publication of each additional Memoir is mainly dependent upon 
funds derived from the sales of those already published. 

Contributions to charitable, or educational institutions up to 20 
percent of gross income may be deducted in computinu' Federal in- 
come taxes. The form printed below is suggested for the use of those 
who desire to leave the Society any personal property, such as money, 
stocks, bonds, works of art, or other objects of value. 

FORM OF BEQUEST 

Know All Men by These Presents, That I ........ 

of the city of , county of , 

and state of , do hereby give, grant, and convey unto 

The Entomological Society of Washington, at Washington, in the District of 
Columbia, an organization to promote the study of entomology in all of its 

bearings, the sum of dollars (I ) 

to have and to hold the same unto itself and its successors forever for the 

promotion of the purposes thereof. 

(Place and date) 

WITNESSES: SEAL 

Date of publication. Vol. 59, No. 3, was June 21, 1957. 



206 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 



A Cyanamid Report 



Resistance 



Resistance to chlorinated hydrocarbon type 
insecticides has been proven or suspected in : 



cockroaches 

mosquitoes 

Colorado potato beetle 

dog: and cat fleas 

bed bugs 

codlings moth. 

leafhoppers 



house flies 
flea beetles 
cotton boll -weevil 
body lice 
lygus bug^s 
cotton leaf worm 
dog ticks 



Many researchers have found malathion to be 
a capable replacement for the chlorinated 
hydrocarbons and have made recommendations 
for its use. If you have a "resistance" problem 
in your area, you might well consider malathion 
for your 1957 research schedule. 



C YA. iV A J%T X X» 



Developers and producers of malathion and parathion 



Write for 

particular 

technical 

information 



AMERICAN CYANAMID COMPANY 

Agricultural Chemicals Division 

Insecticide Research 

30 Rockefeller Plaza, N. Y. 20. N. Y. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 



207 



GREAT 
INSECTICIDES 




CONTROL THESE INSECTS 

CHLORDANE: Ants. Armyworms, Blister Beetles, Boxelder Bug. Brown Dog Tick, 
Cabbage Maggot. Carpet Beetles, Cattle Lice. Chiggers, Cockroaches, Crickets, 
Cutworms. Darkling Beetles, Dog Mange, Earwigs, Fleas, Flies, Grasshoppers, 
Household Spiders, Japanese Beetle Larvae, Lawn Moths. Lygus Bugs. Mole 
Crickets, Mosquitoes, Onion Maggot, Onion Thrips, Plum Curculio, Sarcoptic 
Mange, Seed Corn Maggot, Sheep Ked, Silverfish, Sod Webworms, Southern 
Corn Rootworm, Strawberry Crown Borer, Strawberry Root Weevils. Sweet 
Clover Weevil, Tarnished Plant Bug, Termites, Ticks, Wasps, White Grubs, 
Wireworms...and many others. 

HEPTACHLOR: Alfalfa Snout Beetle, Alfalfa Weevil, Ants, Argentine Ant, Army- 
worms, Asiatic Garden Beetle Larvae, Black Vine Weevil, Root Maggots, Clover 
Root Borer, Colorado Potato Beetle, Corn Rootworms, Cotton Boll Weevil, 
Cotton Fleahopper, Cotton Thrips, Crickets, Cutworms, Egyptian Alfalfa Weevil, 
European Chafer, Eye Gnats, False Wireworms, Flea Beetles. Garden Web- 
worm, Grasshoppers, Japanese Beetle, Leaf Miners, Lygus Bugs, Mormon 
Cricket, Mosquitoes, Narcissus Bulb Fly, Onion Maggot, Onion Thrips. Rapid 
Plant Bug, Rice Leaf Miner, Salt Marsh Sand Fly, Seed Corn Maggot, Spittle- 
bug, Strawberry Root Weevils, Strawberry Rootworms, Sugar Beet Root Mag- 
got, Sweet Clover Weevil, Tarnished Plant Bug, Tuber Flea Beetle. Western 
Harvester Ant, White Fringed Beetles, White Grubs (June Beetles), Wireworms 
...and many others. 

EN DR I N ; Budworms. Cabbage Worms, Cotton Boll Weevil. Cotton Bollworm. Cot- 
ton Fleahopper, Fall Armyworm, Grasshoppers, Hornworms, Leafworms, Rapid 
Plant Bug, Spiny Bollworm, Sugar Beet Webworm, Tarnished Plant Bug, Thrips. 

WRITE FOR FULL PARTICULARS 



VELSICOL CHEMICAL CORPORATION 



Ei 



General Offices and Laboratories 

330 East Grand Avenue, Chicago 11, II 



Foreign Division 

350 Fifth Avenue, New York 1, N. Y. 



^ 



KtfntSCNlATIVfi 



f n I N c I r A L 



C I T I f S 



208 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH.. VOL. 59, NO. 4, AUGUST, 1957 

Pyrenone* 



HELPS TO PRESERVE 
PRINCIPLE OF NATURAL CONTROL 



Jtyrenone quickly kills destructive, annoy- 
ing and disease-carrying insects. 

In the absence of sunlight, it remains effective 
for long periods of time. In fact, a single application 
of Pyrenone protects stored grains from insect at- 
tacks for an entire storage season. 

On growing crops Pyrenone kills the accessible 
stages of insects fast — even between showers of 
rain. Yet natural factors of rain and sunlight do not 
permit Pyrenone to form long-lasting residues. Be- 
cause long-lasting residues are not present, the newly 
emerging parasites and predators are free to com- 
plete their life cycles and to continue to parasitize 
or feed upon destructive insect pests. 

This means that Pyrenone is completely com- 
patible with the natural control of crop-destroying 
insects. 



'Reg. U.S. Pat. Off., F.M.C. 



FAIRFIELD CHEMICAL DIVISION 

Food Machinery and Chemical Corporation 

441 Lexington Avenue • New York 17, N. Y. 



^^ BRANCHES IN PRINCIPAL CITIES 




In Canada: Natural Products Corporation, Toronto and Montreal 







White gniba {left) and wirewormt (right) magnified 20 timti. 



WHEN PESTS SEE 

eye -to -eye 

Creatures from the science-fiction world? No, just an ordinary white grub 
and a -wireworm magnified twenty times. But they and their equally de- 
structive allies, such as rootworms and cutworms, ruin millions of dollars 
worth of cotton, corn, tobacco, wheat, cole crops and others — each season. 

Constant research is necessary to find the flaws in their armor ... to 
develop newer and better controls ... to hold their crop-destruction to a 
minimum. 

That's why Shell Chemical maintains a staff of researchers who, with the 
co-operation of federal, state, and local agencies, are continually searching 
and experimenting to develop new and more potent pesticides. 

Shell's contributions to agriculture include aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, Phos- 
drin* insecticides; D-D® and Nemagon* soil fumigants; and aUyl alcohol 
weed seed killer. Others that are now in the laboratory stage wiU be avail- 
able for even more effective controls in the future. With you, we look to 
a better tomorrow for agriculture and industry through research in 
chemistry today. 

*Shell Chemical Trademark 

SHELL CHEMICAL CORPORATION 

Agricultural Chemical Sales Division 
460 Park Avenue. New York 22, New York 





QUALITY INSECTICIDES 



Preferred by Home Owners, 
Food Processors and Dairymen 

QUICK ACTION GULFSPRAY (Liquid) 

A "space spray" for quick knockdown and kill of many 
kinds of flying and crawling insects. Contains 0.10% Pyre- 
thrins, 0.12% Piperonyl Butoxide, and 0.75% Methoxychlor. 

GULFSPRAY AEROSOL BOMB 

Gulfs carefully researched formula provides quick knock- 
down action and high kill. Contains 0.25% Pyrethrins, 1% 
Piperonyl Butoxide, and 2% Methoxychlor, 

GULF MOTH PROOFER (Bomb) 

An easy-to-use pressurized spray for protecting woolens 
against moth and carpet beetle damage. Contains 3% DDT 
and 3% Perthane. 

GULF ANT AND ROACH BOMB 

A convenient pressurized spray containing contact and resid- 
ual insecticides for killing ants and cockroaches. Contains 
0.08% Pyrethrins and 2% Chlordane. 

SPECIAL GULFSPRAY (Liquid) 

A superlative-quality insecticide specially formulated for 
use where foodstuffs are processed, stored, served, and sold. 
Contains 0.25% Pyrethins and 0.20% Piperonyl Butoxide. 

GULF LIVESTOCK SPRAY 

Long proven formula with effective insect- killing power and 
repellent properties. Contains 0.07% Pyrethrins and 0.19% 
Piperonyl Butoxide. 

GULF OIL CORPORATION 

GULF BUILDING, PITTSBURGH 30, PA. 



Vol. 59 



OCTOBER 1957 



No. 5 



PHOCEEDIIVBS 



of the 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

., WASHINGTON 




U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 
WASfflNGTON 25, D. C. 



PUBLISHED BIMONTHLY 



CONTENTS 



BELL, B. T. — Carabus auratus L. (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in North 
America _ _ 254 

DAVIS, H. G., and JAMES, M, T. — Black flies attracted to meat bait 
(Diptera : Simuliidae ) - - 243 

EDMUNDS, G. F. — The Systematic Relationships of the Paleantarctic 
Siphlonuridae (including Isonychidae) (Ephemeroptera) 245 

EMERSON, K. C, and ELBEL, R. E. — New Species and Records of Mallo- 
phaga from Gallinaceous Birds of Thailand _ 232 

KROMBEIN, K. V., and SCHUSTER, R. M.— A Review of the Typhoc- 
tinae (Hjrmenoptera: Mutillidae) ^ - 209 

LANE, J., and CERQUEIRA, N. L. — The Validity and Change of Name 
of Two Species of Wyeomyia. (Diptera: Culicidae) 244 

TOWNES, H. — A Bibliography of the Scientific Publications of B. A. 
Cushman _ ._ - 248 



OBITUARY 

(Date of publieation, Vol. 59, No. 4, was Sept. 18, 1957) 



247 



THE 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 

Oboanizeo March 12, 1884 

Eegular meetings of the Society are held in Boom 43 of the U. S. National 
Museum on the first Thursday of each month from October to June, inclusive, at 
8 P.M. Minutes of meetings are published regularly in the Proceedinffs. 

MEMBERSHIP 

Members shall be persons over 18 years of age who have an interest in the 
science of entomology. Annual dues for members are $4.00; initiation fee is 
$1.00 (U, S. currency). 

PROCEEDINaS OF THE ENTOMOLOaiCAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

Published bimonthly beginning with February by the Society at Washington, 
D, C. Members in good standing are entitled to the Proceedings free of charge. 
Non-member subscriptions are $5.00 per year, both domestic and foreign (U. S. 
currency), payable in advance. All remittances should be made payable to The 
Entomological Society of Washington. 

The Society does not exchange its publications for those of other societies. 

All manuscripts intended for publication should be addressed to the Editor.* 
Acceptable papers submitted by members will be published in the order received 
and will be given precedence over those by non-members. Immediate publica- 
tion may be obtained at a cost to the author of about $10.00 per printed page, 
plus cost of all engraving. Titles of papers should be concise but comprehensive 
and should indicate the systematic position of the subject insect. By-lines should 
indicate present mailing address of the author and his organizational affiliation, 
if possible. Citations in the text of papers longer than one printed page should 
be by author and date and should refer to a list of concluding references in 
which author, year, title name of publication, volume and page are given in 
that order. In shorter articles references to literature should be included in 
parentheses in the text. 

Proportions of full-page illustrations should closely approximate 4-5/16 x 6" 
(26 X 36 picas) ; this usually allows explanatory matter to appear on the same 
page. Cost of illustrations in excess of that for one full-page line cut will be 
borne by the author. 

Beprints of published papers may be obtained at the following costs plus 
postage and insurance, provided that a statement of the number desired ac- 
companies the returned proofs : 

Spp. 

50 copies $2.00 

100 copies 2.50 

Additional copies per 100 1.00 

Purchase of reprints by institutions whose invoices are subject to notarization 
or other invoice fees will have the cost of such fees added to the purchase price. 

iMisa Alice V. Benk, Stored-Product Insects Section, AMS, U. S. Dept. Agri- 
culture, Plant Industry Station, Beltsville, Md. 



4 pp. 


8 pp. 


12 pp. 


16 pp. 


Covers 


$3.00 


$5.00 


$5.60 


$6.25 


$4.00 


3.80 


6.00 


7.20 


8.25 


4.75 


1.15 


2.00 


2.60 


3.15 


1.50 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Entomological Society of Washington 

VOL. 59 OCTOBER 1957 NO. 5 



A REVIEW OF THE TYPHOCTINAE 

( H Y M ENOPTERA : MlTILLlDAE ) 

Karl V. KROiruEiNi and Eudolf M. Schuster-'-^ 

The yenus Typhoctcs, since its recognition by Ashmead in 1899, 
has been repeatedly transferred, assigned first to one group and then 
another, depending on the personal views or concepts of the various 
workers on the aculeate Hyinenoptera. The genus has been included 
in the Mvrmosidae by Ashmead and Bradley (1917), in the Chypho- 
tinae of the family Mutillidae by Andre (1903), and in the Brachy- 
cistidinae of the family Tiphiidae by Malloch (1926). More recently 
it has been set otf, by Reid (1941), as a group by itself without com- 
mitment as to its taxonomic status. The genus has most commonly 
been considered as closely related to CJn/phofcs Blake. Fox (1899), 
for instance, stated that the Typhoctcs might well be separated sub- 
generically from Chyphofes proper, though he did not do so. When 
Ashmead (1899) established the genus TypJioctcs for Mutilla peculi- 
(iris Cresson, he gave characters for the male sex, but without citing 
the species on which they were based. Tlie only known species that 
could fit his diagnosis of the male sex was Chyphotes attenuatna 
(Blake), which correlation was accepted, with more or less reserva- 
tion by Andre (1908) and Bradley (1917). Buzicky (1941) again 
removed Typhoctcs from near Chypliotcs, and returned the male 
(liyphofcs attenuatus to its correct position within the latter genus. 
The junior author (Schuster 1949) has alread.y commented on the 
recent return bv Pate (1947) to Ashmead 's discredited conception 



^Entomology Eese;trcli Division, Agricultural Research Service, U. 8. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

-Department of Botany, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass. 

"^Material in the collections of the following individuals and institutions has 
l.een studied: U. S. National Museum (USNM) ; B. M. Bohart (RMB) ; H. E. 
Evans, Cornell University (HEE) ; P. D. Hurd. California Insect Survey (CIS) ; 
K. V. Kroml)ein (KVK)'; C. D. Michener, University of Kansas (KU) ; W. R. M. 
Mason, Canadian Department of Agriculture (CNC) ; C. E. Mickel, University 
of Minnesota (UM) ; J. A. G. Rehn, Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia (ANSP); E. S. Ross, California Academy of Sciences (CAS); R. M. 
Schuster (RMS); and P. H. Timberlake, Citrus Experiment Station (PHT). We 
Avish to express our appreciation for the valuable material that has been loaned 
to us. We are indebted to Dr. I. H. H. Yarrow, British Museum (Natural His- 
tory) for some valuable notes on the type of Typhocfes guafcmalenfiis Turner. 



210 PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 5, OCTOBER, 1957 

of (\ attenuatus as the male sex oJ:' Typhoctcs. In a brief tentative 
arrangement of the nearctic Mutillidae, the junior author, (Schuster 
1946), adherino> to tradition for want of proof that the genus belonged 
elsewhere, placed TypJiocfe.*:, questionably, in the Chyphotini, of the 
subfamily Apterogyninae. 

Later Schuster (1949) recognized that Chyphotes and TypJwctes 
were more distantly related, and the latter genus was placed in a 
separate subfamily, the Typhoctinae, while Chyphotes was main-. 
tained as a distinct tribe in the Apterogyninae. Four essential char- 
acters serve to make any close connection between Chyphotes and 
Typhoctes highly improbable. They are : 

1. The petiole form of the two genera is fundamentally different 
— that of Typhoctes is unmodified, with the tergite reaching the pro- 
podeum, while in Chyphotes the first tergite is abbreviated anteriorly, 
rather or very suddenly, and fails to reach the propodeum. 

2. The eye form is fundamentally different — in Typhoctes it is 
elongate-ovate, in Chyphotes short ovate to subcircular. 

3. The thoracic shape of the females is fundamentally different — 
the prothorax is large in Typhoctes, with the alitrunk eaudad of the 
prothorax differentiated into a distinct mesothoracic region, virtually 
obliterated dorsally, but separated by a distinct suture from the 
fused metathoracic-propodeal region, while the distinct mesopleuron 
is separated by a complete suture from the fused metapleural-pro- 
podeal region ; in Chyphotes the small prothorax is much narrower, 
strongly transverse, and set off from the subglobose, fused meso- 
metathoracic-propodeal region that lacks all traces of dorsal or pleural 
sutures separating the meso-and metathorax. 

4. There are no antennal "tubercles'' in Typhoctes, but they are 
well developed in Chyphotes. 

In the same paper Schuster based his conception of the male of 
the Typhoctinae on Anommutilla Mickel and that of the female on 
Typhoctes Ashmead. His reasons for considering that Anommutilla 
represents the male sex of Typhoctes were so convincing that the 
senior author (Krombein, 1951) published this synonymy. The char- 
acters validating such an association are : 

1. Anoiiunutilla and Typhoctes are the only nearctic genera of 
Mutillidae with the vertexal expansions of the upper and inner mar- 
gins of the antennal fossae undeveloped; i.e., antennal "tubercles" 
are absent, 

2. They are the only two nearctic genera in which the pronotum is 
exceedingly strongly developed — in the male sex of all other known 
nearctic genera the pronotum is very short, at most less than half 
as long along midline as the mesoscutum, while in the female sex, 
as indicated by the position of the spiracles, the pronotum is always 
very strongly transverse with a large mesonotum, 

3. The tarsal claws are similarly armed among the nearctic genera 
only in Chyphotes which is known in both sexes, 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 5, OCTOBER, 1957 211 

4. The formula of the tibial calcaria is identical, 1-2-2 (not 1-1-2 
in the male as stated erroneously by Miekel, 1936), 

5. The petiole is unique, consistiuij' of a basal, slender, terete, stalk- 
like anterior portion, and a somewhat flattened, transverse, nodose, 
posterior portion, 

6. The position of the short felt lines of second terffum is sug- 
gestively similar, 

7. The rather short and stout scape, contrasted to the long, slender 
flagellum occurs elsewhere only in Chyphoies among nearctic genera, 

8. The similarity in shape of the metasternal process. 

In addition to the foregoing, there is the important corroboratory 
evidence aiforded by the facts that Anoinmutilla males and TypJioetes 
females are now known to have an identical range in America north 
of Mexico, and that both sexes of a new species have been taken 
together, though Jiot in copula, in the Borego Desert of southern 
California. 

Subfamily TYPHOCTINAE Schuster, 194St 

The North and Central American Typhoctinae apparently has its 
closest relative in the South American Eotillinae. The relationships 
between the two subfamilies were discussed at length by the junior 
author (Schuster, 1949). Reexamination of the males of Typhoctinae 
shows that some of the alleged characters separating that sex from 
males of Eotillinae are based on errors. For example, according to 
Miekel (1936) the males we refer to the Typhoctinae were supposed 
to have only one calcarium on the mid tibia and to have entirely 
simple pubescence. Actually, Typhoctes males have most of the erect 
vcstiture inconspicuously but definitely subplumose, and the mid tibia 
has two apical calcaria. Therefore, the chief differences between males 
of the two subfamilies are that the Typhoctinae have reniform eyes, 
marginal cell longer than stigma, third discoidal cell longer than high, 
and hind wing lacking anal lobe or preaxillary incision, while the 
Eotillinae have ovate-elliptical eyes, marginal cell shorter than stigma, 
third discoidal cell higher than long, and hind wing with well-devel- 
oped anal lobe and preaxillary incision. The characters of the fore- 
wing cited above are quite possibly of less than subfamilial sig- 
nificance. Also, the presence of an anal lobe is a primitive character, 
and apparently that structure has been independently lost several 
times in the Mutillidae, so its presence or absence here also may not be 
of cardinal importance by itself. However, we consider that the 
difference in eye shape is of fundamental importance, and we are 
maintaining the Typhoctinae and Eotillinae as separate subfamilies, 
at least until the eventual discovery of females of Eotillinae may 
demonstrate that this separation is untenable. 

A comparative study of the genitalia of Eotilla and Typhoctes 
considerably strengthens the assumption of a close relationship be- 
tween the two groups. The digitus and cuspis in the two genera are 
strikingly similar (compare Figs. 1 and 3 with Fig. 7). The parameres 



212 PROC. ENT. sue. WASH., VOL. 59, .\0. 5, OCTOBEK, 1957 

also ar(' nearly identical in form. However, in Eofilla the parameres 
bear simple, scattered fine hairs both on their outer and inner marjiins 
(Fi<i'. 7). while Typhoeics has similar, scattered, nnec^nally long- hairs 
only on the onter faces of the parameres, while the inner faces of the 
parameres bear a comb-like line of short, equal, rigid, approximated 
bristles (Figs. 1, 2, 8b). The two groups, however, differ considerably 
in the form of the aedeagus. In Eotillinae and in the Apterogyninae 
it is essentially tiphioid in form and may be presumed to be primitive, 
as has been previously assumed by the junior author (Schuster, 1949). 
The two halves of the aedeagus are closely united in an essentially 
terete shaft, which does not appear bilobed at the summit. In contrast, 
in Tjjphoctes the aedeag-us consists of two obviously disci-ete plates, 
only loosely united, and, in sit it, is clearly, distinctly bilobed. In spite 
of this latter difference, we still assume as did one of us (Schuster. 
1949) that "the correct position of Tifphoctfs is undoubtedly close 
to the Eotillinae." 

The diagnosis which follows will serve as both a subfamilial and 
generic diagnosis, since the subfamily Typhoctinae includes only a 
single genus. 

Male. Head ti'aiisvfrse, witli lai<;i\ i-loiifjatc, suldeiiiforni i-yes that aro slightly 
emarg'inatc on tlu'ir iriuT orbits, ami tliat huvv distiiu-t facets; aiiteiiiial ' ' tiilier- 
eles ' ' aliscnt, the aiiteiuial iiiseitious ojieiiins directly froutally, not ol)li(|Uely 
downward and lateiad; scape short, l)icarinate, eciual in length to pedicel and first 
tiagellar segment comhineil ; mandihle edentate at tij) ami with a small, sid)apical 
inner tooth (thus hidentate), \('ntrally neither excised nor armed; maxillary 
palpi 6-segmented, labial palpi 4-segmented. 

Alitrunk with ])rothorax well developed, dorsally nearly truncate at apex, and 
virtually as long mediall\- as laterally-; mesoscutum distinctly transverse; endo- 
pliragnial pit approximated to the meso-metaplural suture, the metapleuron wide 
above, narrowed below to the endophragmal jiit, wheit' the metapleuron appears 
to disappear (the metapleural-propodeal suture distinct aljove endophragmal pit, 
but comi)letely lost below', the propodeum and metapleuron thus indistinguishably 
fused l)elow) ; tilnal calcaria l-"_'-2^; taisal (daws with a small tooth at middle on 
their inner margins. 

Petiole of abdomen with a basal, slender, ti'rete ])ortion, and a distal, dilated, 
rather transverse' portion, which is again stidngly constricted at its juncture 
\vith second tergum ; the tirst sternum slightly convex, the distal part nearly flat, 
smooth, nitid, imjiunctate, lacking a nu'dian keel; b;isal, terete portion of petiole 
clearly formed by botli tergum and stt'inum ; second segment with distinct sub- 
lateral felt line on each side of tergum, limited to basal half of tergum, no felt 
lines on second sternum ; hypoi)ygium simple, unmodified. 

Wings with venation relatively well ]ireserved, a distinct, elongate sclerotized 
stigma, a large marginal cell, longi'i- on costa than stigma, three submarginal 



^Mickel (1936) gave the fornuda as 1-1-2 for the type of Anommutilla difficilis. 
The more easily visible right mid tibia of Mickol's type has only one calcarium, 
the second presumably having been broken off, but the less easily visible apex 
of the left tibia has two calcaria. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., Vl)l.. 59, NO. 5, OCTOBER, 1957 213 

cells, tlio third (cell Ei) tnnieatc on its outer (-'dgt', with the vein Ri not anj^ulate, 
not giving rise to a spurious vein ; third discodial cell truncate on outer side, 
elongate; hind wings lacking all trace of anal lobe and preaxillary excision, the 
subbasal hamuli present; cubitus arising on vein M considerably distad of the 
transverse median vein, the sul)niedian cell thus nuicli shorter than median cell. 

Vestiture moderately coai-se, sinii)le except most of erect hairs on head, thorax 
and abdomen fineh' and very inconspicuously sultplumose. 

Female. Head rather similar to that of male, the eyes separated from base of 
nmndibles by a distinct malar space; antennae equally elongate, scape not carinate 
below; liypostomal carina less strongly developed, not developed outward to 
posterior mandibular condyles as distinct ridges; maxillary palpi 5-segmented, 
lal)ial palpi i-segmented ; ocelli absent; mandil)les as in male; eyes weakly 
convex, narrowly ovate, facetted, large; antennal "tultercles" very iioorly 
developed; clypeus as in male. 

Alitrunk highly moditied, but distinctly tripartite dorsally; pronotum very 
large, truncate behind, the dorsal face subcpiadrate to obtrapezoidal, separated 
by a distinct suture dorsally from mesonotum ; mesonotum short, strongly trans- 
verse, reduced virtually to a semi invaginated, transverse sclerite, separated by a 
distinct suture from the elongate, fused metathoracic-propodeal part of the 
alitrunk; mesopleuron evenly swollen, devoid of an oblique sulcus, and continuous 
with the metapleuron from which it is separated by a distinct, quite obliciue 
suture; metapleuron and propodeum completely fused, endophragmal pit al)sent; 
metasternum well developed, lying between the middle coxae; posterior coxae 
armed dorsally with a vestigial tooth; trochanters small, obliquely terminated; 
tibial calcaria 1-2-2; tarsal claws slender and armed, distad of middle, with a 
sharp inner tooth. 

Gaster with petiole as in male, but distal two-thirds slightly more strongly 
dilated, the basal portion virtually terete, very slender, formed by both tergum 
and sternum (though the tergal element, as in the male, appears to be reduced) ; 
sternum much as in male; second segment very strongly constricted from the 
nodose first segment, both dorsally and ventrally, quite elongate, relatively 
slightly convex (tlie gaster oval, rather than circular in cross-section), with sub 
lateral felt lines exactly corresponding to those of the male as regards length 
and position; pygidium and liypopj'gium simple, neither defined by lateral carinae. 

Vestiture simple throughout. 

This subfamily includes only one genus, Typlioctes Asliniead 
{^AnommuiUhi Miekel), which is known from western North America 
south to Guatemala. Nothing is known as to the host relationships 
of this group. 

Genotype: Miitilla pcciiliaris Cresson. Monotypic and by designa- 
tion of Ashmead, 1899. 

Key to Females 

1. Pronotal dorsum suljquadrate, scarcely narrowed behind, the length including 
neck subequal to greatest width ; integument almost entirely black except 
legs, fused metanotum-propodeum and first abdominal tergum red in part; 
Guatemala. fivatemalensis Turner 



214 PKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 5, OCTOBER, 1957 

Pioiiotal dorssuin obviously nariowod behind, ubtrapezoidal; integument in 
large part reddish - - 2 

2. Neither pronotum nor vertex with dense, appressed, pale sericeous pubescence; 
thorax highly polished and very sparsely punctate 3 

Pronotum always, and vertex occasionally, with dense, appressed. pale serice- 
ous pubescence; thorax not so shining, more densely punctate. (Least trans- 
facial distance 1.25-1.3 times the eye height; head width 1.6-1.7 times the 
least transfacial distance; pronotum stout, the length including neck 0.9 1.0 
times the greatest width; fused metanotum-propodeuni stouter, rather abruptly 
declivous posteriorly; longer calcar of hind tibia 0.55 times as long as hind 
basitarsus") 4 

3. Legs entirely and venter of thorax in part with scattered, erect black setae; 
fused metanotum-propodeum feel)ly rugose anteriorly and laterally; disk of 
first tergum shallowly rugosopunctate; first two terga witli somewhat sinuate, 
apical l)ands of appressed silvery hairs, the bands broader at sides and nar- 
rowed in middle; Mexico — - glabcr Andre 

Legs and venter of thorax with only pale erect hair; fused metanotum 
propodeum with only fine, scattered punctures; disk of first tergum with fine, 
separated punctures; first two terga each with an even, narrow apical band 
of appressed silvery vestiture. (Tibial calcaria entirely white, the longer one 
on hind tibia 0.67 times as long as hind basitarsus, the tibial spines rather 
weak; third tergum without appressed pubescence discally or on apical Ijand; 
malar space long, 0.43 times the eye-height; least transfacial distance 1.15 
times the eye-height; head width 1.7 times the least transfacial distance; 
pronotum slender, rather elongate, the length including neck 1.1 times the 
greatest width; fused metanotum-propodeum slender and elongate, gradually 
sloping posteriorly; metasternal process Aveakly sulcate along midline, virtually 
impunctate, the apical margin emarginatc but not bilobate.) Southern Cali 
fornia williamsi, new species-"' 

4. Third tergum without appressed discal pubescence or an apical band; tibial 
calcaria entirely white; lower front and sides of propodemn closely striate, 
impunctate or virtually so; metasternal process keeled along midline and 
weakly i)unctate, the apical margin emarginate but not bilobate; malar space 
one-third the eye-height. (Tibial spines stronger than in williamsi but less 
than in xtecHliaris; vertex with dense, appressed, pale sericeous pubescence; 
first tergum with an even, narrow, apical band of appressed silvery vestiture.) 
Southwest Texas to southern Arizona striolatus, new species 

Third tergum with moderately abundant, appressed discal pubescence and 
with a narrow apical band of appressed setae; tibial calcaria white with black 
tips; lower front without striae, the propodeal sides punctate and occasionally 
apparently striate when punctures are dense and confluent in rows; meta- 
sternal process not or only very weakly keeled, the apical margin moderately 

^Atypically colored specimens of guatemalensis Turner may run here. See notes 
in specific discussion of guatemalensis. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 59, XO. 5, OCTOBER, 1957 215 

to strongly emaigiuate and bilobate; malar space one fourth the eye-height. 
- peculiaris (Cresson) - 5 

5. Vertex without dense, appressed, pale sericeous vestiture; apical band of 
appressed silvery vestiture on first tergum greatly broadened at sides; apical 
band on third tergum dark; metasternal process nearly smooth or with coarse 
punctures posteriorly only; mid and hind tibiae with somewhat fewer spines; 

Washington, Idaho, Utah, California and western Arizona... 

_.. ..peculiaris peculiaris (Cresson) 

Vertex with a band of dense, appressed, pale sericeous vestiture; apical band 
on first tergum narrow and even; apical band on third tergum silvery at least 
in middle; metasternal process coarsely and contiguously punctate; mid and 
hind tibiae with more numerous spines; central Arizona and southeastern 
Colorado east to western Kansas and Texas pecnliaris mirabilis (Cockerell) 

Key to Males 
(Males of p. mirabilis, glaber and gitatcmaleyisis are unknown.) 

1. Ocelli smaller, the postocellar line slightly shorter (0.94) than ocellocular line; 
tibial calcaria white, narrowly tipped with black; genitalia (Fig. 3) stouter. 
(Dorsum of head, thorax and abdomen partly or entirely with erect, black 
hairs, those on abdomen relatively slender and barely subplumose, the decum- 
bent vestiture sparser; inner eye margins less divergent above, the least 
transfacial distance 0.75 times the transfacial distance through anterior 
ocellus; first flagellar segment 0.80 times as long as second; legs entirely dark, 
longer calcarium of hind tibia 0.64 times as long as hind basitarsus; apex of 
hypopygium slightly retuse.) peculiaris peculiaris (Cresson) 

Ocelli somewhat larger, the diameter half again as large as in p. peculiaris, 
the postocellar line 1.1-1.5 times as long as ocellocular line; tibial calcaria 
entirely white; genitalia (Figs. 1, 2) more slender 2 

2. Vestiture sparser, the erect hairs on dorsum of head, thorax and abdomen 
partly or entirely dark, those on gaster stouter and more noticeably sub- 
plumose; decumbent vestiture sparser; legs black, longer calcarium of hind 
tibia 0.60 times as long as hind tarsus; inner eye-margins less divergent 
above, the least transfacial distance 0.75 times the transfacial distance through 
anterior ocellus; first flagellar segment 0.67 times as long as second; post- 
ocellar line 1.1 times as long as ocellocular line; apex of hypopygium slightly 
retuse; genitalia (Fig. 2) as figured striolatus, new species 

Vestiture denser, the erect hairs entirely glittering- white except on last two 
terga, those on gaster more slender and l)arely subplumose; decumbent vesti- 
ture denser, obscuring sculptural details on pronotum and mesopleuron; legs 
red, longer calcarium of hind tibia 0.67 times as long as hind basitarsus; inner 
eye-margins more divergent above, the least transfacial distance 0.67 times 
the transfacial distance through anterior ocellus; first flagellar segment 0.75 
times as long as second; postocellar line 1.5 times as long as ocellocular line; 

apex of hypopygium broadly rounded; genitalia (Fig. 1) as figured 

,- williainsi, new species 



21 (i PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASII., VOf,. 59, NO. 5, OCTOBER, 1957 

Typhoctes guatemalensis Turner , 

TyphocUs guatemalensis Turner, 1909. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 3: 485 ($; 
San Geroninio, Guatemala; type in British Museum). — Reicl, 1941. Trans. 
Roy. Ent. Soc. London 91: 385, figs. 15, IG. 

We have not seen material of this rather distinctive speeies. It 
differs from the other Icnown females by a combination of the almost 
quadrate pronotal disk (as figured by Keid) which lacks dense ap- 
pressed vestiture, the almost entirely black integument, the more 
densely punctate head with punctures tending to become longitudi- 
nally confluent, the longitudinally striate pronotum, and the finely, 
horizontally striate "pleurae." Turner's description is quoted below. 

Dr. Yarrow has furnished some notes on Turner's type. He says 
that it agrees with the first half of couplet 1 in the foregoing key, 
but that the pronotal length including the neck is 1.1 times its great- 
est width (the neck is hidden beneath the head on the card mount, 
but the ratio is not less than 1.1). Additional material of guate- 
malensis may possibly differ from the t.ype in some details of colora- 
tion, in which case specimens would trace to the second half of couplet 
3 in our key. Dr. Yarrow indicates the following characters for 
guatenuih iisis as compared with u'illkiiusi: Legs and venter of thorax 
with pale hair ; fused metanotum-propodeum longitudinally rugose 
except on sides where the rugosity is more or less diagonally transverse, 
the anterolateral areas in front of spiracles smooth as is the basal 
declivous dorsal area ; disk of first tergum rugosopunctate ; first four 
terga (and possibly the fifth) with even, apical pale bands becoming 
progressively narrower. (Tibial calcaria pale, the longer one on hind 
tibia 0.61 times as long as hind basitarsus; hind tibia with spines only 
apically, three ventral and one dorsal, not very stout ; third tergum 
with apical pale band, appressed liair on all terga reddish brown ; 
malar space short, 0.29 times the eye-height ; ventral characters not 
visible.) 

" 9. Head sulxiuadrate, a little broader tlian long, broader tlian the pronotum, 
punctured closely, the punctures tending to become confluent longitudinally, very 
thinly clothed with black pubescence; eyes extending rather nearer to the base of 
the mandibles than to the posterior margin of the head, elongate ovate; ocelli 
absent. Antennae filiform, nearly as long as the thorax, the second .joint of the 
flagellum half as long again as the first and a little longer than the third, the 
apical .joints slender but short. Pronotum a little narrower than the head, as 



Fig. 1, Ti/phoctes ivilliainsi, n. sp., male genitalia, left half ventral view, right 
half dorsal view (Borego paratype) ; fig. la, the same, left paramere, digitus and 
cuspis, mesal view (Fish Creek Mts. paratype) ; fig. lb, the same, aedeagus, 
unflattened, ventral view. Fig. 2, T. striolatiis, n. sp., male genitalia, left half 
ventral view, right half dorsal view. Fig. 3, T. p. pecnliaris (Cr.), male genitalia, 
left half ventral view, right half dorsal view (Turlock, Calif.); fig. 3a, the same, 
aedeagus, flattened, ventral vieAV (Mt. Diablo, Calif.) ; fig. 3b, the same, left 
paramere, digitus and cuspis, mesal view. Fig. 4, T. ivilliamsi, n. sp., lateral 
outline view of male (Borego paratype). (Drawings ])y A. D. Cushman). 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, XO. 5, OCTOBER, 195/ 



217 




218 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 5, OCTOBER, 1957 




Fiff 5 TvphocUs prcnliaris mirabilis (Ckll.), lateral outline view ot temale. 
Fig 6 the same, ventral view of alitrunk. Fig. 7, Eotilla mickeli Schus., male 
genitalia, ventral view (Hiile). (Drawings by junior author, from Ent. Amer. 
29 (n.s.), pi. 14). 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, XO. 5, OCTOBER, 1957 219 

broad as the metaiiotuni, from wliicli it is separated by a deep transverse suture; 
longitudinally striated and sparsely clothed with long, greyish pubescence. Pleurae 
finely horizontally striate. Metanotum longer than the pronotum, longer than 
broad, obliquely sloped posteriorly, not truncate, longitudinally striated in the 
middle and at the base, obscurely punctured at the sides and apex. Abdomen 
shining, very finely and closely punctured, very sparsely clothed with long cinere- 
ous pubescence on the sides and apex, a transverse band of short whitish pubes- 
cence at the apex of each segment ; first segment triangular, attached to the 
thorax by a short petiole, the second segment large, twice as long as the third, 
with a strong constriction between the first and second segments. Intermediate 
tibiae with two apical spines. 

"Black; the two basal joints of the fiageilum testaceous; the metathorax 
(except a large black spot at the base), the first abdominal segment (except a 
triangular black spot at the apex), the base of the posterior tibiae, and the 
intermediate and posterior trochanters and coxae ferruginous; calcaria white. 

' ' Length 7 mm. ' ' 

Male. T^nknown. 

Typhoctes glaber Andre 

TyphucUs glaher Andre, 1903. Ann. See. i]nt. France 72: 4-48 (9, Mexico; type 
in Paris Museum?) 

This species is known to lis from the original description only. 
Apparently it is rather similar to the female of wiJIiamsi in havin^!: a 
shining- integument with rather sparse, erect vestitnre and no dense, 
appressed pubescence on pronotum or head. It is noticeably larger 
than williamsi and differs in having black hairs on the legs, apical 
bands of silvery appressed hair on first and second terga which are 
sinuate and broader at sides than in middle, and in having a more 
coarsely punctate first tergum. 

A tran.slation of the original description is given below. The char- 
acters which we have set in italics separate glaher from ivilliamsi. 

Length 11 mm. Entirely deep ferruginous, somewhat shining, apices of antennae 
and mandibles blackish; the first two abdominal segments each margined apically 
by a border of long, silvery hairs which is somewhat sinuate, toider laterally than 
medialhi where it disappears in part. Pubescence of body somewhat sparse; 
dorsum covered with long, pilose, sjiarse l)lackish pubescence, which is also evident 
ventrally, where it is mixed with white hairs. Legs sparsely covered with blaclcish 
hairs; calcaria white; tibial and tarsal spines black. 

Head rounded, subquadrangular, as wide as thorax, finely and sparsely punc- 
tate; eyes large, elongate oval, slightly convex, nearer to occiput than to articula- 
tion of mandibles; frontal ridges indistinct; mandible rather narrow, terminating 
in a sharp point; antennae very slender, scape rather short, all the segments of 
flagellum elongate, the second segment much longer than the first, scarcely longer 
than the third. Thorax visibly contracted between pronotum and mesonotum ; 
pronotum an inverted trapezoid, narrower behind than in front, somewhat flat- 
tened dorsally, finely and very sparsely punctate; the rest of thorax oval, not 
divided, rounded in back, feebh/ nif/ose in front and on the sides, sparsely punc- 



220 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOF-. 59, NO. 5, OCTOBER, 1957 

tate on tlic disk. AIxIoiik'h cloiigatt', fusiform; first scgnieut joined to thorax by 
a slender, eylindrical petiole wliieli is mucli shorter than the rest of segment; the 
hind |)art of first segment triangidar as seen from above, visibly contracted at 
apex, rrri/ .sliallowl// nif/o.sopiDicldtf (iiid Ixdritig some tridelfi separated coarse 
piuictiires in achlition ; second segment very finely and rather densely punctate; 
apical segments almost smooth and won- shining. 
Male. Unknown. 

Typhoctes williamsi,'' new species 
(Figs. 1 and 4) 

Females of this speeies differ from those of strioIafKs and pecullaris 
ill a large number of features, ehief among them being the much more 
elongate and slender alitrunk with the fused metathorax-])ropodeum 
appearing somewhat obpyriform and constricted anteriorly (in lateral 
profile most inflated jii.st anterior to the insertion of mid coxae), the 
very reduced sculpture with the integument in general highly pol- 
ished, and the virtual absence of glittering appressed pubescence on 
head and ]n"onotuin. 

In the latter feature, willia))i.si closely approaches ylabcr Andre 
from Mexico. It differs from that species in the entirely white, glit- 
tering hairs on the legs and in the narrow, complete and even bands 
of silvery hairs at the apices of the first two abdominal terga. T. 
irilJiaiiisi also has the punctation of the first abdominal tergum fine 
throughout, while in (jlaher it is described as coarse distally. 

The male of williainsi is the most distinctive of the three species 
known in that sex, being distinguished at once by the red legs, ex- 
tremely dense, almost entirely white, glittering vestiture, and broadly 
rounded apical margin of the hypopygium. Other differences are as 
noted in the key. 

There is a possibility that williai)i.si may prove to be only sub- 
specifically distinct from glaher, but the original description of that 
species fails to mention characters which might enable us to reach a 
definite conclusion on this point. Certainly, the two are at least sub- 
specifically distinct. 

Dr. Williams states (iiersonal communication to senior author) 
that most of the males taken by him at Borego were visiting two or 
three mats of Euphorhia poly car pa Benth. on the desert sands. The 
single female was caught while it was running over the sand in the 
late morning. Dr. Bohart states that the single female taken by him 
was ca])tured near a nest of PogonomijtDicx and was superficially 
very similar to the ants in appearance. 

Type. — <5 ; Borego Desert, San Diego Co., California; May 12, 
1955 (F. X. Williams; on mat Euphorhia) (California Academy of 
Sciences). 



'•For Francis X. Williams, collector of most of tlie type series. 



PUOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, XO. .3, OCTOBER, 1957 221 

Male. — Length 6.5 mm., foiewiiig including tegula 4.5 mm. Shining, Ijlack, legs 
ontirely light red except most of tarsi which are infuscated, mandible except tip 
<larker red, antenna beneath reddish, brown above, tibial calcaria entirely ■white. 
Wings very pale hyaline, forewing slightly infumated toward apex; veins basally 
testaceous, brown apically. Yestiture long, rather coarse, almost entirely glittering 
white, the last two terga with erect black hair, and mid and hind tibiae externally 
with a few scattered, erect dark hairs; erect hairs on head, thorax and abdomen 
slender as in peciiliaris, only very slightly subplumose. 

Clypeus with very dense, decumbent liair, surface sculpture not visible; front 
and temples with similar, but somewhat sparser decumbent vestiture and long, 
scattered erect linirs; vertex with much sparser decumbent vestiture and some 
erect hairs; occiput with moderately dense, erect hair; first flagellar segment 
three fourths as long as second; least transfacial distance two-thirds the trans- 
facial distance through middle of anterior ocellus and three-fourths the eye- 
length; ocelli larger than in p. peciilaris, the diameter half again as large: 
distance between anterior and posterior ocelli half as great as postocellar distance, 
the latter distance half again as great as ocellocular distance; entire head cor- 
respondingly more densely punctate than in typical peculiaris. 

Tlioracic dorsum with aljundant appressed pubescence which is densest on 
pronotum, and also with erect hairs which are about as long and as dense as 
on occiput; thoiacic ilorsum with small i)unctures which are correspondingly 
denser than in /*. peculiaris, the mesonotum more sparsely punctate on disk than 
at sides; lateral surface of pronotum and niesopleuron with appressed pubescence 
which is very dense on latter, and also with erect, scattered hairs on latter; up])er 
part of metapleuron with vestiture similar to that of niesopleuron; propodeum 
with most of jnibescence appressed, rather dense on dorsum, si>arser on sides, 
and very sparse posteriorly. 

Coxae laterally with dense, coarse sul)appressed pubescence; femoi'.-i, tibiae and 
tarsi with fine, dense, short appressed pubescence; femora beneath with long, 
scattered, erect white hairs; longer calcarium of hind tibia 0.67 times as long as 
hind basitarsus. 

Aljdomen with abundant erect pubescence, that on first tergum longer and 
somewhat sparser than on succeeding terga ; first and second terga with nai-row 
apical bands of appressed hair, the third to fifth terga with similar but mueii 
narrower bands consisting of a single row of setae; second to sixth sterna each 
with a row of appressed simple setae at apex; second to fifth tei'ga with punc- 
tures of two distinct sizes, a series of somewhat larger and more scattered ones. 
and others which are smaller and more abundant; first sternum smooth ; seconc 
sternum with discal punctures noticeably larger than elsewhere on abdomen and 
sparser than on succeeding sterna; punctures of tliird to sixth sterna moderately 
dense, uniform in size; hyjiopygium with .-iijical margin broadly rounded; genitalia 
(of paraty|)e ) as figured (Fig. 1). 

The male p.'iratypes vary in length from 5.0 to 7.0 mm. The Borego Desert 
series agrees very well in all essentials with the type, but the three specimens 
from San Bernardino County have the forelegs castaneous rather than light red, 
and the punctation of first and second terga of the specimen from Boron is 
sparser than normal. 



222 PKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 5, OCTOBER, 1957 

Allotype.— 9 ; same data as type but April 23, 1955 (CAS). 

Female. — Length 6.5 mm. Shining, uniformly light orange-red except tarsi 
very slightly infuseated, tibial calcaria entirely vvliite. Long erect hairs of head 
and thoracic dor.suni black or dark brown, on venter of head and thorax, legs and 
abdomen glittering white; appressed pubescence on thoracic dorsum and disk of 
second tergum very sparse, pale golden, the disk of third tergum with a very few, 
inconspicuous, similar, appressed hairs; sides of thorax (except absent on pro- 
notum), legs and abdomen except disk of second tergum silvery pubescent. 

Head lacking appressed pubescence except for a very few hairs between eyes 
and on antennae, lower half of front with scattered small punctures; upper half 
of front and vertex virtually impunctate except along inner eye margins, highly 
polished; occiput with j^unctures more concentrated; malar space long, 0.43 times 
the eye-height; least transfacial distance 1.15 times the eye-height; head width 
1.7 times the least interocular distance; tirst and second flagellar segments sub- 
equal in longtli. 

Pronotum obtrapezoidal, more elongate than in pecnliaris and .strioJatiis. dor- 
sally highly polished and only remotely and finely punctate, the length including 
neck 1.1 times greatest width, some sparse decumbent pubescence anteriorly on 
disk, the long erect setae denser anteriorly than posteriorly, the virtually im- 
punctate, i)olished lateral surfaces with only a few weak, short setae; dorsal 
surface of fused metanotum-propodeum more elongate than in striolatits, polished, 
with sparse decumbent pubescence anteriorly, and scattered, erect, long setae ; 
punctures fine and scattered ; posterior slope of propodeum gradual, with sparse, 
appressed silvery vestiture; mesopleuron with close punctures and moderately 
abundant, appressed silvery pubescence; fused metapleuron-propodeum punctate 
anteriorly only, no traces of striae; metasternal process smooth, nitid, virtually 
impunctate, ecarinate, slightly sulcate along midline, emarginate at apex but not 
bilobate. 

Coxae laterally with subappressed, dense, short silvery hair; coxae beneath, 
femora and tibiae with scattered, long, erect silvery setae ; mid and hind tibiae 
with a preapical row of two short, weak spines on outer surface and a second row 
bearing only a single preapical spine; longer calcirium of hind tibia two-thirds 
as long as hind basitarsus. 

First and second terga each with an even, narrow apical band of appressed 
silvery vestiture; first tergum also with scattered, decumbent, silvery sericeous 
hairs on rest of disk and moderately abundant, long, erect white setae; second 
tergum with scattered, decumbent pale golden setae on disk and scattered, erect, 
partly fuscous setae which are more concentrated anteriorly; succeeding terga 
with only scattered, erect, largely fuscous setae. 

The single female paratype is 5.6 mm. long, and is very similar to the tyi)e in 
coloration, vestiture and punctation. 

Paratypes. — 13 S S ; Borego Desert, San Diego Co., California; 
April 23 (3 £ S), April 29 (4 S S), Mav 12 (6 $ £), all 1955 
(F. X. William.s; mostly on mat Euphorhia) (CAS, USNM, BM, 
RMS, HEE, KVK). 1 $ ; Bore«.o Valley, San Diego Co., California; 
April 18, 1957 (R. M. Bohart) [USx^M]. 1 S ; Fish Creek Mts., 
Imperial Co., California; April 20, 1955 (W. R. M. Mason) (CNC). 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 5, OCTOBER, 1957 223 

1 c? ; 10 mi. s. of Mecca, Riverside Co., California; April 4, 1937 
(P. H. Timberlake) (PHT). 1 <? ; 14 mi. w. of Boron, San Bernardino 
Co., California; April 25, 1953 (P. D. Hurd) (CIS). 1 S ; Needles, 
San Bernardino Co., California; April 3, 1951 (J. W. MacSwain) 
(CIS). 1 6 ; Kramer Hills, San Bernardino Co., California; May 1, 
1953 (P. D. Hnrd) (USNM). 

In addition to the type series, three othei- individuals have been 
seen which are apparently referable to T. irilliaiusi, bnt may represent 
a separate race : 1 9,6 S S ; Thousand Palms, Riverside Co., Cali- 
fornia ; April 1 CS 6 6 ), 12 ( <? ), 16 {S ), 25 ( 9 ), 26 {$), all 
lf)55 ( W. R. M. Mason) (CXC). The males are essentially inseparable 
from the male described above, bnt the sin<ile female differs in three 
features, as follows : the gaster, except for the petiole, is piceons to 
black ; the third abdominal ter<>um has a rather conspicuous median 
patch of appressed, silvery hairs; the mesopleuron tends to have the 
setigerous punctation longitudinally confluent to the point where it 
appears obscurely longitudinally striolate, rather than distinctly 
punctate. Although tlie differences in pigmentation and vestiture 
^ive this latter female a wholly deviant aspect, we believe that recog- 
nition of it as a separate taxon to be premature. The fact that it 
occurred in the same locality with males inseparable from "normal" 
T. urilliamsi males appears to indicate that it represents an extreme 
individual of T. irilliani.si. The critical cephalic indices of this female 
are essentially identical with the allotype of T. wiJlifniisi: least trans- 
facial distance 1.17 times the eye-height; head width 1.7 times the 
least interocular distaiice. lentil and unless it can be shown that this 
female is incorrectly associated with T. irillidinsl males, it ap]iears 
preferable to refer it to this species. 

Typhoctes striolatus, new species 

(Fig. 2) 

Tlie female of strioJatiis is most closely similar to that of }>cc}(liaris 
iiiirahilis with which it agrees in general aspect, particularly in the 
presence, on all but worn individuals, of a glittering vestiture of 
appressed, pale golden hairs on the vertex and pronotum. However, 
it differs from this, as well as typical pcculiaris, in several noteworthy 
structural characters that prohibit considering these forms as specifi- 
callj' identical, such as : the lateral faces of the propodenm are con- 
spicuously striolate ; the metasternal process is weakly punctate 
throughout, distinctly keeled along midline, and merely weakly emar- 
ginate at the apex, with the process on each side of the emargination 
not elaborated as a distinct rounded lobe; third abdominal tergum 
with only sparse, long, erect hairs, lacking appressed silky vestiture. 

The male associated with these females is also certainly specifically 
distinct from males of typical pcculiaris (males of p. mirahilis are 
unknown). It differs at once from males of both pcculiaris and wil- 
Jiamsi in the somewhat stouter, more definitely subplumose. erec^^^ 



--4 PKOC. KXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 5, OCTOBKR, 1957 

hairs on the gaster, and the comparatively sparser pnnetation and 
vestiture. Some noteworthy characters separating' it from males of 
peculiaris are the somewhat enlar<>ed ocelli, entirely pale tibial cal- 
caria, distance between anterior and posterior ocelli three-fonrths 
the postocellar line, the latter 1.1 times the ocellocular distance, and 
the more slender genitalia. It is separated from males of williamsi by 
having the eyes less strongly divergent above, comparatively longer 
postocellar line, entirely black legs, the longer calcarinm of hind tibia 
relatively shorter, and minor genitalic dilferences. 

Tij}j( . 9 ; Phoenix, Maricopa Co.. Arizona; October 15, 1988 (R. II. 
Crandall ) (U. S. National Mnsenm, Type No. 68261, donated by 
K. V. Krombein). 

Female. — Leiigtli (!.(• iiiiii. Shining; head, thorax, legs and first abdominal 
tergum red, a slijidi' darker than in wiUiamsi; sides and base of second terguni 
red shading into deep castnneous on rest of disk, and terminal segments all black; 
tibial calcaria entirely white. Vestiture partly of long, scattered, erect setae 
vvliich are mostly black, but i)aU' on head beneath, pronotum in part, legs beneath, 
and second and third stt-rna ; head aliove, temples and pronotum with conspicuous, 
very dense, apjiressed, ]iale golden sericeous ])ul)esceuce. 

Lower lialf of front with several weak, oblique striae just above antenna! in- 
sertions, running outward and slightly upward to lower inner eye margin; vertex 
adjacent to inner eye margins similarly striolate with striae parallel to eyes; 
lower two-thirds of front with scattered punctures bearing long erect setae; upper 
part of front, temples, ci'iitral |)ortions of vertex and occiput with dense, small 
punctures bearing the decumbent vestiture; malar spaci' shoi-t, one third the 
eye height ; head width 1.7 times the le.ast interocuhir distance; front between 
eyes 1.25 times the eye-height; first and second flagellai' segnu'nts subefpial in 
length. 

I'ronotum obtrapezoidal, shorter and stouter than in wilUanisi, the length in 
eluding neck 0.9 times the greatest width, the disk and sides closely and delicately 
wrinkled to rugulose-striolate, l)earing dense, silky decumbent vestiture, disk with 
erect setae denser on anteiior half; dorsum of fused metanotum-propodeum with 
close, fine, irregular, sinuous, transverse wrinkles ;ind scattered, erect, long setae 
and fine, sparse, inconspicuous decund)ent setae; posterior slope of propodeum 
abruptly declivous as compared to villiamsi, smooth except for a few, straight, 
transverse wrinkles above abdominal insertion; fused metapleuron-propodeuin 
obliquely and closely striate, with few interspersed punctures, except for a small, 
smooth triangular area beloAV propodeal sjjiracle; jnetasternal plate strongly shin- 
ing, virtually devoid of i)unctation, with a sharp median keel, the apex merely 
emarginate but not hiloli.-ite. 

Coxae laterally with subappressed, rather dense, slioi-t, silvery hair; coxae 
beneath, femora .-ind tibiae with scattered, long, erect setae, partly blackish, 
partly silvery; mid tibia with two ])reai)ical rows of three short, rather stout 
black spines, posterior tibia with the two preapical rows bearing only 1-2 such 
spines each; longer calciriuin of liiml tibia 0.55 times as long as hind basitarsus. 

First and second terga each with an even, narrow apical band of appressed 
silvery vestiture; first tergum also with a few, scattered, decundaent .silvery setae 



PKOC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOI,. 59, XO. O, OCTOBER, 1957 



lUU 



on rt'st cif disk jiikI iiiodcratoly .•iiiiiii(l:iiit, loJig, crcrt, dark sftac; second torg 
witli iiuiilc'iattdy dt'iisi", iiiconsiiiciious, short, (U'c-iiiiil)eiit hiowii vcstitiux' except 
liurrowly at base and on sides, and with moderately abundant, tnect. long 1)lack 
setae; suceeedirg terga with only scattered, erect, black setae. 

Female i)aratyi)es vary in length from 4.8 to 6.8 mm, and the lirst flagellar 
segment is dai'ki'r on liasal half. The sj^ecimens from Ai'izona ari' extremely 
similar to the iy\n\ The threi' from Texas show some variation in that two speci- 
mens la(d\ tlu' frontal striae, all three have the irregular wriid<les on doisal surface 
of fused metanotum-propodeum mainly oblique instead of tians\erse, and in two 
specimens the terminal alxlominal segments are not castaneous but cdncolorous 
with the lirst ami second terga. 

Allotype. — S ; The Basin, Big- Bend National Park, C'liisos Mts., 
Brewster Co., Texas, 5400 ft. elev. ; July 8-14, 1948 (II. E. Evans; 

visiting' honeydew on oak) (T^. S. Xational ^Insenin. donated by 
ir. E. Evans). 

Mull . — Length (>.8 mm. , forewing iniduding tegula 4.(1 mm. Shining, ld;ick, 
mandible except tip reddish, flagelhun and tarsi brown, tibial calcaria entirely 
white. Wings almost hyaline though slightly darker than in wiUiain.'ii, the forewing 
slightly iiifumate(l l)eyond veins; veins light brown, stigma and costa darker. 
Vestiturc long, rather coarse, corresiiondingly nuudi spai-ser than in irilliamsi; 
most of \('stiture glittering white, but many of erect hairs of head ;ind dorsum 
of thorax and abdomen light brown, those on last two abdominal terga almost 
entirely light brown; erect hairs of gaster stouter than in prciiJinris and irilliam.ii^ 
and more plainly subplumose. 

Clypcus with moderately large, contiguous punctuies, vestiture silvery exce[)t 
for a few fuscous hairs medially, appressed and rather dense; temples and lower 
front with e(|ually large but mort- se])arated punctures bearing mostly decumbent 
vestiture but with some erect hairs; upper front with finer, closer [lunctures, most 
of vestiture denuded but what is left mostly appressed; vertex with quite scat- 
tered, larger punctures; occiput with punctation again more dense: tirst flagellar 
segment two-thirds as long as second; least transfacial distance three-fourths the 
transfacial distance through anterior ocellus and thrce-fouiths the eye-length; 
ocelli enlarged as in ivilliaiuNi : distance between antei'ior and posterior ocelli 
three-fourths the postocellar line, the latter distance 1.1 times the ocellocular line. 

Anterioi- declivity of pronotum with contiguous jiunctures and erect vestiture, 
disk with sparse punctation and mixed dccundyent and erect hairs, lateral surface 
contiguously punctate, and with appressed hairs; nu-sonotum with sparse pubes- 
cence, the disk largely impunctate, laterally and anteriorly with closer punctures; 
scutelluni and postscutellum with vestiture denser, mostly decunil)ent, punctures 
subcontiguous ; mesopleuron with coarse, subcontiguous punctuies, and rather 
abundant appressed and erect vestiture; upper part of metapleurou similarly 
punctate and hairy, though somewhat more sparsely so; propodeum with large 
round punctures and mostly appressed vestiture, punctures on dorsum subcontigu- 
ous anteriorly and becoming sparser posteriorly until most intervals are about 
half as wide as punctures on posterior surface, the latter surface with several 
transverse wrinkles above abdominal insertion; lateral surface of propodeum 
aljout as closely ]iunctate as posterior surface. 



22C PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 5, OCTOBER, 1957 

Coxae laterally with dense, coarse, subappressed pubescence ; femora beneath 
with long, scattered white hairs; femora, tibiae and tarsi with dense, fine, short 
appressed puliesceiu-c ; lonjicr ealcarinni of hind tihiii (l.ti(( times as long as hind 
basitarsus. 

Abdominal vestiture sparse as compared to williaithsi ; first and second terga 
with narrow apical bands of appressed hair, the third to fifth with similar but 
narrower bands consisting of a single row of setae, the apical decumbent fringes 
of setae of first five terga all silvery (in peciiliaris those of terga 3-5 fuscous and 
much less conspicuous) ; second to sixth sterna each witli a row of appressed 
simple setae at apex ; second to fifth terga with punctures of two distinct sizes 
as in williamsi though comparatively sparser, a series of somewhat larger and 
more scattered ones, and others which are smaller and moie abundant; first 
sternum smooth; second sternum with discal punctures noticeal)ly larger than 
elsewhere on alxlomen though sparser than in wilUatnsi; punctures of tliird to 
sixth sterna finer, sparser than in icilUa))isi ; hypopygiuni with apical margin very 
slightly retuse; genitalia as figured (Fig. 2), noticealdv more slender than in 
typical peciiliaris. 

Paratypes. 2 $ $ ; .same data a.s tvpe but April 24 and April 26, 
1933 (KVK). 1 9 ; Presidio, Presidio Co., Texas; June 26, 1930 
(E. R. Tinkhani) (UM). 2 9?; northwest Wilson Co., Texas; 
Mareh-May 11)45 (II. B. Parks) (RMS, USNM). 

Typhoctes peculiaris (Cresson) 

This polytypic species is represented by two races, the nominate 
subspecies which occurs in Washington, Idaho, Utah, California and 
western Arizona, and peculiaris mirahUis from central Arizona and 
southeastern Colorado eastward to western KauNas and Texas. The 
females are larger than the females of the other two species occurring 
in America north of Mexico, but this size distinction is not apparent 
in the males, perhaps because of too limited a series in that sex. Both 
sexes of peculiaris are distinguished from the other V . S. species by 
the dark-tipped tibial calcaria. 

The females are separated from those of willianisi and striolatus 
by the presence of moderately abundant appressed, fuscous, sericeous 
vestiture on the third abdominal tergum, the shorter malar space, 
and the more strongly spinose mid and hind tibiae. In addition, 
females of peculiaris are quite distinct from those of willianisi by the 
presence of dense, appressed sericeous vestiture on pronotum, the 
comparatively dense punctation, and different proportions of head 
and thorax. The females of peculiaris, j)articularly those of p. inira- 
hilis, are superficially more similar to those of striolatus, but in addi- 
tion to the characters listed at the beginning of this paragraph, 
females of peculiaris differ from those of striolatus in the absence 
of a median keel on metasternal process, and usually in lacking striae 
on the lateral surface of propodeum, any apparent striation on this 
area due to the punctures being confluent in rows, forming rugae, 
rather than to a basic grooving of the integument without punctures. 



PROO. i<:nt. soc. wash., vol. 59, no. .5, October, 1957 227 

The males (those of p. iinr<ibilis mikiiowii ) differ from the other 
known males in the stouter g-enitalia and the somewhat smaller oeelli. 
In addition, they differ from males of willianisi in having entirely 
black legs, relatively sparser punetation and vestiture, some erect 
black hairs on head and thorax, the inner eye margins less strongly 
divergent above, the postoeellar distance less than oeellocnlar distance, 
and the slightly retnse apical margin of hypopygium. They differ 
from males of .striolatiis in having the erect hairs on gaster thinner 
and barely subphimose, the relatively longer first flagellar segment 
and longer calcarium of hind tibia. 

Typhoctes peculiaris peciiliaris (Crossoji), new st.itus 
(Fig. 3) 

Miifilla peculiaris C'roHSOii, 1875. Trans. Anier. Ent. Soc. 5: 119 ($ ; California; 

type in Academy of Natural Sciences, Plnladelphi;i ). — Blake, 1886. Trans. 

Amer. Ent. Soc. 13: 203.— Dalla Torre, 1897. Cat. Hyni. 8: 71. 
Typhoctes peculiaris (Cresson), Aslmiead, 1899. Jour. N.Y. Ent. Soc. 7:53. — 

Ashmead, 1903. Canad. Ent. 35: 202.— Andre, 1903. Gen. Ins., Ease. 11, 

p. 11.— Bradley, 1917. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 43: 288.— Schuster, 1949. Ent. 

Amer. 29 (n.s.) : 82 et seq. — Kroml)ein, 1951. U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Monogr. 

2: 751 (synonymizes Anommutilla difficilis Mickel under peculiaris). 
Cyphotes peculiaris (Cresson), Fox, 1899. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 25: 278 (.syn- 
onymizes Chyphotes mirabilis Cockerell under peculiaris). — Melander, 1903. 

Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 29: 327. 
Anommutilla difficilis Mickel, 1936. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 29: 295 (S ; Oakley, 

Idaho; type in U. S. National Museum). — Schuster, 1949. Ent. Amer. 29 

(n.s. ) : 1 17 r/ si (/. 

The females of typical licculiari.'i are distinguished at once from 
those of j). mirahilis by the lack of dense, appressed, pale sericeous 
]iubescence on vertex, the somewhat finer sculpture of fused meta- 
notum-propodeum and raetasternal process, the much broader apical 
silvery band on first abdominal tergum, and the dark apical band 
of hairs of the third tergum. 

Female. — ^Length 6.5-11.3 mm. Rather dull because of dense punetation, the 
legs, terminal abdominal terga and all sterna shining; integument red, a darker 
shade than in williamsi, the apex of mandible, a narrow annulus at base of first 
flagellar segment, the terminal flagellar segments and tarsi darker; tibial calcaria 
white except extreme tips dark brown or black. Long, erect black setae on head, 
sides of pronotal disk, fused metanotum-propodeum, legs and abdominal terga; 
shorter, erect white setae on pronotal disk, sides and venter of thorax, legs, fir.st 
and second terga and all sterna except apical three; pronotum entirely covered 
(and often occipital area, in part) with dense, appressed, pale, glittering sericeous 
vestiture. 

Front and vertex with close, moderately large punctures, no striae, rather dense 
erect setae and some scattered, decumbent golden to fuscous setae; temples and 
adjacent occipital regions less closely punctured and with decumbent silvery 
setae; malar space one-fourth as long as eye-height; front between eyes 1.3 times 



228 PROC. ENT. SOf. AVASH., VOL. 59, NO. 5, OCTOBER, 1957 

the eye-lieight ; he.'ul width 1.6 times the h'Mst iiitcrot'iilar distance; tirst and 
second flagellar segments suhequal in length. 

Pronotum shorter th;in in willi(im.si, similar to th.at of .st rioldlii.s, the length 
including neck suhequal to gre.-iti'st \\i(lt]i, with dense small jiunctures hearing 
the decumbent vestiture; fused metanotum-]iroi)odeum dorsally with rather dense, 
decumbent, golden to fulvous pubescence which becomes si)arser and silvery on 
posterior and lateral surfaces, the dorsal surface with close, small punctures 
which are sparser on posterior surface, and lateral surface rugosopunctate or 
locally with striolation weak and interrupted by irregular punetation ; proi)odeum 
more abruptly declivous and stout as compared to williamsi; metasternal plate 
not or only weakly keeled :ilong midline, surface smooth and nearly impunctate, 
except sometimes coarsely ;ni(l contiguously punctate posteriorly, apical margin 
dee])]y emarginate and usually rathei- strongly bilobate. 

Coxae laterally witli suhnppressed, rather dense, silvery, short hair; coxae 
beneath, femora and libiae with scattered, long erect setae; mid and hind tibiae 
more strongly spinosi- tlian in iriUidDisi or sfriolafus, but with fewer spines than 
in /*. mirnhilis, the mid tihia usually with one or two preapical rows composed of 
one or two spines, and hind tilii;i with a single postei'ior row of two or three 
and one or occasionally two of the antei'ior row; longer calcarium of hind tibia 
'0.55 times as long as hind basitarsus. 

First tergum with a broad apical band of appressed silvery pubescence which 
is quite narrow at midline and very much broadened toward sides, the surface 
basad of this liand with a])pressed fulvous to fuscous jnibescence and compara- 
tively abundant erect setae; second tergum also with a broad apical band of 
appressed silvery pubescence (broader than in u-illiani,si) which is usually nar- 
rower at midline, the rest of disk with rather dense fulvous to fuscous appressed 
pubescence, obscuring the sculpture, and scattered, erect setae; third tergum with 
sparser, appressed, fulvous to fuscous jmbescence and a very narrow, darker, 
apical band and scattered erect b!:ick setae; succeeding two terga with scattered 
lerect black setae. 

Male. — Length <i to 7.5 nnn., forewing including tegula 4 to 4.5 mm. Black, 
shining; antennae and tarsi dark brown; mandible red except apex; til)ial cal- 
caria white except extreme tips dark brown. Wings moderately infunuited, the 
apices beyond veins daiker. Vestiture long, moderately coarse, corresjiondingly 
sparser than in ifillidiii.si, glittering white except for some black erect hairs on 
the following — head in i)art, thoracic dorsum in part, second tergum in part, and 
■succeeding terga excejit laterally; erect hairs of gaster slender, less ])lumose in 
appearance than in fitriolaliifi. 

Clypeus with moderately large, contiguous punctures, vestiture decumbent and 
rather dense; temples and front with smaller, slightly .sparser punctures, the 
temples with ai)i)i'essed pubescence, the front with both erect and appressed hair; 
vertex with sp.arser punctures and luith types of vestiture; occiput more closely 
punctate and with denser setae; first flagellar segment four-fifths as long as 
secoiul ; least tiansfacial distance three-fourths the transfacial distance through 
anterior ocellus and three-fourths the eye-height; ocelli .smaller than in unlliamsi, 
the diameter two-thirds as great; distance between anterior and posterior ocelli 
slightly more than half tlie posfocellar distance, the latter distance 0.94 times the 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WA8H., VOL. 59, NO. 5, OCTOBER, 1957 229 

ocelloculiir tlistiiiu-c ; piuietatioii i>f licnd conL'spoiidiiigly sparser than in wilUaniKi. 

Proiiotal punc'tation and vestiture int(.'rmo<liate in density between tliat of 
vilUdnisi and strioJattis, decumbent vestiture all i>ale, the erect hairs pale on 
declivity and sides of disk, black elsewhere on disk; rest of thoracic dorsum 
intermediate between that of williamsi and striolatus in density of punctation 
and v.'stiture, the erect hair mostly black with some white hairs laterally; lateral 
surface of pronotum and mesopleuron Avith i-ather coarse, contiguous punctures 
bearing moderately dense, pale, mostly decumbent and suberect vestiture; upper 
part of metapleuron with somewhat finer and more separated punctures; pro- 
podeum with large round punctures and mostly appressed, pale vestiture, punc- 
tures on dorsum contiguous anteriorly, becoming sparser posteriorly until most 
interspaces are at least half as wide as punctures on posterior surface, the latter 
surface with several transverse wrinkles a])ove abdominal insertion. 

Coxae laterally with dense, coarse, sul)appressed pubescence; femora beneath 
with long, scattered white hairs; femora, tibiae and tarsi with tine, dense, short 
ai)pressed vestiture; longer ealc;irium of hind tibia 0.(U times as long as hind 
basitarsus. 

Abdominal vestiture intermediate in density l)etween that of williamsi and 
striolatus, the erect setae slender as compared to striolatus and very slightly sub- 
l)lumose; first and second terga with very narrow apical Viands of appressed 
vestiture, the third to fifth with similar but narrower bands consisting of a single 
row of setae, quite inconspicuous and fuscous except occasionally partly pale in 
middle on third; second to sixth sterna each with a row of ajipi'essed simple setae 
at apex; second to fifth terga usually with punctures of two distinct sizes as 
described for williamsi but occasional specimens with sjjarser punctation and the 
minute punctures mostly or entirely lacking; erect vestiture of first tergum all 
pale, of second occasionally all white but usually black except laterally and at 
apex, of succeeding terga mostly black except occasionally along sides; that of 
sterna mostly pale with occasional interspersed black setae; liypopj'gium with 
apical margin slightly refuse; genitalia as figured (Fig. 3), stouter than in 
striolatus or williamsi. 

WASHINGTON: 1 $ ; Grand Coulee, Steamboat Koek. (h-ant Co.; 
Julv 10, 1902 (A. L. Melander) (MCZ). 

IDAHO': 1 $,1 S ; Oaklev, Cassia Co.; July 7, 1927 ( 6 . type of 
difliciUs) and July 23, 1930 ($) (USNM). 

CTAII: 1 $ ; U. A. C. Farm No. 2. Looan, Cache Co.; Aujiust 16, 
1925 (A. C. Burriin (RMS). 

ARIZONA: 1 ? ; Gila Bend, Marieupa Co.; Mareh 2(3, 1940 (R. H. 
Crandall) (KVK). 

CALIFORNIA : 2 9 9.2 $ $ ■ Boreoo Desert, San Die<io Co. ; 
April 23, 1955 (1 <? ), April 17, 1956 (1 $ on Enphorhia poly- 
carpa, 1 9 runnino- on sand nearby), April 30, 1957 ( 9 ) (F. X. 
Williams) (CAS, KVK). 1 9 ; San Felipe Creek, San Dieg-o 
Co.; September 9, 1938 (P. H. Timberlake) (PUT). 1 9 ; Ban- 
ning, Riverside Co.; July 16, 1950 (J. W. MaeSwain) (CIS). 
1 9 ; Crystal Lake, Los Angeles Co.; June 29, 1950 (J. W. 
MaeSwain) (CIS). ">« ©9,1 <? ; Tanbark Flat, Los Angeles 



230 PROC. ENT. SOr. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 5, OCTOBER, 1957 

Co.; June 19 (2 9 $ , J. W. MacSwam),Juiie 22 (2 9 $ , F. X. 
Williams), June 23 (2 9 $ , F. X. Williams), June 24 (2 9 9, 
P. D. Kurd), June 25, (4 9 9, 15, F. X. Williams, H. F. 
Robinson, P. D. Hurd), June 27 (1 9 , P. D. Hurd), July 7 
(1 9, F. X. Williams), Julv 8 (3 9 9 , F. X. Williams), Julv 
10 (1 9, F. X. Williams), all 1950 (CIS, RMB). 1 $, Kramer 
Hills, San Bernardino Co.; May 1, 1953 (P. D. Hurd) (CIS). 
1 S ; Oro Grande Wash, 11 mi. s. of Adelanto, San Bernardino 
Co.; May 26, 1941 (P. H. Timberlake) (PHT). 2 9 9; Yermo, 
San Bernardino Co.; April 28, 1949 (E. G. Linsley, J. W. Mac- 
Swain, R. F. Smith) (CIS). 1 S ; x\pple Valley, San Bernardino 
Co.; May 19, 1955 (W .R. M. Mason) (CNC). 1 9 ; Victorville, 
San Bernardino Co.; September 13, 1936 (J. Hansen) (RMS). 

1 S ; Lebec, Kern Co.; June 8, 1952 (E. I. Selilinoer) (USNM). 

2 9 9; Big Pine, Inyo Co.; September 4, 1956 (R. M. Bohart) 
(RMB). 1 9 ; 3 mi. s. of Olanelia, Inyo Co.; August 6, 1948 
(P. D. Hurd, J. W. MaeSwain) (CIS). 4 9 9; Bishop Creek, 
Inyo Co., 8400 ft. elev. ; August 2, 1936 (G. E. Bohart) (CIS). 
1 9,1 S ; Arrovo Seco Camp, Monterey Co. ; June 6, 1956 ( $ ) 
and June 5, 1957 (9) (R. M. Bohart) (RMB). 1 9 ; Little 
Binoche Valley, Fresno Co.; May 11, 1920 (E. 0. Essig) (CIS). 
1 9 ; Bass Lake, Madera Co.; July, 1946 (CIS). 2 S $ ; Tur- 
loek, Stanislaus Co.; September 28, 1953 (R. R. Snelling) 
(USNM). 1 9,1 S ; Tuolumne City, Tuolumne Co.; June 3 
( £ ) and June 14 ( 9 ), 1953 (J. G. Rozen) (CIS). 1 9 ; Hot 
Creek,, Mono Co.; August 1, 1936 (CIS). 1 9 ; Mokelumne Hill 
Calaveras Co. (USNM). 2 $ $ ; Mt. Diablo, Contra Costa Co., 
2000 ft. elev.; July 26, 1949 and July 17, 1950 (F. X. Williams) 
(CIS). 3 9 9; Antioch, Contra Costa Co.; July, 1937 (E. S. 
Ross) (CIS), August 8, 1952 (W. E. Ferguson) (CIS) and 
September 10, 1947 (J. W. MaeSwain) (USNM). 1 5 ; 13 mi. 
NE of Chico, Butte Co.; May 23, 1956 (R. M. Bohart) (RMB). 
1 9 ; Hat Creek P. 0., Shasta Co.; July 12, 1955 (J. AV. Mae- 
Swain) (CIS). 1 9 ; Norval Flats, Lassen Co., 5500 ft. elev.; 
August 22, 1950 (J. 0. Martin) (USNM). 1 9 ; "Cal." 
(USNM). 1 9 ; "California" (ANSP; type of peciiUaris). 

Typhoctes peculiaris mirabilis (Cockerell) 
(Figs. 5 and 6) 

Cyphotes mirabilis Cockerell, 1896. Canad. Eiit. 28: 285 (9; Mesilla Valley, 

New Mexico; type in U. S. National Museum). 
Typhoctes mirahilis (Cockerell), Mallocli, 1926. Proe. U. S. Natl. Mus. 68, Art. 

3, p. 3, fig. 14. 
Typhoctes peculiaris mirabilis (Cockerell), Sdiuster, 1949. Ent. Amer. 29 (n.s.") : 

134, figs. 15, 16. 
Females of this subspecies are separated from those of typical 
peculiaris by the characters cited in the description below. Superficial- 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 5, OCTOBER, 1957 231 

ly, females of p. mirahilis are very similar to those of striolatus 
because of the dense, appressed, pale pubeseeiiee on both vertex and 
pronotiim, but differ at once as noted in the discussion of pcculiaris 
sens. lat. 

Males of p. uiirahilis are unknown. Presumably they will be very 
similar to those of typical peculiaris in most details, perhaps differing 
most notably only in certain minor details of the vestiture. 

Female. — Length 7 to 11 nun. Similnr to typical peculiaris except in the fol- 
lowing details: vertex with dense, appressed, pale golden sericeous vestiture as on 
pronotum ; sculpture of fused nietanotuni-propodeuin coarser, punctures of dorsal 
,'ind posterior surfaces larger, and lateral surface with larger, subcontiguous 
punctures occasionally confluent in rows; metasternal plate entirely coarsely and 
contiguously to confluently ]>unctate; mid and hind tibiae with more numerous 
spines, usually with two preapical rows of three spines each, occasionally four; 
apical silvery band of first tergum much narrower on sides, essentially equally 
wide throughout; and third tergum with apical band silvery, at least medially. 

ARIZONA: 1 9 ; Heiser Spring-, Wupatki Natl. Mon., Coconino Co.; 
Julv 23, 1949 (L. C. Wvman) (USNM). 1 9 ; Joseph City, 
Navajo Co.; August 6, 1950 (J. W. MacSwain) (CIS). 1 9 ; 
Prescott, Yavapai Co.; June 29, 1932 (P. H. Timberlake) 
(PHT). 2 9 9; Tucson, Pima Co.; June 1, 1933 (Bryant) 
(UM) and August 6, 1946 (H. E. Evans) (HEE). 1 9 ; Babo- 
quivari Mts., Pima Co.; May 7, 1938 (F. H. Parker) (UM). 
1 9 ; Patagonia, Santa Cruz Co.; July 20, 1940 (D. J. and J. N. 
Knull) (OSU). 1 9 ; Madera Canyon, Santa Rita Mts., Santa 
Cruz Co.; July 26, 1955 (F. X. Williams; at light) (CAS). 
1 9 ; Santa Rita Mts., Santa Cruz Co. ; September 30, 1939 
(Bryant) (UM). 1 9 ; Iluachuca Mts., Cochise Co. (USNM). 

NEW MEXICO: 2 9 9; Jemez Springs, Sandoval Co.; August 1, 
1914 (UM) and July 10, 1954 (Cazier and Gertsch) (AMNH). 
1 9 ; College Campus, Mesilla Vallev, Dona Ana Co. ; Julv 1896 
(T. D. A. Cockerell) (USNM, tvpe'of mirahilis). 

TEXAS : 2 9 9 ; 6-10 mi. w. of Fort Davis, Jeff Davis Co., 5000 ft. 
elev. ; Julv 15-23, 1948 (H. E. Evans; 1 9 on Sphacralcea 
(nigustifolia) (HEE). 2 9 9; Abilene, Tavlor Co.; October 10, 
1943 (C. L. Remington) (USNM, RMS). 

KANSAS: 1 9 ; Norton Co., 2270 ft. elev.; August 24, 1912 (P. X. 
Williams) (KU). 1 9 ; Graham Co. (KU). 1 9 ; Seward Co., 
2600 ft. elev.; August 18, 1911 (F. X. Williams) (KU). 1 9 ; 
Stanton Co., 3000 ft. elev. ; Julv 30, 1911 (F. X. Williams) (KU). 
1 9 ; Stanton Co., 3000 ft. elev. (S. J. Hunter) (KU). 2 
9 9 ; Morton Co., 2800 ft. elev.; August 5, 1911 (F. X. AVil- 
liams) (KU). 

COLORADO: 1 9 ; Limon, Lincoln Co.; August 20, 1937 (G. P. 
Englehardt) (KVK). 1 9 ; San Luis, Costilla Co.; July 21, 1929 
(H. G. Rodeck) (I'M). 1 9 ; Antonito, Conejos Co.; August 5, 
1900 (UM). 



232 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 5, OCTOBER, 1957 

MEXICO: CHIHUAHUA: :5 9 9 ; SainalayiK-a ; June 24. 1!)47 
(Crazier, Mieheiier and P.radt ) (AMNH). 

References 
Andre, E. 1903. F;ini. :Mutillidae. Gen. Ins., Fjisc. 11, 77 pp., 3 pi. 
Ashniea, W. H. 1899. Super-families in the Hymenoptera and Generic- Synopses 

of tlie Families Thynnidae, Myrmosidae and Mntillidae. Jour. N. Y. Ent. 

Soe. 7: -±5-60. 
P.radley, J. C. 1917. Contributions toward a Monograph of the Mutillidae and 

Their Allies of America North of Mexico. IV. A Review of the Myrmosidae. 

Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 43: 247-290, (i pi. 
Buzicky, A. W. 1941. A Monograph of the Genus Clti/pJiulcs of North America 

Ent. Amer. 21 (n.s. ): 201-243, 4 pi. 
Fox, W. J. 1S99. Tlie North American Mutillidae. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 25: 

219-292. 
Krombein, K. V. 1951. In Muesebeck, Krombein and Townes. Typhoctes in 

Hynu'noptera of America North of Mexico — Synoptic Catalog. U. S. Dept. 

Agr., Agr. Monogr. 2: 751. 
Malloch, J. R. 192(i. Systematic No'es on and Descriptions of North American 

Wasps of the Subfamily Brnchycistiinae. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. (58, Art. 3, 

28 pp., 4 pi. 
Mickel, C. E. 193(). Two New Genera and Five New Species of Mutillidae. Ami. 

Ent. Soc. Amer. 29: 289-297, 5 figs. 
Pate, V. S. L., 1947. A Conspectus of the Tiphiidae, witli Particular Reference 

to tlie Nearctic Forms. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 55: 115-145, 2 pi. 
R^'id, J. A., 1941. The Thorax of the Wingless and Short-winged Hymenoptera. 

Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. London 91 : ;!(;7-44(i, 81 fig. 
Scliuster, R. M. 194(i. A Revision of the Sphaerophthalmine Mutillidae of 

America North of Mexico. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 39: 692-703, 2 fig. 

1949. Contributions Toward a Monograph of the Mutillidae of the 

Neotropical Region. III. A key to the Subfamilies Represented and Descrip- 
tions of Several New Genera. Ent. Amer. 29 (n.s.): 59-140, 5 pi. 



NEW SPECIES AND RECORDS OF MALLOPHAGA FROM 
GALLINACEOUS BIRDS OF THAILAND' 

K. C. Emekson, Slilliriihr, OlUilioiiKi 

and 
Robert E. Eebei,, Drpartnunl of Zoology, 
ZInivrrsifii of Ollahomn, Xormdn, Ollalioinn 
The Mallophaoa described and identified in the followino' notes, ex- 
cept for one small series in the British ^Museum (XH), were collected 
in Thailand by K. E. Elbel, H. C Die<>nan, and Boonsong Lekagul 
during the period April lOoH to April li).");"). Host identifications were 



1 This investigation was supported by research grant El 722 from the National 
Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health, 
Public Health Service. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. ott, XO. 5, OCTOBER, 19.57 233 

furnished by Mr. Deignaii, and are in accordance with tlie classifica- 
tion to be discussed in his forthcoming- "Check-list of the Birds of 
Thailand." Skins of the birds from which the lice were collected are 
now in the U. S. National Museum. Collections were made possible 
by a.ssistance from the T". S. National Museum and the United States 
Operations Mission to Thailand. The holotype and allotype of the 
new species described herein have been deposited in the U. S. National 
Museum. Dr. Theresa Clay, British Museum (NH), loaned consider- 
able material for comparison, and offered many helpful sugfgestions. 
The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance given by Dr. Clay, 
Dr. Phyllis T. Johnson, and Mr. Deig-nan during the preparation of 
this i'(']iort. 

AMBLYCERA 

Amyrsidea monostoecha (Kellogg). 

Menopon monosioeclinm Kellogg, 189(5. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. (i2), (i: .jl'o, pi. 

72, fig. 4. Type host: Phasianiix u i/clithemenis^Lophiira ni/cflii mi ra niicthc 

mera (Liiuiaeii.s). 
Specimois collected. — 4 males and -t females at Ban Na Miumg, Na 
Ilaeo, Dan Sai, Loei ; off Lophura nycthemera jonesi (Oates). The 
species was described from specimens taken off a Silver Pheasant in 
San Francisco, Calif. The specimens taken agree with Kellog-g's de- 
scriptions and illustrations, but have not been compared with the 
types or with matei'ial from type host. 

Amyrsidea phaeostoma (Nitz.sch). 

'Miitopon ii]i(ir<).sfoinin)i Xitzsch, 18(5(). Z. ges. Xat. Wiss. 28: 391. Type Lost: 

Pavo cristafiis (Linnaeus). 
Specimens colleciecl. — i males and 3 females on Phu Kho ^Mountain, 
Kan Luang, Na Kae, Nakhon Phanom ; off Pavo muiicus iinperator 
Delacour. Two species of Amyrsidea are found on Pavo crisfatus, this 
being the larger of the two forms. The specimens collected appear to 
be conspecific with material from the type host. They agree with 
specimens which Dr. Clay has compared with the figures in the 
Nitzsch Manuscript presently in the British Museum (NH). The 
smaller species of A)iiijrsielea, which is more common on domestic pea 
fowls, was not collected. The male genitalia are illustrated in fig'ure 15. 

Amyrsidea uniseriata (Piaget). 

Menopon iini.scriatum Piaget, 1880. Les Pediculines : 464, pi. 37, fig. 4. Type 

host: Pha.siatins praelatits=:Loph nra diardi (Bonaparte). 
Spccimevs collected. — 29 males and 15 females on Phu Lorn Lo Moun- 
tain, Kok Sathon, Dan Sai, Loei ; 1 male and 2 females at Ban Sang 
Kho. Khok Phu, Sakon Nakhon ; 3 males and 2 females on Phu Phak 
Khi Nak :\Iountain, Kok Sathon, Dan Sai, Loei ; 4 males and 2 females 
on Khao Sawan Mountain, Sieo, Loei ; and 1 male and 4 females at 
Ban Muang Khai, Tha Li, Loei; off Lophura diardi (Bonaparte). 
This species apparently has not been reported since the original de- 



234 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 5, OCTOBER, 1957 

scription. Hpecimeiis have been compared with the Piaget types in 
the British Miisenni (NH), and they appear to be conspeeifie. The 
male genitalia are illustrated in figure 14. 

Colpocephalum echinatum Ewiug. 

Colpocephaliim echinatum Ewing, 1930. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., 32: 118. Type 

host: Pavo mutlcus viuticus Linnaeus. 
Specimens collected. — 8 males and 8 females on Pliu Kho Mountain, 
Kan Luang, Na Kae, Nakhon Phanom; oi¥ PaAw muticus imperator 
Delaeour. Specimens have been compared by Dr. Johnson with Ew- 
ing 's types in the IT. S. National Museum, and they appear to be 
conspeeifie. 

Menopon gallinae (Linnaeus). 

Pediculus (/allinae Linnaeus, 1758. Syst. Nat., ed. 10: 613. Type host: Phasi- 

a7ius gallus {" domesticus")^Gallus gallus " domcsticiis." 
Specimens collected. — 6 males and 3 females at Ban Sang Kho, Khok 
Phu, Sakon Nakhon ; 2 males and 2 females on Phu Lom Lo Moun- 
tain, Kok Sathon, Dan Sai, Loei ; 2 males and 3 females at Ban Mu- 
ang Khai, Tha Li, Loei; and 11 males and 12 females on Khao Sawan 
Mountain, Sieo, Loei; off Lophnra diardi (Bonaparte). This species 
is rather common on both domestic and wild chickens. We are un- 
able to distinguish between the specimens taken off Lophnra diardi 
and those collected off chickens. 

ISOCHNOCERA 

Cuclotogaster phayrei n. sp. 

Male. — General shape and chaetotaxy as shown in figure 5. Abdominal tergites 
on segments II and III, divided medianly. Accessory dorsal plates, not divided 
medianly, on abdominal segments III-VI. Genitalia as shown in figure 16. 

Female. — Similar to the male in general shape, but slightly larger; being 1.68 
mm in total length. Antennae filiform. Abdominal tergites divided medianly in 
segments II-VII. Posterior margin of vulva bilobed; with 16 to 18 short setae 
evenly spaced on the margin, and 16 to 18 minute setae scattered on the surface. 

This species is closely related to Cuclotogaster gedgii (Clay), 1938, 
found on Fra/ncolinns clappertoni gedgii Ogilvie-Grant. The male of 
C. gedgii has accessory dorsal plates on abdominal segments II-VII, 
and they are divided medianly on segments II, III, VI, and VII. The 
male of C. phayrei has accessory dorsal plates on abdominal segments 
III-VI, none of which are divided. The male genitalia of the two 
form>s differ greatly. The female of C. phayrei possesses more setae 
on the margin of the vulva than does C. gedgii. The undivided ter- 
gite on abdominal segment VIII is also distinctive. 

Type host. — Francolinus pintadeanns phayrei (Blyth). 

Type material. — Holotype male, allotype female, 2 paratype males 
and 1 paratype female were collected at Ban Una Thanon, Khlong 
Khlung, Kamphaeng Phet. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 5, OCTOBER, 195? 235 

Cuclotogaster subinsolitus n. sp. 

Male. — General shape and chaetotaxy as shown in figure 6. Posterior ptero- 
thoracic setae arranged: 1, 2, 2, 1, 1, 2, 2, 1. Abdominal tergite on segment II 
is divided medianly, the remainder being transversly continuous. Accessory dorsal 
plates, on abdominal segments IV-VII ; none of which are divided medianly. 
Genitalia as shown in figure 17. 

Female. — ^Similar to the male in general shape, but larger; being 2.02 mm in 
total length. Antennae filiform. Dorsal posterior pterothoracic setae arranged: 
1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1. Abdominal tergites on segments II-VII, divided medianly. Ex- 
cept for terminal segments, abdominal chaetotaxy same as in the male. Chaetotaxy 
and structure of genital region same as that given by Clay (1938) for C. inso- 
littis. 

This species is closely related to Cuclotogaster insolitus (Clay), 
1938, found on ArhoropliUa rufogularis tickelli (Hume). The form 
is distinguished from C. insolitus by the more rounded anterior mar- 
gin of the head and by being considerably larger. In the male of C. 
insolitus, the tergal plates on abdominal segments IT-VI are divided 
medianly; in C. suhinsolitus, only the tergal plate on abdominal seg- 
ment II is divided medianly. The male genitalia of the two forms 
appear to be very similar. The female of G. suhinsolitus does not 
have the tergal plate on abdominal segment VIII divided medianly. 

Ty^Je Jiost. — Arhorophila hrnnneopectus hrunneopectus (Blyth). 

Type material. — Holotype male, allotype female, 9 paratype males, 
and 10 paratype females collected on Phu Lom Lo Mountain, Kok 
Sathon. Dan Sai, Loei. 

Goniocotes parviceps (Piaget). 

Goniodes parviceps Piaget, 1880. Les Pediculines: 277, pi. 23, fig. 2. Type host: 

Pavo cristatus Linnaeus. 
Specimens collected. — 8 males and 6 females on Phu Kho Mountain, 
Kan Luang, Na Kae, Nakhon Phanom ; off Pavo muticus imperator 
Delacour. Goniocotes parinceps (Piaget) and Goniocotes rectangu- 
latus Nitzsch are two closely related forms found on Pavo cristatus. 
Both are atypical, and are occasionall.y included in the genus Gonio- 
des. The females possess characters typical of those found in other 
species of Goniocotes. The sexual dimorphism exhibited in the head 
of the male and the male genitalia indicate an affinity to the genus 
Goniodes; these are illustrated in figures 9, 10, and 11. We believe 
that both species should be retained in Goniocotes until a more com- 
plete study can be made of the genus. Goniocotes yngarejsnf Eiehle^, 
1950, was described and illustrated from female specimens taken off 
Pavo cristatus. The descriptions and illustrations agree completely 
with females of Goniocotes parviceps taken from that host. Speci- 
mens collected off Pavo muticus imperator have been compared with 
material from the type host and they appear to be conspecific. The 
male genitalia are complex and there are minor differences, but these 
appear to be no greater than the differences between individuals col- 
lected off the same host. 



236 PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 5, OCTOBER, 1957 

Goniodes cervinicornis (lichel 

Goniodes cervinicornis Giebel, 1874. Insecta Epizoa: 199. Type host: Flinsianas 
nycthemcrus^LoTphura nyefhemera iiycihemera (Linnaeus). 

Spemmens collected. — 1 male at Ban Na Muanof, Na Haeo, Dan Sai, 
Loei; 1 female on Phu Lorn Lo Mountain, Kok Sathon, Dan Sai, Loei; 
and 10 males and 19 females on Phak Khi Xak Mountain, Kok Sathon, 
Dan Sai, Loei; off Lophura nijcfhenicra joiusi (Gates). Clay rede- 
scribed and illustrated this species from material taken off museum 
skins of the type host. These specimens agree with Clay's descri]itions 
and illustrations. 

Goniodes chloropus ii. sp. 

Male. — General shape and chaetotaxv as sliown in figure 7. Temples not ex- 
panded beyond Avidth of preantennal region of forehead. Membraneous portion 
■of clavi well developed. First antennal segment enlarged and bearing a thickened 
process. Lateral margins of i)rothorax each with three short setae. Genitalia as 
shown in figure 12. 

Female. — General shape and chaetotaxv as shown in figure 8. Temples ex- 
panded to a width greater than that of the preantennal region of forehead. Olavi 
only slightly developed. Antennae filiform. Ventrally, n row of short stout setae 
in the lateral lobes of the terminal abdominal segment. 

While this species belongs to Clay's (1940) "species group I," it 
does not particularly resemble any of the known species. The wide 
marginal carnia of the forehead, the male genitalia, and the structure 
and chaetotaxy of the female genital region distinguish it from all 
known species of the genus. 

Type host. — Arhorophila charltonii chloropus (Blyth). 

Type material. — Holotype male, allotype female, 3 paratype males, 
and 2 paratype females collected at Ban Hua Thanon, Khlong Khlung, 
Kamphaeng Phet. 

Goniodes coronatus (Giebel). 

Goniocote.s coronatus Giebel, 1874. Insecta Epizoa: 302. Type liost : Crypt iinis 
coronatuszizBolliiJiis roulroul (Scojioli). 

Specimens ce/llected. — 12 males and 5 females on Khao Phap Pha 
Mountain, Ban Na, Phattalung; off the type host. These specimens 
agree Avith Clay's (1940) descriptions and illustrations. 

Goniodes diardi Clay. 

Goniodes diardi Clay, 1940. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. (B), 110: 70, figs. 2a and 48c. 

Type host: Lophura diardi (Bonaparte). 
Specimens collected. — 1 male and 1 female at Ban Na Muang, Na 
Ilaeo, Dan Sai, Loei; 4 males and 2 females on Phu Phak Khi Nak 
Mountain, Kok Sathon, Dan Sai, Loei ; 1 male and 3 females at Ban 
Sang Kho, Khok Phu, Sakon Nakhon ; 2 males and 5 females on Phu 
Lorn Lo Mountain, Kok Sathon, Dan Sai, Loei; and 1 male and 2 
females at Ban Muang Khai, Tha Li, Loei; off Lophura diardi (Bona- 
parte). All specimens agree with Clay's descriptions and illustrations. 



PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 5, OCTOBEK, 1957 237 

Goniodcs pavonis (Linnaeus). 

Pedicdliis pdronl.s Linnneus, 1758. Syst. Nat., od. Id: (ilM. 'J\vpo liost: P<iio 

crlstai us Linnaeus. 
Specimens collected. — 7 males and 9 females on Phu Kho Monntain, 
Kan Lnanji', Xa Kae, Xakhon Phanom off Povo )iiuficus iniperator 
Delac'Oiir. These specimens aeree ^vith Clay's (1940) descriptions and 
ilhistrations. 

Goniodes processus Kellogg and Paine. 

Gonlodt's processus Kelhigg and Paine, 1914. Rec. Indian Mus., 10: 22(), jd. 15, 

fig. 9. Type host: Arborophila rufogidaris rnfogularis (Blytli). 
Specimens ceAlecied. — 7 males and 6 females on Phu Lom Lo Moun- 
tain, Kok Sathon, Dan Sai, Loei; off Arhorophila hrunneopictus hrini- 
neopictus (Blyth). Clay (1940) redeseribed and illustrated this spe- 
cies from specimens taken off museum skins of Arhorophila rufoeju- 
laris fiekeJli (Hume), and reported collections from skins of five other 
species and subspecies of Arhorophila. She also noted (p. 25) : ''Speci- 
mens from skins of ^4. h. hrnnneopicius (Blyth), .4. h. henrici (Ousta- 
let), and A. erythrophrys (Sharpe) from Borneo do not appear quite 
typical, and may prove to be a new subspecies." The specimens col- 
lected ao-ree with the illustrations and descriptions piven by C4ay, but 
have not been compared with specimens from the type host. 

Lipeurus boonsongi n. sp. 

Male. — General shai)e and cliaetotaxy as shown in figure 4. Postantennal con- 
striction not pronounced, breadth at temples almost equal to that of the praenten- 
nal region. Four dorsal setae on jirothorax. Two short and thiee long setae in 
each posterior lateral angle of pterothorax. Al)dominal tergal plates narrow and 
transversely continuous. Eight medium-length setae on margin of genital ojn'n 
iiig. Genitalia as shown in figure 18. 

Female. — Slightly larger* than male; total length being 'J.lo mm. Head without 
postantennal constriction, temples slightly expanded. Antennae filiform. Pro- 
thorax with two dorsal setae. Pterothorax as in the male. Abdominal tergal plates 
wide and transversely continuous. Eight medium length and twelve short setae 
on margin of genital opening. 

This species is closest to Lipeurus fimhriatus Clay, 1988, found on 
Melanoperdix nigra nigra (Vio'ors). It can be separated from that 
species by the shape of the head, male oenitalia, and the chaetotaxy of 
the terminal abdominal segments. 

Type host. — Francolinus pintadvanus phayrei (Blyth). 
Type material. — Ilolotype male, allotype female. 2 i)araty])e males 
and 2 paratype females collected at Ban Una Thanon, Khlong Khlung, 
Kamphaeng- Phet. Three male paratypes and six female paratypes 
collected in Burma are in the British ^luseum (NH). 

Lipeurus deignani n. sp. 

Male. — General shape and chaetotaxy as shown in figure 3. Marked postanten- 
nal constriction, lireadth at teiu]des almost equal to that of ]iri'antennal region. 



238 PKOC. KNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 5, OCTOBER, 1957 

First aiitemuil .sounit'i't cnhtrgi'd and bearing a short liliint appendage. Four 
ilorsal setae on prothorax. Two short and five long setae in each posterior lateral 
angle of pterothorax. Wide abdominal tergal plates. Chaetotaxy of genital re- 
gion as in Lippurus brimneipictus (Giebel). Male genitalia as shown in figure 19. 

Female. — Similar to L. hrunneipictus, except for the chaetotaxy on the margin 
of the vulva. This form has twenty-eight long and medium-length setae on the 
margin of the vulva, as compared with twenty setae of the same sizes on the 
vulva of L. hrunneipictus. Total length is 2.96 mm. 

This species is closest to Lipenrus hrunneipicfus (Giebel), 1877, 
found on Lnphnra ignita rufa (Raffles). It can be separated from 
that species by the shape of the first antenna! segment of the male, 
the wide abdominal terjj-al plates of the male, the male genitalia, and 
the chaetotaxy of the genital region of the female. 

Type host. — Lophnra diardi (Bonaparte). 

Type material. — Holotype male, allotype female, :} ])aratype males, 
and 5 paratype females collected at Khao Sawan Mountain, Sieo, Loei. 
( )ther paratypes are : 25 males and 26 females collected on Phu Lorn 
Lo Mountain, Kok Sathon, Dan Sai, Loei ; 7 males and 4 females col- 
lected at Siracha, Clion Buri; 6 males and 7 females collected at Ban 
Sang- Kho, Khok Phu, Sakon Nakhon ; 11 males and 16 females col- 
lected on Phu Phak Khi Nak Mountain, Kok Sathon, Dan Sai, Loei ; 
2 males and 1 female collected at Ban Na Muang', Na Haeo, Dan Sai, 
Loei; and 1 mah» and 1 female collected at Ban Muang Khai, Tha 
Li, Loei. 

Lipeurus introductiis Kellogg 
LilMiirus infroductiis Kellogg, 1896. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. (2), 6: 500, pi. 68, 

figs. 1 and 5. Type host: Pha,'<ianii.<i nycfhemerus^Lophura nycfhemern ny- 

cthemera (Linnaeus). 
Specimens collected. — 1 male and 8 females at Ban Na Muang, Na 
Ilaeo, Dan Sai, Loei; 1 female on Phu Lom Lo Mountain, Kok Sathon, 
Dan Sai, Loei ; and 9 males and 18 females on Phu Phak Khi Nak 
Mountain, Kok Sathon, Dan Sai, Loei; off Lophura nycthemera jonesi 
(Oates). The species was described from specimens taken off a Silver 
Pheasant in San Francisco, California. Clay (1938) redescribed and 
illustrated the form as Lipeurus suhsellatus Harrison, 1916, a. syno- 
nym, from specimens taken off museum skins of the type host. The 
specimens collected agree with Cla.y's descriptions and illustrations. 

Oxylipeurus annamensis n. sp. 

Male. — General shape and chaetotaxy as shown in figure 2. Posterior margin 

of the modified chitin of the forehead with six prominent serrations. First antennal 

segment enlarged and elongated, with a circular-shaped clear area. Abdominal ter- 

gites, except for terminal segment, divided medianly. Posterior sternal plate 



Fig. 1. Oxylipeurus formosanus (Uchida), dorsal-ventral view of male; fig. 2. 
Oxylipeurus annamensis n. sp., dorsal-ventral view of male; fig. 3. Lipenrus deig- 
nani n. sp., dorsal-ventral view of male; fig. 4. Lipeurus hoonsongi n. sp., dorsal- 
ventral view of male; fig. 5. Cu,clotoga.ster phayrei n. sp., dorsal-ventral view of 
male; fig. 6. Cuclotogastcr subinsolitus n. sp., dorsal-ventral view of male. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH.. VOL. 5it, NO. 5, OCTOBER, 1957 



239 




240 I'KOC. KNT. S(1C. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. O. OCTOBKR, 1957 

prolonged into ;i short, tliiekeiu'd niodificd })r()cc'ss. On (■••icli side of tliis {jroccss, 
a row of c'iglit setae. Gt'iiitJilin ;is sIkiwu in figure IM. 

Female. — Sliglitly larger tliaii the malt', l)eing ?>A- inni in total U'ngth. Fore- 
head as in the inah'. Antennae filifoim. Chaetotaxy of thorax and abdomen 
similar to the male, except for terminal segment. Terminal altdominal segment 
deeply bicleft. Margin of vulva bi(deft, with a row of i24 to 2G setae. 

This species is closely related to O.rjflipeurus piagciinus Hopkins. 
1950, found on Lophuro igiiifa Ujnifo (Shaw). In 0.. piagvtinus, the 
posterior niariiin of the modified ehitin of the forehead is strai<iht ; 
whereas in I). (iiuKniiensis, this marijin is prominently sei'rated. 

T!ip< host. — Lophura diardi (Bonaparte). 

Tijpc iiiaf(rial. — Ilolotype male, allotype female, 4 paratype males 
and 4 paratype femah^s were collected at Ban Sano' Kho, Khok Phn. 
Sakon Xakhon. Othei- paratypes are: 8 males and 10 females collected 
on Phu Lorn Lo Mountain, Kok Sathon, Dan Sai, Loei ; 5 males and 
1 female collected on Phu Phak Khi Nak Mountain, Kok Sathon, Dan 
Sai, Loei ; 9 males and 10 females collected on Khao Sawan Mountain, 
Sieo, Loei; 1 female collected at Ban Na Mnan.ii', Xa Ilaeo. Dan Sai. 
Loei; and 7 males and '■) fcMualcs collected at Ban Muanu Khai, Tha 
Li, Loei. 

Oxylipeurus formcsanus (Tchida). 
Liprin-us forniosaiiiis Uehida, 1917. J. Coll. Agrie. Tokyo, 'A: 179, fig. 1. Type 

host: Arhorophila cnidif/iilnris (Swinhoe). 
Spcciineus collected. — 2!) males and 15 females on Phu Lom Lo Moun- 
tain, Kok Sathon, Dan Sai, Ijoei ; off ArborophUn hrui\neopect\is 
hrnnneopectns (Blyth). These specimens have been compared with 
material from the type host collected in Formosa. We are unable to 
find any sig-nificant differences between the two populations. The male 
is illustrated in figure 1. The male genitalia are of the same tyj^e 
as found in Ori/tipi iinis annamejhn.s. 

Oxylipeurus megalops (Piaget). 
Lipeurtis megalops Piaget, 1880. Les Pediculines: 675, jd. Ki, fig. 8. Tyjie host: 

Cryptonyx coronatus=Rolluhis rotiJroid (Seopoli). 
Sipeci)iiev,s collected. — 7 males and 11 females on Khao Phap Pha 
Mountain, Ban Na. Phattalung; off the ty])e host. These specimens 
agree with Clay's (108S) descrijitions and illustrations. 

Oxylipeurus unicolor (Piaget). 
Lipeurii.s unieolor Piaget, 1880. Les Pediculines: 35-4, pi. 28, fig. 6. Type host: 

Arhorophila hrunncopectus javanica (Gmelin). 
Specimens collected. — 11 males and 10 females on Phu Lom Lo Moun- 
tain, Kok Sathon, Dan Sai, Loei; off ArhoropJiild hrttiineopectus hrun- 
iieopectus (Blyth). Clay (1988) redescribed and illustrated the spe- 
cies from material taken off' mnse\im skins of the type host, and re- 
Fig. 7. Goniodes chloropii.s n. sp., dorsal-ventral view of male; fig. 8. Gon.iodes 
chloropns n. sp., dorsal-ventral view of female; fig. 9. Gonioeotes parvicrps (Pia- 
get), dorsal-ventral view of male; fig. 10. Gonioeotes parviceps (Piaget), male 
genitalia; fig. 11. Gonioeotes reetangnlatus Nitzsch, male genitalia. 



PROC. ENT. SOO. AVASH., VOL. 59, NO. 5, OCTOBER, 19")^ 



241 




PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 59, NO. 5, OCTOBER, 1957 







13 



U 



15 






16 



17 



18 




Fig. 12. Goniodcs c]iloropii.s u. sp., male genitalia; fig. 18. O.rylipevrus anna- 
mensis n. sp., male genitalia; fig. l-i. Ami/rtiidea uniseriata (Piaget), male geni- 
talia; fig. 15. Amyrsidea phaecosioma (Nitzscli), male geniialia; fig. 16. Citcloto- 
fiaster phayrei n. sp., male genitalia; fig. 17. Cuclotogaster subinsolitus n. sp., 
male genitalia; fig. 18. Lipeurus boonsongi n. sp., male genitalia; fig. 19. Lipeu- 
ni.s deigvani n. sp., male genitalia. 

ported collections from skins of 15 other species and subspecies of 
Arhorophila. The specimens collected agree with Clay's descriptions 
and illustrations. 

References 

Clay, T. 1938. A revision of the genera and species of Mallophaga occurring on 
Gallinaceous hosts. — Part I. Lipeurus and related genera. Proc. Zool. Soc. 
London, Ser. B 108: 109-204. 



PROr. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. .19, NO. 5, OCTOBER, 1957 243 



■ . 1940. Genera and species of Mallophaga occurring- on Gallinaceous 

hosts. — Part II. Goniodes. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, Ser. B 110: 1-120. 
Eichler, W. 1950. Notulae Mallopliagologicae. XII. Neue Goniodidac Doriana 

I: 1-8. 
Ewing, H. E. 1930. Six new species of Mallophaga. Proe. Ent. Soc. Wash. 

32: 117-121. 
Oiebel, C. G. 1874. Insecta Epizoa. Leipiz. 
Hopkins, G. H. E. 1950. Stray notes on Mallophaga— X. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 

(ser. 12) 3: 230-242. 
Kellogg, V. L. 189(5. New Mallojjhaga, II, from land birds, together with an 

account of the Mallophagous mouth-parts. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 6: 431-552. 
, and J. H. Paine. 1914. Mallophaga from birds (mostly Corvidae and 

Phasianidae) of India and neighboring countries. Rec. Indian Mus. 10: 217- 

243. 
Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae (Ed. 10). Stockholm. 
Piaget, E. 1880. Les Pediculines, Essai Monographique. Leyden. 
Nitzsch, C. L. 1866. (In Giebel) Zoologischen Museum der Universitat Halle 

Aufgestellten Epizoen, nebst Beobachtungen iiber dieselben. Z. ges. NatWiss. 

28: 353-397. 
Uchida, S. 1917. Mallophaga from lurds of Formosa. J. Coll. Agr. Tokyo 3: 

171-188. 

BLACK FLIES ATTRACTED TO MEAT BAITi 
(Dii'TERA: Si.>[rLni)AE ) 
Bait traps with ground beef as the attractant, set during the suni- 
raer months of 1954-55 at 'Sullivan Dam, Grant County, Wash., 
yielded considerable numbers of black flies, Simitliitui vittatum Zett. 
A preliminary investio-ation of the literature and personal corre- 
spondence with Dr. Alan Stone and Dr. Herbert Dalmat have failed 
to show any records of black flies having been attracted to meat bait 
traps. 

The traps were placed in the field at six stations, each representing 
a somewhat different ecological habitat ; some were located in dry 
sage and sand types of environment, whereas others were established 
along the grassy margins of seepage ponds. The traps were placed 
in the field at approximately 7 a.m. and allowed to remain until 7 p.m. 
The bait traps were of the old-fashioned fly trap variety, that is, a 
common cylindrical screen with an inverted cone, a white cloth used 
as a tie at the top, and the entire trap suppoi-ted by an unpainted 
plywood frame. 

The bait was ground beef with ami)le quantities of tallow, placed 
on a piece of white paper towel (which also helps to attract insects) 
and anchored to the ground with small sticks or nails. The advantage 
of using ground beef in this area is its moisture-retaining qualities. 
Freshness of the bait also appeared to be an important factor. Un- 



1 This study was supported in part by United States Public Health Grant 
E-579 and in part by the State of Washington Initiative Measure No. 171 for 
medical and biological research. 



244 PKOC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 5, OCTOBER, 1957 

rpfrioprated meat tluit was allowed to aj^e and putrefy seemed to be 
superior to fi-eshly })repared meat. 

Black tiies were col^H-ted in small, thou<ih constant numbers, in all 
traps from July 12 to October 11, 1954, and from July 9 to August 
22, 1955. Altogether, 881 males and 512 females were collected in 
1954 and 42 males and 62 females in 1955. The large number for 
1954 was due chiefly to a peak of capture on August 17, when a trap 
left out accidentally for 3 days yielded 766 males and 347 females. 
This peak was probably not wholly due to the unusually long time 
of exposure, since a similar, though much smaller peak occurred in 
1955 ; it may have been due to mass emcrgcMice of adults. — Harry G. 
Davis and Maurice T. James, Depf. of ZooJogn, State Col lege of 
Wnshinqtou, Pullman, Wash. 

THE VALIDITY AND CHANGE OF NAME OF TWO SPECIES OF 
WYEOMYIA. (DIPTERA, CULICIDAE) 

\n 1939, when Lane and Certpieira were working on the "(>s 
Sabetineos da America" (1942), Del Ponte made available to them a 
draft description and specimens of a l^cn<lro)n]i\a which he considered 
a new species and was about to publish under the name of rooti. Con- 
sidering inade(|uate tlie material on which the description was based, 
and, deeming insut^icient the characters that were being given to 
separate this species, Lane and Cerqueira did not include it in their 
study. Later, when suitable specimens were obtained, they described 
the species as Wyeomyia {Dendromyia) delpontei (1942). 

Dr. Alan Stone has now called our attention to the fact that Del 
Ponte mentioned in his paper (1939) sufficient characters for his 
species, thus making rooti a valid name. 8uch being the case, Wyeo- 
myia, (Dendromyia) elelpontei Lane & Cer(|ueira, 1942 becomes a 
synonym of Wyeomyia {Dendromyia) rooti Del Ponte, 1939. Conse- 
quently, Wyeomyia (Antunesmyia) rooti Lane & Cerqueira 1942 
becomes an homonym; but, as this species remains valid, we are here 
changing its name to alani, new name, based on the given name of our 
informant. 

The situation of the s]iecies under discussion stands therefore as 
follows : 

Wyeomyia (Antunesmyia) alani, new name 

1942 Wyeomyia {Aniiim smyia) rooti Lane »!c Cerqueira, Arq. Zool. Sao Paulo 
?>: .587 nee Wiifomyia (Deiulromnia) rooti Del Ponte, 19.39, Physis 17: 
535-541. 

1953 W jiromyia {Autiiuismjiia) rooti Lane, Neotropical ('ulicidae 2: 941. 
Wyeomjria (Dendromyia) rooti Del Ponte 1939. 

1939 Dendromyia rooli Del Ponte, Pliysis 17: 535-541. 

1942 syn. Myiowiyia {T)< ndromyia) delpontei Lane & Cerqueira, Art). Zool. Sao 
Paulo 3: <)13. 

1953 Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) delpontei Lane, Neotropical Culieidae 2: 988. 

John Lane and 
Nelson L. Cerqueira. 



I'ROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. '^*^, NO. 5, OCTOBER, 1957 245 

THE SYSTEMATIC RELATIONSHIPS OF THE PALEANTARCTIC 
SIPHLONURIDAE (INCLUDING ISONYCHIIDAE) (EPHEMEROPTERA) • 

George F. Edmunds, Jr., Univcr.sity of I'lali 

The primitive mayflies of the family Siphlonuridae (iiieluding* 
Isonyehiiclae) of Australia, New Zealand, and southern South Ameriea 
are of great interest to ephemeropterists, but their interrelationships 
never have been elearlv understood. Keeent works b.y Demoulin (1955, 
Bull. Inst. Rov. 8ci. Nat. Belg. 31(22) : 1-15; (58) : 1-16) and Riek 
(1955, Austral. Jour. Zool. 3: 266-280, 2 pis.) have helped to clarify 
the systematies of the group. 

On the basis of the morphology of the nymphs there are four re- 
markably distinct groups, each represented by one genus in eaeh of 
the three land masses, except that one of the groups has two repre- 
sentatives in South America. Altho\igh the groups are easily charac- 
terized in the nymphal stage, the definition of these groups in the 
adult stage is difficult, primarily, it is hoped, because of inadeipiate 
knowledge of the family. 

The Siphlonurinae are represented by three genera which have very 
similar nymphs, Nesameletus in New Zealand, Ameletoides in Aus- 
tralia, and Mctamonius in South America. The Oniscigastrinae are 
represented by the remarkable Oniscigostcr in New Zealand, Tasmano- 
phlcbia {^Tasiuanophh'biodcs) in Australia, and Siphlondla in 
South America. 

A third group is represented by mayflies with peculiar carnivorous 
nymphs having threadlike multi-segmented labial and maxillary palpi. 
This group is represented by Anielefopsis in New Zealand, Mirawara 
in Australia, and Chiloporter and probably Chaquihua in South 
America. The relationship between Amelcfopsis and Chiloporter is 
quite obvious. Demoulin (1952, Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 88: 170- 
172) at one time considered these genera synonymous, but they were 
restored to generic status by Edmunds and Traver (1954, Proc. Ent. 
Soc. Wash. 56: 236-240). The genus Mirawara of Australia was 
included by Edmunds and Traver {op. cit.) in the family Isonychii- 
dae without critical study because of the statement by Ilarker (1954. 
Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. London, 105: 251) that the genus was related 
to Colohiiriscus. Riek {op. cit.) has since described the nymjih of 
Mirawara and revealed the relationship to Anwletopsis. The nymph 
of Mirawara is almost certainly the one which Tillyard (1933, Proc. 
Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales 58: 5) reported as Ameletopsis in Australia. 
More recently Demoulin (1955, Bull. Inst. Roy. Sci. Nat. Belg. 31: 
11) has described a new genus, Chaquihua, which is apparently re- 
lated to Mirawara and is therefore placed in the Isonychiidae. The 
nymph of Chaquihua is unknown, but some AnicJcfopsi.s-Vike nymphs 
in the California Academy of Sciences Collection, collected west of 

1 This research Avas supported bv grants from the National Science Foundation 
(NSF-G2514) and the University of Utah Researcli Fund. 



246 PROC. ENT. SOC. "WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 5, OCTOBKR, 19.57 

Angol, Chile by Ross and Michelbacher are probably the nymphs 
of Chaquihiia. The wing pads have Chaquihua type venation, but 
reveal no angular costal projection at the base of the hind 
wing. In Denionlin's {op. cit. :15) summary of the genera of the 
Siphlonuridae and Isonyehiidae, he places CJiiloportcr and Amele- 
t()j)sis in the Siphlonuridae and Mirawara and Chaquihua in the 
Isonyehiidae. I propose that the four genera form a new subfamily, 
Ameletopsinae, in the family Siphlonuridae. 

The isonychiine mayflies are represented by Colohuriscus in New 
Zealand, Colohuriscoides in Australia, and by Murphy cUa in South 
America. These nymphs have such common features as maxillary and 
coxal gills, the forelegs with long setae, and similar mouthparts. The 
abdominal gills have a fibrilliform tuft in Colohuriscoides;, but not in 
Colohuriscus; Murphy ella nymphs have no abdominal gills. 

The isonychiine mayflies are still not adequately characterized in 
the adult stage, and from a practical standi)oint it is probably best 
to regard them as a subfamily of the Siphlonuridae. Burks (1953, 
Bull. 111. Nat. Hist. Surv. 26(1) : 108) originally proposed the group 
as a subfamily of Baetidae, but Edmunds and Traver {loc. cit.) raised 
the group to family level. The isonychiine branch most certainly 
originated from the Siphlonuridae, but after branching from this 
group has apparently been ancestral to two distinct families, the 
Heptageniidae and Oligoneuriidae. Because the isonychiine branch 
was the probable ancestor of these families, Edmunds and Traver 
(loc. cit.) felt that the group should be regarded as a full family. 
Although this still appeals to me from the theoretical standpoint, it 
is not a regular practice in classification. For example, the reptilian 
stem which was ancestral to the mammals is not placed as a separate 
class from the reptiles because it was ancestral to another class, the 
Mammalia. For this reason I am inclined to now regard the Isony- 
chiinae as only a subfamily of Siphlonuridae. 

In \aew of the clarification of relationships of the paleantaretic 
Siphlonuridae, the following table summarizes the systematic and 
geographical relationships of the genera. A similar table published 
by Demoulin {loc. cit.) summarizes his impression of the relationships 
as viewed prior to the publication of Riek's {op. cit.) paper on the 
Australian Siphlonuridae. 

Groups of South New 

Siphlonuridae America Australia Zealand 

Siphlonurinae Metamonius Ameletoides Nesameletus 

Ameletopsinae Chaquihua Mirawara Ameletopsis 

Chiloporter 
Oniscigastrinae Siphlonella Tasmanophlebia Oniscigaster 

( = Tasmanophle- 
bioides) 
Isonychiinae Murphyella Colohuriscoides 

( =:Dictyosiphlon Colohuriscus 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 5, OCTOBER, 1957 247 




ROBERT ASA CUSHMAN 

1880-1957 

Robert Asa Cushman, recognized abroad as well as in this eonntry 
as an outstanding- authority on the classification of those parasitic 
Hymenoptera that comprise the family Ichneumonidae, died at his 
home in Altadena, Calif, on March 28, 1957. He and Mrs. Cushman 
had moved there from Washington in 1944, when he retired from 
active service in the Department of Agriculture on account of poor 
health. 

Mr. Cushman was born in Taunton, Mass., on November 6, 1880. 
After completing his early education he studied at the University of 
New Hampshire and at Cornell University, and in 1906 he was ap- 



248 PKOC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 59, NO. 5, OCTOBER, 1957 

pointed a field ajieiit in the V. S. Bureau of Entonioloyy. His first 
assignments involved studies of the cotton boll weevil and its para- 
sites, -with headquarters at Tallulah, La., and Dallas, Tex. ; but in 
1911 he was transferred to the Division of Fruit Inseet Investigations 
and stationed at Vienna, Va. Witli this move he began part-time duty 
with the Department of Agrieulture staff of inseet taxonomists at 
the National Museum. This arrangement was continued when his field 
station assignment was shifted a few years later to North East, Penn- 
sylvania, where he was engaged on studies of grape pests and their 
parasites. Finally, in 1920 he was transferred to Washington and 
stationed at the National Museum for full-time duty in. the field he 
loved best and for which he was so admirably fitted, the taxonomy 
of the ichneumon flies. 

Although not an especially prolific writer Mr. Cushman, neverthe- 
less, published a large number of papers (which are cited in an ac- 
companying article by Dr. Henry Townes). Many of these represent 
signifieant contributions to a sound knowledge of the classifi;^'ation 
of the Tchneumonidae, made the more useful by Cushman 's possession 
of a gift for clear expression and nice use of the English language. 

Late in 1927 he was sent to the Philippines to arrange for the pack- 
ing and transfer to the U. S. National Museum of the C. F. Baker 
collection of insects, which had been bequeathed to the Museum on 
the condition that the Museum send someone to the Philippines to 
attend to its packing and shipment. It contained approximately 300,- 
000 pinned insects and was one of the largest single accessions to tlie 
National ^luseum's insect collections. 

Mr. Cushman was elected to membership in the Entomological So- 
ciety of Washington in 1911, and during his many years at the Na- 
tional Museum he attended the Society's meetings very regularly and 
contributed importantly to their programs and discussions. He was 
recording secretary of the Society from 1919 to 1921, second vice- 
president in 1923, first vice president in 1924, and president in 1925. 

Cushman was an extremely friendly person who liked people, and 
who, in turn, Mas liked by all who were acquainted with him. His 
passing leaves those who worked with him and who knew him best 
with a deep sense of loss. He is survived by his widow and by a son, 
Arthur D., who is a scientific illustrator in the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture. C. F. W. MricsEBECK 

A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS OF 
R. A. CUSHMAN 

Henry Townes 

Mr. Cushman 's list of published titles includes 113 items. In se- 
quence, they are a good mirror of his scientific career, beginning with 
papers on the biologies of various insects, then turning more and 
more to their hymenopterous parasites. Shortly, he started contribu- 
tions on the taxonomy of the parasitic Hymenoptera, at first on Bra- 



PROC. ENT. SOf. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 5, OCTOBER, 1957 249 

-oiiidae, Chalcidoidea, and Ichiieuniunidae, but soon concentrated his 
interests on the lehneumonidae to the exelnsion of the others, and 
also to the exclusion of papers on biologies. His earlier work on biolo- 
gies had its effect on his taxonomy, as he became impressed with the 
importance of biological characteristics, larval morphology, and the 
morphology of the ovipositor tip. These characters led him to an 
understanding of ichneumonid classification in advance of others of 
his day. Though he published no comparative studies on ichneumonid 
larvae, his unusual knowledge of them was a foundation for his opin- 
ions on the phylogeny of the family. 

Mr. Cushman's taxonomic papers reflect his duties and opportuni- 
ties at the U. S. National Museum. Descriptions of new species reared 
from hosts of economic importance fill many of them. He had access 
to a fine library and many important types, which resulted in nomen- 
clatorial work in which he tried to bring some order out of the chaos 
of names left by his predecessors. An interesting fact is that among 
Cushman's tools were Foerster's original manuscript notebooks on the 
classification of the Ichneumonidae, from w^hich Foerster published 
in 1868 a synopsis of all the genera, describing 509 genera as new. 
Foerster's published synopsis is very brief, but his notebooks include 
fuller treatments and in . many cases keys to the species under the 
genera. Cushman's comments on the application of many of Foers- 
ter's generic names stem from a study of these manuscripts. The 
notebooks were acquired from Dr. 0. Schmiedeknecht in the early 
1920 's. Schmiedeknecht had also made use of them in his publications. 

Mr. Cushman's best known contributions are the series of papers 
on the subfamily Pimnlinae, published in 1920, quite early in his ca- 
reer. His best work, however, is in his later revisions, like those on 
the Nearctic Mesostenini (1929) the genus Exenterus (1940), and the 
revision of the genera of Ophionini (his last paper). The high (luality 
of these later revisions reflects a long devotion to the subject, high in- 
tellectual standards, and the use of good collections. 

List of Titles 

1911 Studies on the hiologj- of the boll weevil in the Mississijipi Delta Region 
of Louisiana. Jour. Econ. Ent. 4: 432-44S. 

Notes on the peach and plum slug. U. 8. Dept. Agr., Bur. Ent. Bui. 
97: 91-102. 

Notes on the host plants and parasites of some North American 
Bruchidae. Jour. Econ. Ent. 4: 489-510. 

1912 Pierce, Cushman, and Hood: The insect enemies of the cotton boll 
weevil. U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Ent. Bui. 100, 99 pp. 

[Note on the biology of Aseof/asfrr carpocapsae and of Cratoteclius sp.] 
Proe. Ent. Soc. Wash. 14: 90-91. 

1913 Biological notes on a few rare or little known parasitic Hymenoptera. 
Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. L5: 153-160. 

The Calliephialtes parasite of the codling moth. Jour. Agr. Res. 1: 211- 
238. PI. 20. 



250 PROC. KNT. SOC. WASH., VOI-. 59, NO. 5, OCTOBER, 1957 

1914 A new species of the lnjiconid genus Phanrrotoma Wesuiael. Pioc. Ent. 
Soc. Wash. 16: 78-79. 

A revision of the North American species of the l)raconid genus 
Kabrohracon Johnson (Ashmead). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 16: 99-108. 

1915 Descriptions of six new species of ichneumon flies. Proc. U. S. Natl. 
Mus. 48: 507-513. 

Descriptions of new Ichneumonidae and t;ixonomic notes. Proc. Ent. 

Soc. Wash. 17: 132-142. 

Eoliwer, Galuin, and Cushman: Some generic corrections in the 

Ophioninae. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 17: 149-150. 

Pierce and Cushman. A few notes on the habits of parasitic Hymenop- 

tera. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 17: 164-168. 

1916 The cherry leaf -beetle, a periodically im])ortant enemy of cherries. 
U. S. Dept. Agr. Bui. 352, 28 pages. 

The native food-plants of the apple red-l)ugs. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 

18: 196. 

Thersilochus coiiofrarhcli, a parasite of the plum curculio. .Tour. Agr. 

Res. 6: 847-856. 

Syntomaspis drtiparnm, the apple-seed chalcid. Jour. Agr. Res. 7: 487- 

506. 

1917 Two new chalcids from the seeds of Amelavchicr. Proc. Ent. Soc. 
Wash. 19: 79-86. 

Rohwer and Cushman. Idiogastra, a new suborder of Hymenoptera 

with notes on the immature stages of On/.s'.s>/.s. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 

19: 89-98. 

Notes on the biology of Schizonofiis sieholdii Ratz. Proc. Ent. Soc. 

Wash. 19: 128-129. 

A much described ichneumonid and its systematic position. Proc. Ent. 

Soc. Wash. 19: 162-165. 

Eight new species of reared ichneumon-flies with notes on some other 

species. Proc. IT. S. Natl. Mus. 53: 457-469. 

A revision of the hymenopterous insects of the tribe Cremastini of 

America north of Mexico. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 53: 503-551. 

1918 The correct names for some of our common ichneumonid parasites. 
Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 20: 9-12. 

A convenient method of handling large numbers of individuals in life- 
history studies of insects. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 20: 112-114. 
Notes on the cocoon spinning habits of two species of braconids (Hym.). 
Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 20: 133-136. 

Cushman and Rohwer: The genus Ephialtcs first proposed l)y Schrank. 
(Hym.). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 20: 186-188. 

1919 New genera and species of ichneumon flies (Hym.). Proc. Ent. Soc. 
Wash. 21: 112-120. 

Descriptions of new North American ichneumon-flies. Proc. U. S. Natl. 
Mus. 55: 517-543. 

Notes on certain genera of ichneumon-flies, with descriptions of a new 
genus and four new species. Proc. IT. S. Natl. Mus. 56: 373-382. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. .5, OCTOBER, 1957 251 

1920 Viereek's family Labenidae with the desoiiptioii of a new species of 
Apechoneura (Hym., Ichneumonidae.) Proc. Eiit. Soe. Wash. 22: 76-80. 
Cushmau and Rohwer: Holarctic tribes of the ichneumon-flies of the 
subfamily Ichneumoninae (Pimplinae). Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 57: 
379-396. 

Cushman and Rohuer: The North American ichneumon-flies of the 

tribe Acoenitini. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 57: 503-523. 

The North American ichneumon-flies of the tribes Lycorini, Poly- 

sphinctini, and Theroniini. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 58: 7-48. PI. 2. 

North American ichneumon-flies, neAV and described, with taxonomic 

and nomenclatorial notes. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 58: 251-292. 

The North American ichneumon-flies of the tribe Ephialtini. Proc. 

U. S. Natl. Mus. 58: 327-362. PI. 21. 

Cushman and Rohwer: Notes on Hellen's "Beitrage zur Kenntnis der 

Ichneumonidcn Finlands: Subfamilie Pimplinae.'' Insecutor Inscitiae 

Menstruus. 8: 161-164. 

1921 The males of the ichneumonid genera Mycrsia and Tliauniatotypidea, 
with descriptions of new species. (Hym.). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 
23: 109-112. 

Cushman and Gahan: The Thomas Say species of Ichneumonidae. Proc. 
Ent. Soc. Wash. 23: 153-171. 

1922 North American ichneumon-flies of the genera Clistopyga and Sehizopnga. 
Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 60, art. 4, 14 pp. 

The identitj' of a hj'menopterous parasite of the alfalfa leaf weevil. 

Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 24: 64. 

New species of ichneumon-flies with taxonomic notes. Proc. IT. S. 

Natl. Mus. 60, art. 21, 28 pp. 

The identity of Habrobracon brevicornis (Wesmael), (Hym., Braconidae). 

Proc. Ent. Soe. Wash. 24: 122-123. 

New Oriental and Australian Ichneumonidae. Philippine Jour. Sci. 

20: 543-597. 

On the Ashmead manuscript species of Ichneumonidae of Mrs. Slosson's 

Mount Washington lists. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 61, art. 8, 30 pp. 

The identity of Ichneumon coccinellae Schrank (Hym.). Proc. Ent. Soc. 

Wash. 24: 241-242. 

1923 A new subfamily of Braconidae (Hym.) from termite nests. Proc. Ent. 
Soc. Wash. 25: 54-56. 

1924 New genera and species of ichneumon-flies. Proc. IT. S. Natl. Mus. 64, 
art. 4, 16 pp. 

On the genera of the ichneumon-flies of the tribe Paniseini Ashmead, 

with descriptions and discussion of related genera and species. Proc. 

U. S. Natl. Mus. 64, art. 20, 48 pp. 

Change of name (Hymenoptera). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 26: 221. 

On the systematic position of the genera Collyria Schiodte and 

Ischnoceros Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 26: 

229-231. 



252 PKOC. KNT. SOC. WASH., V(lL. 59, NO. 5, OCTOBER, 1957 

li>-'> 11. Sauter's Formosa (V)Ilec-ti()ii : Xoitthopl niphi (Iclnieuni. : Hyiii.). Eiit. 

Mitteil. 14: 41 -.")(). 

Some generic transfers and synonomy in Ichneunionidae. (Hyni.). Jour. 

Wasli. Acad. Sci 15: 388-392. 

The s> iHnnymy and generic position of two North American Tcdmenmon- 

tiies. I'loc. Knt. Soc. Wash. 27: I(i4-1(H). 
I9l'(i Location of individual hosts versus sy.stematic relation of host species 

as a determining factor in parasitic attack. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 

28: 5-(i. 

Addiess of the retiring president. [Some types of parasitism in the 

Ichneunionidae]. Proc. P]nt. Soc. Wash. 28: 25-51. 

A new Uromfialphus parasitic on Eulechriops gossypii Barber (llymenop- 

tera: Bvaconidae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 28: 63. 

Ten new North American icdineumon-tlies. Pi-oc. T^. S. Natl. Mus. 67, 

art. 23, 13 ]ip. 

1927 New species and new forms of Ichneunionidae jiarasitic upon the 
gipsy-moth parasite. Apaiifdrs iDcldiiosfrJiis (Ratzelinrg). Jour. Agr. 
Ees. 34: 453-45,s. 

The parasites of the i>ine tiji moth, Rhjiacionia fnixt raiia (Comstock). 

Jour. Agr. Ees. 34: 615-622. 

Thice new hymenopterous parasites of the pine tip moth, Ilhiiacioitin 

fnislrntia (Comstock). Jour. Agr. Res. 34: 739-741. 

Miscellaneous notes and descriptions of ichneumon-tlies. Proc. U. S. 

Natl. Mas. 72, art. 13, 22 pp. 

New Indian Ichneunionidae. Eec. Indian Mus. 29: 241-247. 

1928 Family Ichneunionidae. In Leonard, A list of the insects of New 
York . . . Mem. Cornell Univ. Agr. Expt. Sta. 101: 920-960. 

1929 Bringing to America the Baker collection of ^Malayan insects. Explora- 
tions and field-work of the Smithsonian Institution in 1928, pp. 91-100. 
A revision of the North American iclineumon-flies of the genus 
Mesosteniis and related genera. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 74, art. 16, 58 pp. 
[The synonymy of Bassu.s sUgmaterus (Braconidae)]. Ann. Ent. Soc. 
Amer. 22: 633. 

Baker's Entoniologica Malayana. The liraconid genera Fornicia Brulle 
and Odoiitofonucia Enderlein. Philippine Jour. Sci. 40: 233-237. 
Three new ichneunionoid parasites of the rice-borer Chilo simplex- 
(Butler). Proc. Hawaiian Ent. Soc. 7: 243-245. 

1930 New species of ichneumon-tiies and taxononiic notes. Proc. U. S. Natl. 
Mus. 76, art. 25, 18 pp. 

A revision of the North American ichneumon-flies of the genus 
OdontomeruK. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 77, art. 3, 15 pp. 

1931 Notes on ichneumon-flies of the genus Poli/ci/rtii.s with descriptions of 
new species. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 78, art. 14, 62 pp. 
Descriptions of thirteen new American and Asiatic ichneumon-flies, 
with taxonomic notes. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 79, art. 14, 16 pp. 
Three new Braconidae parasitic on bark beetles. Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 
21: 301-304. 



PROC. ENT. sue. WASFI., VOL. '>9, NO. 5, OCTOBER, 1957 '25?} 

1932 The Ijinnaeaii types of Ii-hiieumoii Flies: l)y A. Rom;ni. [Review]. 
Proe. Ent. Soe. Wash. 34: In."). 

Baker's entomologica malayana: The Ichneuinonid genus Diapetvs 
Cameron. Philippine Jour. Sci. 49: 277>93. 

1933 Notes on the oviposition habit of (liclonii.s sericeiis (Say) (Ilymenop- 
tera). Proe. Eut. See. Wash. 3.'): 7-8. 

Notes on Sphecopliaga hurra (Cresson), an iehneunioiiid parasite of 

Tespnla macnlata (L.) (Hymenoptera). Proe. Ent. i~^oc. Wash. 3."): 10-11. 

Aquatic ichneumon-flies. Canad. Ent. (i-"): 24. 

The identity and synonymy of three Oriental species of Cremasfn.s 

(Hyni., Ichneumonidae). Proe. Ent. Soc. Wash. 35: 73-75. 

Descriptions of new iclineuuion-flies, with taxononiic notes. Proe. V. S. 

Natl. Mus. 84, art. 14, Ki pp. 

H. Sauter's Formosa-collection: Subfan)ily Ichneunioninae (I'implinae 

of Ashmead). Ins. iMatsumurana 8: 1-50. 

1934 A new species of CrmKistiis from an African ".juniijing- bean." Arli. 
niori.h. Tax. Ent. Berlin-Dahlem. 1: 103-104. 

Two new species of the genus Labium BruUe. (Hyni.: Ichneumonidae). 

Arb. niorph. tax. Ent. Berlin-Dahlem. 1: 205-208. 

New Ichneumonidae from India and China. Indian For. Rec. 20: 1-8. 

1935 A study of tlie lar\a of Land (tiidlis Fabricius. Proe. Eut. Soc. Wash. 
37: 82-87. 

New ichneumon-flies. ,U)Ui-. Wash. Acad. Sci. 25: 547-5()4. 

1936 The ichneumon-tlies of the genus Brach)iciir1 us Kriechbaumer. Proe 
U. S. Natl. Mus. 84: 17-24. 

Poecilocryptxs and Poecilopiiiipla (Hymenoptera, Ichiu'umonidae ». Jour. 
Wash. Acad. Sc-i. 26: 464-4(i(;. 

1937 Revision of the North American species of ichneumon-flies of the genus 
Exeiastt's Craveuhorst. Proe. U. S. Natl. Mus. S4: 243-312, pi. 16-21. 
The genus L)/sio;i)iatha Ashmead. Jour. Wash. Acail. Sci. 27: 438-444. 
H. Sauter's Formosa Collection: Ichenumonidae. Aili. nu)ri)h. tax. Ent. 
Berlin-Dahlem. 4: 283-311. 

Four new Indian Ichneumonidae. Indian Forest Rec. 3: 141-147. 

New Japanese Ichneumonidae parasite on pine sawflies. Ins. Matsumu- 

rana 11: 32-38. 

1938 A new European species of Epinrus, jiarasitic on a leaf-mining sawfly 
(Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). .lour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 28: 27-28. 

A new species of Echihromorpha from Samoa. Proe. Roy. Ent. Soc. 
London 7: 40. 

Two new species of Barichncumon (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) 
fi-om tlie Society Islands. Bui. Bishop Mus. 142: 169-170. 
A new species of Echihromorpha (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) from 
the Marquesas Islands. Bui. Bishop Mus. 142: 171. 

A new species of Callicpliialtcs from Brazil, with a key to the Neo- 
tropical species (Hymenoptera: Tclineumonidae). Rev. de Ent. (Rio de 
Janeiro) 9: 11-13. 



254 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. f), OCTOBER, 1957 

1939 New ichneumon-flies parasitic on the hemlock sawfly {Neodiprion 
Isiigac Middleton). Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 29: 391-402. 

A new Angitla, parasitic on the artichoke plume-nioth (Hymenoptera, 
lehneumonidae). Pan-Pacific Ent. 15: 183-185. 

1940 The Nearctic sjiecies of Iseropus (Hymenoptera: lehneumonidae). Proc. 
Ent. Soc. Wash. 42: 51-58. 

New genera and species of ichneumon-flies, with taxonomic notes. 

Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 88: 355-372. 

The ichneumon-flies of the subfamily Neorhacodinae, with descriptions 

of a new genus and three new species. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 88: 

523-527. 

A review of the parasitic wasps of the ichneumon] d genus Exenierus 

Hartig. U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Pub. 354, 14 pp. 

A new species of Lissonota (Hym., lehneumonidae). Proc. Ent. Soc. 

Wash. 42: 156-158. 

1942 The synonymy of IiUogrnmiua Foerster (Hymenoptera: lehneumonidae). 
Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 44: 54. 

The genotypes of some of Ashinead's genera of ichneumon-flies. Proc. 

U. S. Natl. Mus. 92: 277-289. 

A new name for Odontomerus Gravenhorst, a new species and taxonomic 

notes (Hymenoptera: lehneumonidae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 44: 

179-183. 

1943 Further notes on Exentcni.'i (Hymenoptera, lehneumonidae). Canad. 

Ent. 75: l(i9-174. 

1944 The Hawaiian species of Enico,spiU(s and Ahanchogantra (Hymenoptera: 
lehneumonidae). Proc. Hawaiian Ent. Soc. 12: 39-5(5. 

1945 The ichneumon-flies of the genus Cryptanura Brulle, mainly tropical 
American. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 96: 139-176. 

1947 A generic revision of the ichneumon-flies of the trilie Ophionini. Proc. 
U. S. Natl. Mus. 96: 417-842, pi. 49-56. 
CARABUS AURATUS L. (COLEOPTERA, CARABIDAE) IN 
NORTH AMERICA 

Fifteen specimens in tlie collection of the University of Vermont, 
Department of Zoology, apparently represent the first record of the 
common European carabid, Carahus auratus L., from North America. 
Twelve of the specimens were taken by Dr. Floyd Werner at South 
Barre, Vt., on May 7, 1952. Three others were collected by C. Parsons 
at Plainfield, Vt., on June 12, 1950. Presumably the species was 
accidentally introduced in a manner similar to that postulated for 
C. ncmoralis Miill. and C. granulatus L. (Van Dyke, 1944). Whether 
the colony has persisted has not as yet been ascertained. Carahvs 
auratus can easily be distinguished from other North American mem- 
bers of the genus, both native and introduced, by its coloring, bright 
metallic green above with orange legs ; and by the sculpture of the 
elytra, each with three carinae, but without striae. Reference : Van 
Dyke, E. C, 1944, Ent. Amer. 24:87-187.— Ross T. Bell, Depart- 
ment of ZooJofjfi, I^))ii'ei:sity of Vcriuotif, Burlingion. Vt. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. -VVASn.. VOL. 59, NO. 5, OCTOBER, 1957 



255 



Pyrenone 



* 



HELPS TO PRESERVE 
PRINCIPLE OF NATURAL CONTROL 



JTyrenone quickly kills destructive, annoy- 
ing and disease-carrying insects. 

In the absence of sunlight, it remains eflfective 
for long periods of time. In fact, a single application 
of Pyrenone protects stored grains from insect at- 
tacks for an entire storage season. 

On growing crops Pyrenone kills the accessible 
stages of insects fast — even between showers of 
rain. Yet natural factors of rain and sunlight do not 
permit Pyrenone to form long-lasting residues. Be- 
cause long-lasting residues are not present, the newly 
emerging parasites and predators are free to com- 
plete their life cycles and to continue to parasitize 
or feed upon destructive insect pests. 

This means that Pyrenone is completely com- 
patible with the natural control of crop-destroying 
insects. 

'Reg. U.S. Pat. Off.. F M.C. 



FAIRFIELD CHEMICAL DIVISION 

Food Machinery and Chemical Corporation 

441 Lexington Avenue • New York 17, N. Y. 




BRANCHES IN PRINCIPAL CITIES 

In Canada: Natural Products Corpoiation, Toronto and Montreal 



^ 



w 



256 



I'KOC. ENT. SOC. "WASH., vol;. 59, NO. 5, OCTOBER, 195^ 



GREAT 
INSECTICIDES 




CONTROL THESE INSECTS 

CHLORDANE: Ants, Armyworms. Blister Beetles, Boxelder Bug, Brown Dog Tick, 
Cabbage Maggot, Carpet Beetles, Cattle Lice, Chiggers, Cockroaches, Crickets, 
Cutworms, Darkling Beetles, Dog Mange, Earwigs, Fleas, Flies, Grasshoppers, 
Household Spiders, Japanese Beetle Larvae, Lawn Moths, Lygus Bugs, Mole 
Crickets, Mosquitoes, Onion Maggot. Onion Thrips, Plum Curculio, Sarcoptic 
Mange. Seed Corn Maggot, Sheep Ked, Silverfish, Sod Webworms, Southern 
Corn Rootworm, Strawberry Crown Borer, Strawberry Root Weevils, Sweet 
Clover Weevil, Tarnished Plant Bug, Termites, Ticks, Wasps, White Grubs, 
Wireworms...and many others. 

HEPTACHLOR: Alfalfa Snout Beetle, Alfalfa Weevil, Ants, Argentine Ant, Army- 
worms, Asiatic Garden Beetle Larvae, Black Vine Weevil, Root Maggots, Clover 
Root Borer, Colorado Potato Beetle, Corn Rootworms, Cotton Boll Weevil, 
Cotton Fleahopper, Cotton Thrips, Crickets, Cutworms, Egyptian Alfalfa Weevil, 
European Chafer, Eye Gnats, False Wireworms, Flea Beetles, Garden Web- 
worm. Grasshoppers, Japanese Beetle, Leaf Miners, Lygus Bugs, Mormon 
Cricket, Mosquitoes, Narcissus Bulb Fly, Onion Maggot, Onion Thrips, Rapid 
Plant Bug, Rice Leaf Miner, Salt Marsh Sand Fly, Seed Corn Maggot, Spittle- 
bug, Strawberry Root Weevils, Strawberry Rootworms, Sugar Beet Root Mag- 
got, Sweet Clover Weevil, Tarnished Plant Bug, Tuber Flea Beetle, Western 
Harvester Ant, White Fringed Beetles, White Grubs (June Beetles), Wireworms 
...and many others. 

E N D R I N : Budworms, Cabbage Worms, Cotton Boll Weevil, Cotton Bollworm, Cot- 
ton Fleahopper, Fall Armyworm, Grasshoppers, Hornworms, Leafworms, Rapid 
Plant Bug, Spiny Bollworm, Sugar Beet Webworm, Tarnished Plant Bug, Thrips. 

WRITE FOR FULL PARTICULARS 



i^A^n.Al4.^m^\uy\lJf^m4.^^J,^:9\^t.^f 



General Offices and Laboratories 

330 East Grand Avenue, Chicago 11, Illinois 



Foreign Division 

350 Fifth Avenue, New York 1, N. Y, 



o# 



29 



KEPRBSENTATIVES 



P R I N C > R A L 



C ; T ; £ S 



A Cyanamid Report 



Resistance 



Resistance to chlorinated hydrocarbon type 
insecticides has been proven or suspected in : 



cockroaches 

mosquitoes 

Colorado potato beetle 

dog: and cat fleas 

bed bug^s 

codling; motb 

leafhoppers 



house flies 
flea beetles 
cotton boll weevil 
body lice 
lyg"us bugs 
cotton leaf worm 
dog ticks 



Many researchers have found malathion to be 
a capable replacement for the chlorinated 
hydrocarbons and have made recommendations 
for its use. If you have a "resistance" problem 
in your area, you might well consider malathion 
for your 1957 research schedule. 



c'r^j%.»rAj%<rxi9 



Developers and producers of malathion and parathion 



Write for 

particular 

technical 

Information 



AMERICAN CYANAMID COMPANY 

Agricultural Chemicals Division 

Insecticide Research 

30 Rockefeller Plaza, N. Y. 20, N. Y. 




QUALITY INSECTICIDES 



Preferred by Home Owners, 
Food Processors and Dairymen 

QUICK ACTION GULFSPRAY (Liquid) 

A "space spray" for quick knockdown and kill of many 
kinds of flying and crawling insects. Contains 0.10% Pyre- 
thrins, 0.12% Piperonyl Butoxide, and 0.75% Methoxychlor. 

GULFSPRAY AEROSOL BOMB 

Gulf's carefully researched formula provides quick knock- 
down action and high kill. Contains 0.25% Pyrethrins, 1% 
Piperonyl Butoxide, and 2% Methoxychlor. 

GULF MOTH PROOFER (Bomb) 

An easy-to-use pressurized spray for protecting woolens 
against moth and carpet beetle damage. Contains 3% DDT 
and 3% Perthane. 

GULF ANT AND ROACH BOMB 

A convenient pressurized spray containing contact and resid- 
ual insecticides for killing ants and cockroaches. Contains 
0.08% Pyrethrins and 2% Chlordane. 

SPECIAL GULFSPRAY (Liquid) 

A superlative-quality insecticide specially formulated for 
use where foodstuffs are processed, stored, served, and sold. 
Contains 0.25% Pyrethins and 0.20% Piperonyl Butoxide. 

GULF LIVESTOCK SPRAY 

Long proven formula with effective insect- killing power and 
repellent properties. Contains 0.07% Pyrethrins and 0.19% 
Piperonyl Butoxide. 

GULF OIL CORPORATION 

GULF BUILDING, PITTSBURGH 30, PA. 



Vol. 59 



DECEMBER 1957 



No. 6 



PRDCEEDIIVGS 



of the 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

WASHIIVGTOIV 



of 



. ^^ ^^^^S. ^' ^' NATIONAL MUSEUM 

/;0^ 'A/^ ^V\ WASfflNGTON 25, D. C. 

dj |'^"'^^'^'jj|pA^^'™"'''^'| Jh^i published bimonthly 

CONTENTS 

BLAKE, DORIS H.— A Note on Two Chrysomelid Beetles (Coleoptera) 278 

BURKS, B. D. — A New Bruchophagus from a Liliaceous Plant with a 
Host Plant List for the Genus (Hymenoptera; Eurytomidae) 273 

EDMUNDS, LAPE R. — Observations on the Biology and Life History of 
the Brown Cockroach Periplaneta brunnea Bunneister 283 

EVANS, HOWARD E. — The North and Central American Species of 
Propistocera (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae).... , 289 

GALINDO, PEDRO — A Note on the Oviposition Behavior of Sabethes 
(Sabethoides) chloropterus Humboldt ^ 287 

KOHLS, GLEN M. — Ixodes downsi, a New Species of Tick from a Cave in 
Trinidad, British West Indies (Acarina, Ixodidae) 257 

MELANDER, A. L. — A new Tachyempis (Diptera: Empididae) 296 

SCANLON, JOHN E., and JOHNSON, PHYLLIS T.— On Some Microtine- 
Inf esting Polyplax (Anoplura) 279 

STEYSKAL, GEORGE C. — A New Species of the Genus Pteromicra Asso- 
ciated with Snails (Diptera, Sciomyzidae) 271 

TIBBETTS, TED and STRANDTMANN, R. W.— The Snake Mite Para- 
sites of the Family Ixodorhynchidae (Mesostigmata), with Description 
of a New Species, Ixodorhynchus gordoni 265 

CORRECTION. Wheeler, G. C, and Wheeler, Jeanette.-.- 270 

INDEX— Volume 59, 1957 297 



■IIV. TUS. 



THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 

Oeganized March 12, 1884 

Regular meetings of the Society are held in Room 43 of the U. S. National 
Museum on the first Thursday of each month from October to June, inclusive, at 
8 P.M. 

MEMBERSHIP 

Members shall be persons over 18 years of age vrho have an interest in the 
science of entomology. Annual dues for members are $4.00 j initiation fee is 
$1.00 (U. S, currency). 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

Published bimonthly beginning with February by the Society at Washington, 
D. C. Members in good standing are entitled to the Proceedings free of charge. 
Non-member subscriptions are $5.00 per year, both domestic and foreign (U. S. 
currency), payable in advance. All remittances should be made payable to The 
Entomological Society of Washington, 

The Society does not exchange its publications for those of other societies. 

All manuscripts intended for publication should be addressed to the Editor.! 
Acceptable papers submitted by members will be published in the order received 
and will be given precedence over those by non-members. Immediate publica- 
tion may be obtained at a cost to the author of about $10.00 per printed page, 
plus cost of all engraving. Titles of papers should be concise but comprehensive 
and should indicate the systematic position of the subject insect. By-lines should 
indicate present mailing address of the author and his organizational afBlliation, 
if possible. Citations in the text of papers longer than one printed page should 
be by author and date and should refer to a list of concluding references in 
which author, year, title, name of publication, volume, and page are given in 
that order. In shorter articles references to literature should be included in 
parentheses in the text. 

Proportions of full-page illustrations should closely approximate 4-5/16" x 6" 
(26 X 36 picas) ; this usually allows explanatory matter to appear on the same 
page. Cost of illustrations in excess of that for one full-page line cut will be 
borne by the author. 

Reprints of published papers may be obtained at the following costs plus 
postage and insurance, provided that a statement of the number desired ac- 
companies the returned proofs: 

2 pp. 4 pp. 8 pp. 12 pp. 16 pp. Covers 

50 copies $2.00 $3.00 $5.00 $5.60 $6.25 $4.00 

100 copies 2.50 3.80 6.00 7.20 8.25 4.75 

Additional copies per 100 - 1.00 1.15 2.00 2.60 3.15 1.50 

Purchase of reprints by institutions whose invoices are subject to notarization 

or other invoice fees will have the cost of such fees added to the purchase price. 

^ U. S. National Museum, Washington 25, D. C. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Entomological Society of Washington 
vol. 59 december, 1957 no. 6 



IXODES DOWNSI, A NEW SPECIES OF TICK FROM A CAVE IN 
TRINIDAD, BRITISH WEST INDIES (ACARINA-IXODIDAE) 

GLEX M. KOHL>il 

The new species of Ixodes here described was fonud among numer- 
ous lots of ticks collected from various hosts in Trinidad by personnel 
of the Trinidad Reg'ional Virus Laboratory and sent to me by Dr. 
Thomas H. G. Aitken for identification. The species is based on 1 
male, 1 female, and 3 nymphs found crawling on the wall of Aripo 
Cave, and 1 larva from a bat captured in the same cave. All measure- 
ments are in millimeters. 

Ixodes downsi n. sp. 

(Figs. 1 to 4) 

Holotypc. — Male, from wall of Aripo Cave, Trinidad, March 20, 1955, W. G. 
Downs, coll. Deposited in the Eocky Mountain Laboratory, EML No. 3.3481. 

Allotj/pe. — Female, data as for holotype. 

Parati/pcs. — 3 nymphs, data as for holotype; 1 larva from a bat, Anoura g. 
geoffroyi, from Aripo Cave, Trinidad, March 20, 1955, W. G. Downs, coll. EML 
33590. All deposited in the Eocky Mountain Laboratory. 

Description 

Male: Length, tips of scapulae to posterior margin of body, 3.07, maximum 
width, 2.15. Body suboval, wider anteriorly. Color yellow brown, legs paler. 

CapiUtlum. — Length, tips of palpi to posterior margin of basis capituli, 0.58. 
Greatest width 0.38, at level of insertion of palpi. Basis small, posterior margin 
a little concave, elevated, and continuing into a tapering neck. Surface of basis 
with a few punctations. Cornua absent. Palpi rather long and thick, tumescent 
dorsally and with numerous stout hairs; segments 2 and 3 without sutural line 
separating them, their combined length about 0.37. An expanse of membraneous 
tissue posterior to palpal segment 1 dorsally, laterally, and ventrally. In ventral 
view, the basis is long, lateral margins nearly straight and diverging to base of 
palpi, posterior margin merging into a neck. Auriculae absent. Hypostome shorter 
than the palpi, broad, notched apically; shape and dentition as figured. Length 
of toothed portion about 0.190. 



iIT. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, 
National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious 
Diseases, Eocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana. 



258 PROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 

Scutum. — ^Surface smooth and shining and with a few very small punctations. 
Scapulae short, blunt. Cervical grooves divergent, rather deep anteriorly, becom- 
ing shallower posteriorly and attaining the margin of the faintly indicated 
pseudoseutum. Lateral carinae absent. Hairs few, short and scattered, more 
numerous peripherally and on the prominent marginal body fold. 

Ventral plates. — Pregenital plate ill-defined. Median plate about one and one- 
half times as long as the anal plate. Adanal plates broader anteriorly. Short fine 
hairs on all plates, more numeious on the epimerals. Punctations few, fine, and 
inconspicuous. Genital and anal grooves well marked. Anal groove rounded in 
front of the anus, a little convergent posteriorly. Hairs short and fine except 
those on trochanters and on ventral surfaces of all segments except the tarsi 
are heavier and forked. 

Legs. — ^Moderate in length and size. All coxae with a short external spur; a 
minute internal spur on coxa I. Trochantal spurs absent. Tarsi I, II, and III 
tapered abruptly ; tarsus IV tapered gradually. Length of tarsus I, 0.66 ; meta- 
tarsus, 0.56. Length of tarsus IV, 0.72; metatarsus, 0.56. 

Spiracniar plate. — Subcireular, greatest dimension about 0.30. Goblets nu- 
merous and small. 

Genital aperture. Situated botAveen coxae III. 

Female: Unfed. Length, tips of scapulae to posterior margin of body, 2.53; 
width, 1.87. Suboval, Avider ])Osteriorly. Capitulum, scutum, and legs yellow 
brown, other paitn pale yellow. Body with numerous fine pale hairs dorsally 
and ventrally. 

Capitulum. — Length, tips of palpi to tips of cornua, 0.64; greatest width of 
basis, 0.47. Basis capituli broad, lateral margins posterior to insertion of palpi 
short and convex, posterior margin concave and somewhat sinuous ; cornua short, 
blunt. An expanse of membraneous tissue posterior to the base of palpal segment 
1 as in the male. Palpi moderate in length, stout, and rounded apically. Porose 
areas large, broader than long, shallow, aiul occupying much of the dorsal surface 
of the basis. Palpal segment 1 a simple ring visible dorsally, laterally, and ven- 
trally. Segments 2 and 3 fused leaving no visible suture, their combined length 
0.31. Ventrally the basis is constricted behind the short blunt auriculae ; surface 
smooth, mildly convex, broadly rounded posteriorly. Transverse sutural line faint. 
Hypostome shorter than the palpi, slightly indented apically. Median denticles a 
little smaller than the laterals. Denticles arranged 3/3 apically, then 2/2. Length 
of toothed portion, 0.26. 

Scutum-. — Lengtli, 1.21; width, 1.00. Shape as figured. Scapulae short, blunt. 
Emargination Itroad, shallow. Anterolateral areas slightly rugose. No lateral 
carinae. Cervical grooves broad, shallow, first converging then diverging, and 
extending to the posterolateral margins of the scutum. Punctations few, small, 
and scattered. An irregular row of fine, pale liairs extends across the scutum 
anteriorly and into the anterolateral fields as figured. 

Lcg.s. — Similar to those of the male in size and lengtli. Hairs on troehautevs 
and on ventral surfaces of all segments except the tarsi not as stout as in the 
male. A broad, blunt external spur on coxa I ; a similar but shorter spur on 
coxae II, III, and IV. Internal spurs absent. No trochantal spurs. Length of 
tarsus I, 0.87; metatarsus, 0.54. Length of tarsus IV, 0.75; metatarsus, 0.5(5. 
Tarsus TV tapers a little more abruptly than in the male. 



PROC. EXT. 80C. WASH.. VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 259 

SpiracitJar plate. — Suboval, greatest diameter 0.44. Goblets numerous and 
small. 

Genital aperture. — Situated between coxae III. 

Anal groove. — As in the male. 

Nymph. Capitulum. — Length, 0.35; widtli of basis, 0.25. Basis much as in 
the female. Cornua directed posterolaterally and widely separated; posterior mar- 
gin of basis between them straight or slightly convex. Palpi similar to those of 
the female; combined length of segments 2 and 3 about 0.22. Ventrally, basis 
as in the female but no transverse sutural line. Hypostome as long as the palpi; 
dentition as in the female. Length of toothed portion about 0.19. 

Scutum. — Length 0.57 to 0.59; wddth 0.52 to 0.57. Shape as figured. Scapulae 
very short and blunt. Lateral earinae absent. Cervical grooves as in the female. 
Plairs few and scattered. 

Legs. — Similar to those of the female. 

Spiracular plate. — Subelliptical, greatest diameter al)Out O.IS. (iohlets fewer 
and larger than in the female. 

Larva. Capitulum. — Length, 0.10; width of basis 0.15. Basis broad and nar- 
row, rounded posterolaterally, posterior margin straight. Tlie palpi resemble 
those of the nymph; comljined length of segments 2 and 3 about (1.12. Ventrally, 
the basis is elongate, lateral margins convergent, posterior margin truncate. 
Auriculae as mild elongate lateral saliences. Hypostome as long as the palpi; 
principal dentition 2/2. 

Scutum. — Shape as figured, cervical grooves distinct, shallow, divergent and 
reaching the posterolateral margins. Scapulae and lateral earinae absent. 

Coxae. — Short triangular external spurs on all coxae. No internal spurs. 

Little information is available as to the hosts of I. downsi n. sp., 
bnt the finding of a larva on a bat taken in a cave, and the presence 
of adults and nymphs on the walls of the same cave suggest that it 
may be a bat tick. If so, /. downsi is the first bat tick of this genus 
to be recorded from the New World. Dr. Aitken informed me that 
Dr. Downs and other members of the party who visited the cave saw 
at least four species of bats, including Anoura g. geoffroyi on which 
the larva was found. Oil birds, Steatornis caripcnsis, were nesting 
in the cave and a large rat was also seen, but Avhether any of these 
serve as hosts is unknown. 

The new species, named for the collector, Dr. W. G. Downs, Director 
of the Trinidad Regional Virus Laboratory, is readily distinguished 
from the few^ known bat-infesting species of Ixodes (reviewed by 
Arthur, 1956) and all New World species of the genus by characters 
of the capitulum, scutum, and legs. It bears little resemblance to 
Ixodes luciae Senevet. 1940 (=7. loricatus vogelsangi Santo Dias, 
1954, new^ synonymy), the only other species known from Trinidad. 
Adults of the latter, a widely distributed Latin American species but 
here first reported from Trinidad, infest opossums (Diddphis spp.) 
primarily; the immature stages infest various species of rats as 
evidenced by several collections received from Dr. Aitken. The only 
species of Ixodes that have been recorded from nearby Venezuela are 



260 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 




Fig. 1. Ixodes downsi n.sp. Male. A, dorsum; B, venter; C, hypostome; D, 
spiracular plate (A ^ anterior; D = dorsal) ; E, capitulum, dorsal; F, capitiilum, 
ventral; G, tarsus I; H, tarsus IV. 



TROC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 



261 




Fig. 2. Ixodes downsi n.sp. Female. A, dorsum; B, venter; C, hypostome; D, 
spiracular plate (A = anterior; D = dorsal) ; E, capitulum, dorsal; F, capitiilum, 
ventral; G, tarsus I; H, tarsus IV. 



262 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1951 




Fig. 3. Ixodes downsi n.sp. Nymph. A, dorsum; B, venter; C, spiraeular plate 
(A = anterior; D = dorsal); D, capitulum, dorsal; E, capitulum, ventral; F, 
tarsus I ; G, tarsus IV. 



PROC. ENT. SOO. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER. 3 95/ 



263 





Fig. 4. Ixodes downsi n.sp. Larva. A, dorsum; B, venter. 



264 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 

1. loricatus Neumann, 1899, whose adults occur almost exclusively on 
Didelphis (Cooley and Kohls, 1945) and 7. venezuelensis Kohls, 1953, 
known from a few murid hosts and from an opossum, Monodelphis 
1). hrevicaudata (Vogelsang and Santos Dias, 1953). None of these 
have been recorded from bats nor have they been found in caves. 

Summary 

Ixodes doivnsi n. sp. is described from a male (holotype), female, 
and three nymplis found crawling on the wall of Aripo Cave, Trini- 
dad, British West Indies, and from a larva off a bat, Anoura g. geof- 
froyi, taken in the same cave. The specimens are deposited in the 
Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana. I. loricatus vogel- 
sangi fSantos Dias is reduced to a synonym of I. liiciae Senevet, the 
only other species of the genus known from Trinidad. 

ACKNOAVLEDGMENTS 

It is a pleasure to express appreciation to Major Hugh L. Keegan, 
406th Medical General Laboratory, for the accompanying illustrations 
prepared under his direction by artists Saburo Shibata, Kinuyo 
Kamei, Hideko Shinoda, and Kakuzo Yamazaki assigned to the Taxo- 
nomic Section, Department of Entomology, and to Colonel Joe M. 
Blumberg, Commanding Officer of the Laboratory, for his cooperation. 

Eeferences 

Arthur, Don E. 1956. The Ixodes ticks of Chiroptera (Ixodoidea, Ixodidae). 

J. Parasit. 42:180-196. 
Cooley, E. A. and Kohls, Glen M. 1945. The genus Ixodes in North America. 

National Instit. Health Bull. No. 184, U. S. Public Health Service, 246 pp. 
Kohls, Glen M. 1953. Ixodes venezuelensis, a new species of tick from Venezuela. 

with notes on Ixodes minor Neumann, 1902 (Acarina: Ixodidae). J. Parasit. 

39:300.303. 
Neumann, L. G. 1899. Eevision de la famille des Ixodides. Mem. Soc. Zool. 

France 12:107-294. 
Santos Dias, J. A. Travassos. 1954. Um novo nome para o "Ixodes loricatus 

spinosits" Nuttall, 1910 (Nomen bis lectum). Docum. Mogambique 79:79-81. 
Senevet, G. 1940. Quelques Ixodides de la Guyane franqaise. Especes nouvelles 

d'lxodes et d'Amblyomma. VI Congreso Internacional de Entomol. 1935 

Madrid, pp. 891-898. 
Vogelsang, E. G. and Santos Dias, J. A. Travassos. 1953. Nueva contribueion al 

estudio de la fauna Ixodologica en Venezuela. Eev. Med. Vet. y. Parasit. 

Caracas 12:63-89. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 265 

THE SNAKE MITE PARASITES OF THE FAMILY IXODORHYNCHIDAE 

(MESOSTIGMATA), WITH DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES, 

IXODORHYNCHUS GORDONIi 

Ted Tibbetts and E. W. Strandtmann, Texas Technological College, Luiboc'k 

Ewing- (1922) described and figured an ectoparasitic mite of snakes 
which was so peculiar morphologically that he created a new sub- 
family, Ixodorhynchinae, for it. As the name implies, the mite had 
certain features characteristic of the ixodids (ticks). Specifically, 
these are harpoon-shaped eorniculi, presumably used as holdfast 
organs. Ewing considered the mite closely related to Dermanyssidae 
and placed the new subfamily in that family. Later Fonseca (1934) 
found a related species he thought differed sufficiently from Ewing 's 
(Ixodorhynchus) to warrant separate generic status and proposed 
the name Ixohioides, again indicating the ticklike holdfast organ. 
Fonseca however recognized the great dissimilarity between these mites 
and the dermanyssids and consequently raised them to separate fam- 
ily status, Ixodorhynchidae. The authority for the family name, how- 
ever, remains "Ewing," as according to Article 4 (35) of the Inter- 
national Kules of Zoological Nomenclature, names of the Family 
Group Categories, despite the form of the ending, are coordinate with 
each other. The family was characterized as follows : Chela with only 
one digit, which in the female is clearly toothed; eorniculi of the 
female serving as holdfast organs. 

In 1933 Ewing found two more ectoparasitic mesostigmatic mites 
on snakes and created the genus Hemilaelaps for their reception. 
These mites had distinctly shearlike chelae but otherwise were similar 
in facies to Ixodorhynchus. The genus however, was kept in the 
family Dermanyssidae by subsequent authors. 

In 1947 Radford described another mite of this complex and with- 
out comment on Ewing 's or Fonseca 's species, created the genus 
Ophidilaelaps for it. Radford was apparently the first to note that 
Laelaps piger Berlese (1918), also an ectoparasite of snakes, was of 
this same complex and accordingly moved it to his new genus, Ophidi- 
laelaps. Although almost identical with Hemilaelaps Ewing, Ophidi- 
laelaps was placed by catalogers in the family Laelaptidae. Subse- 
quentlv, two more species were added to Ophidilaelaps by Tibbetts 
(1954). 

A study of all the species described thus far in this complex reveals 
several characters in common. The eorniculi are long and apically 
barbed, although the barb may be very small ; the epipharynx is long 
and very slender ; the ventral shields are poorly sclerotized ; at least 
coxae II, generally coxae I and II, and sometimes coxae I, II, and III, 



iThis investigation was supported, in part by research grant E-616(C3) from 
the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Insti- 
tutes of Health, Public Health Service. 



266 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 

have the ventral seta transformed into a spnr ; and the male (where 
known) has a divided ventral plate. Ixodorhynchus and Ixohioides 
diflPer from Hemilaelaps and OphidiJaelaps only on the eliela ; the 
former have only one digit, the latter, two. 

Ixohioides Fonseca, 1934 is a synonym of Ixodorhynchus Ewing, 
1922. Dr. Fonseca was aware of Ewing- 's genus, in fact compared his 
own with it, but a misinterpretation of Ewing 's brief description and 
incomplete illustration caused Fonseca to believe his mite showed real 
differences. Actually there are no real differences and the two names 
have long been considered svnonvmous {See Baker and Wharton, 
1952:60). 

Hemilaelaps Ewing, 193'3 was considered invalid by Turk (1945: 
141) because the name had been used, in error, by Hull, 1918 for 
another group of mites. As Dr. Turk clearly stated that Hull had 
intended to write Haemolaelaps but misspelled it Hemilaelaps, we 
consider this an erroneous subsequent spelling which according to 
Article 19(112) of the International Rules of Zoological Nomenclature 
has no separate status in nomenclature. Therefore, Hemilaelaps Ewing, 
1933, is valid and Ellsworthia Turk, 1945, which had been proposed 
as a replacement name, is a synonym. 

Radford (1947: 237) did not distinguish his Ophidilaelaps from 
Hemilaelaps Ewing although the two are very similar indeed. Actually 
there are no differences of generic value and we consider Ophidi- 
laelaps Radford a synonym of Hemilaelaps Ewing. Up to this point, 
then, we may speak of two genera; Ixodorhynchus Ewing in which 
the female chela is unidigitate, and Hemilaelaps Ewing in w^hich the 
female chela is bidigitate. But the discovery of the new species de- 
scribed below b.y Tibbetts indicates that the above difference may not 
be so real. This new species has the immovable arm of the chela so 
small that it is a toss-up whether to put it with Ixodorhynchus or with 
Hemilaelaps. It would seem superfluous and somewhat foolish to 
create a third genus based on an intermediate size of the immovable 
finger of the chela and yet that would have to be the case because other 
characters, such as size and shape of ventral plates, chaetotaxy, etc., 
vary just as subtly. 

We therefore propose that all the species are congeneric, and rele- 
gate all the generic names so far proposed to the synonymy of Ixodo- 
rhynclmis. 

Genus Ixodorhynchus Ewing, 1922:5 

Type. — Ixodorhynchus liponyssoides Ewing, 1922:9 (Monotypic). Synonyms — 
Hemilaelaps Ewing, 1933:7 ( New synonymy). 

Type. — Hemilaelaps americanus Ewing, 1933:8 (Original designation). Ixohioides 
Fonseca, 1934:512. 

Type. — Ixohioides butantanensis Fonseca, 1934 (Monotypic). (Ellsworthia Turk, 
1945. Proposed by Turk as a new name for Hemilaelaps Ewing). Ophidilae- 
laps Eadford, 1947:237 (New synonymy). 

Type. — Ophidilaelaps imphalensis Eadford, 1947:238. (By original designation). 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 267 

Description of the genus. — Chelicera with one or two digits; when one is 
present it is the movable digit, which is provided with recurved hooks. Corniculi 
long and apically barbed, although the barb may be very small; epipharynx long 
and slender; ventral shields poorly selerotized. Coxae I and II, or II, or I, II, 
and III have the ventral seta transformed into a spur. Male, when known, has 
a divided ventral plate. Dorsal shield entire, partially divided, or completely 
divided; dorsal side of body partially or completely covered with dorsal plate. 
Legs short, stout, spined. The sternal plate may bear one, two, or three pairs of 
setae, genital plate with one pair of setae although occasionally it bears two pairs 
and sometimes none, the genital setae having moved off the plate. 

The name, description, and ilhistrations of the new species given 
below were prepared entirely by Ted Tibbetts, and the species is to 
be credited to him. 

Ixodorhynchus gordoni Til)l)etts, n. sp. 

Female (Fig. 1). — Body length, excluding gnathosoma, 744 fj., and body width 
628 M- 

Venter. — The anterolateral angles of the sternal plate rounded, and not project- 
ing between coxae I and II ; anterior margin convex ; lateral margin straight, 
extending laterally at a slight angle from the anterior to posterior end; posterior 
margin slightly concave. The first pair of sternal setae are located on the sternal 
plate ; second pair of setae even with coxal spur on coxae II ; third pair of setae 
level with middle of coxae III ; fourth pair of setae even with posterior margin 
of coxae IV. Genito-ventral plate flask-shaped, genital setae not on genito-ventral 
plate but lateral to it. Anal plate ovoid, 139/n wide and 163ya long; anal opening 
slightly posterior to the center of anal plate. The paired anal setae slightly 
anterior to the anal opening ; unpaired seta at the posterior end of anal plate. 
Posterior to the genito-ventral plate and anterior to the anal plate in the soft 
integument of the opisthosoma are three pairs of setae. In the area on each side 
of the anal plate are four pairs of setae and posterior to the anal plate is one 
pair of short setae. Peritremes extending from the middle of coxae IV to the 
middle of coxae II. Metapodal and peritremal plates fused. 

Dorsum (Fig. 2). — The dorsal plate is entire with 34 pairs of setae. On the 
dorsal plate near the anterior-lateral margin is one pair of short setae and on the 
posterior lateral margin two pairs of short setae. A heavy selerotized area is 
present on the posterior margin of the dorsal plate. 

Legs. — Legs short and stout. All setae on legs spinelike. Femur and genu 
have two or three unusually long, stout, dorsal setae. Coxae I and II are each 
provided with a stout rounded spur and a seta. Spur on coxae I 13,^ wide and 
15/A long; spur on coxae II 11^ wide and 9/n long. Coxae III each with two 
setae and coxae IV each with a simple seta. Chaetotaxy of ventral side of legs 
as figured. Claws well developed. 

Gnathosoma (Fig. 3). — Palps 5-segmented, 20lV long from base of fused 
coxae to tip; hypostome extends to the posterior margin of palp tibia. Three pairs 
of setae on hypostome as figured. Deutosternal teeth 11 in munber, arranged 
consecutively along deutosternum. 



268 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 




Ixodorhynchus gordoni, ii. sp., female: Fig. 1, venter; fig. 2, dorsum; fig. 3, 
gnathosoma; fig. 4, chela; fig. 5, tritosternum ; fig. 6, chelicera. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 269 

Tritosternum (Fig. 5). — Tritosternum with two lacinae densely pilose, 122;ii 
long. The lacinae rising separately from the basal segment. Chelicerae chelate 
(Fig. 4) ; movable finger has three teeth and the immovable finger greatly 
reduced. Chelicerae (Fig. 6) 137yu. long and 30/u, wide. 

Male. — Unknown; Nymphs unknoAvn. 

Host. — Natrix tigrina lateralis (Berthold). (Snake). 

Location. — Seoul, Korea, May 15, 1953. 

Material. — Four female specimens. The holotype female and one 
paratvpe female deposited in the U. S. National Museum. One para- 
type female deposited in the collection of Dr. R. W. Strandtmann, 
Texas Technological College, and one paratype retained in the au- 
thor's collection. 

Remarks — The four specimens were found near the head, under 
the lateral scales of the host. This mite differs from other Ixodor- 
hynchus in that the genital setae are not located on the genito-ventral 
plate, and the immovable chela is greatly reduced but not absent. 
Also the sternal plate is much more drastically reduced than in any 
other species. One of the paratype females contained a hexapod larva 
measuring 380/* by 265/a. 

This mite has been named after Mr. W. E. Gordon of Moab, Utah, 
who has accompanied the senior author on many collecting trips. 

Key to the Females of the Species in the Family Ixodorhynchidae 

1. Sternal plate with 3 pairs of setae 2 

Sternal plate with 1 or 2 pairs of setae 5 

2. Coxae I and II with heavy spur 3 

Coxa II only, with a heavy spur butantanesis (Fonseca) 

3. Genito-ventral plate with 1 pair of setae 4 

Genito ventral plate with 2 pairs of setae; immovable chela with a single 
tooth distinctus (Ewing) 

4. Chela with only 1 arm liponyssoides Ewing 

Chela with 2 arms, shearlike ; immovable arm with 2 teeth 

americanus (Ewing) 

5. Sternal plate with 2 pairs of setae 6 

Sternal plate with 1 pair of setae 7 

6. Dorsal plate entire implialensis (Radford) 

Dorsal plate partially divided - piger (Berlese) 

7. Coxa I with a heavy spur and a spinelike seta. __ .tanneri (Tibbetts) 

Coxa I with a heavy spur and normal setae 8 

8. Genito-ventral plate with genital setae farrieri (Tibbetts) 

Genito-ventral plate without genital setae gordoni Tibbetts, n. sp. 

Biology and Distribution. — So far as is now known, these mites are 
found in association with snakes only. They are never abundant, 
although Tibbetts (unpublished observation) found about a dozen 
specimens on a snake in Korea. With one exception, piger, all species 
have been found under the lateral or ventral scales of snakes on or 
near the head region. The species liponyssoides was reported as taken 
"from the eye of a snake" but presumably that meant from the scales 



270 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 

around the eye. The exception above noted {piger), was found in the 
hole or den of a snake along with large numbers of Ophionyssus 
natricis.-^ Unlike 0. natricis, the Ixodorhynehids are rare on captive 
snakes. All species reported to date have been taken from wild 
reptiles. 

Although not common, they are widely distributed, having- been 
reported from every major continent except Australia. From Europe 
is piger, collected in Florence, Italy ; hutantensis was found in Brazil, 
in the States of Sao Paulo, Matto Grosso, Goyas, and Minas Geraes; 
i))iphalensis comes from Manipur State in India; the United States 
has three records, liponyssoides from Iowa, americanus from the 
southern tip of Texas, and distinct us from Kentucky; and three 
species, farrieri, tanneri, and gordoni, are reported from Korea. 

References 

Baker, E. "W. and Wharton, G. W., 1952. An introduction to acarology. Macmillan 

Co., New York. 
Berlese, A. 1918. Sul Liponyssus Natricis (Gerv.) e su altri dermanissida die 

Rettili. Redia 13: 55-71. 
Ewing, H. E. 1922. The dermanyssid mites of North America. Proc. Natl. Mus. 

62(13): 1-26, illus. 
1933. New genera and species of parasitic mites of the superfamily 

Parasitoidea. Proc. Natl. Mus. 82(30): 1-14, illus. 
Fonseca, F. da. 1934. Der schlangenparasit IxoMoides ButanianensiSf novi 

generis, n. s]). (Acarina, Ixodorhynchidae Nov. Fam) Zeit. Parasitenke 

6: 508-527. 
Radford, C. D. 1946. Parasitic mites from snakes and rodents (Acarina: Cheyle- 

tidae, Listrophoridae and Laelaptidae). Proc. Zool. Soc. 117(1): 228-240. 
Tanner, V. M. 1953. Pacific Islands Herpetology No. VIII, Korea. Great Basin 

Naturalist 13(3-4): 67-73. 
Tibbetts, T. 1954. Two new laelaptid snake mites from Korea. Great Basin Nat- 
uralist 14(3-4) : 67-72. 
Turk, P. A. 1945. Studies of Acari. Second Series: Description of a new species 

and notes on established forms of Parasitic mites. Parasitology 36(3-4): 

133-141. 



CORRECTION 

Wheeler, G. C, and Wheeler, Jeanette. The larva of Simopelta (Hymenoptera: 
Formicidae). Volume 59, No. 4, pp. 191-194. October, 1957. 
In the second paragraph, p. 191, lines 4 to 9 should read as follows: . . . 
Wirth has written us that "the complete series of abdominal spiracles and the 
lack of a posterior differentiated pair of spiracles indicate that they are not 
dipterous. I know of no Diptera higher than tlie Fungivoridae-Itonididae series 
which have a complete series of abdominal spiracles. Traces of the usual pair 
of apical spiracles are practically always to be found in the higher Diptera. ' ' ^ 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 271 

A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS PTEROMICRA ASSOCIATED 
WITH SNAILS 

(DiPTERA, SCIOMYZIDAE) 

George C. Steyskal, Grosse He, Michigan 

Since the publication of my revision of Pteromicra (Steyskal, 1954) 
and later notes (Steyskal, 1956), the new species described below has 
come to hand as well as a few bits of data on other .species of Ptero- 
micra. 

Pteromicra perissa Steyskal, new species 
(Figures 1-3) 

Male. — Length of wing, 3.4 mm. 

Head and antennae brownish, cheeks and palpi yellowish. Arista brownish with 
short brownish hairs. Fronto-orbital bristles two, the anterior one slightly smaller 
than the posterior. 

Thorax brownish, most areas apparently slightly grayish pruinose ; pteroplenra 
with three bristly hairs. 

Legs with coxae whitish, fore coxae with two exterior bristles ; fore femora 
wholly blackish, lacking pecten, but with many coarse bristly hairs; middle and 
hind femora yellowish basally, brown apically, the hind pair with one strong 
dorsal bristle at apical third ; fore tibiae blackish, others dark brown to blackish ; 
fore tarsi with first and most of second segment whitish, third and fourth seg- 
ments blackish, fifth segment whitish; middle and hind tarsi whitish basally, 
brownish apically. 

Wings uniformly pale brownisli, with brown veins. Halteres and squamae 
whitish. 

Abdomen brownish, andrium yellowish brown. Terminalia as figured; no 
spiracles discernible; sixth and seventh sternites moderately narrow; sixth ter- 
gite represented by a very slender sclerotized strip; posterior surstylus hook- 
shaped, directed posteriorly at base and turning meso-anterad, clothed with many 
strong posteriorly-directed hairs; anterior siirstylus well developed, apically acute, 
with notch and strong tooth on posterior margin. 

Holotype. — Male, Buffalo Peaks Area, Chaffee and Parks Counties, Colorado, 
summer, 1955, associated with land snails, predominantly Pupilla (Eichard Pill- 
more), in University of Colorado Museum. The single specimen was removed from 
alcohol and the terminalia macerated in NaOH; color and pruinosity characters 
were therefore difficult to ascertain surely. 

Bemarks. — This species belons's in the group lacking fore femoral 
pecten, ineludmg Pteromicra anopla and P. inermis, from which species 
it may be distinguished by wholly blackish fore femora, basally pale 
fore tarsi, yellowish palpi, and distinctive terminalia. According to 
Clifford Berg's summary of the snail-feeding habits of the Sciomy- 
zidae (Berg, 1953), this is the first time a fly of the family has been 
associated with snails of the genus Pupilla. 

Pteromicra pectorosa (Hendel) 

A third American specimen, a male from Mecosta County, Michigan, 
May 15, 1951 (R. R. Dreisbach), has been examined recently. The 
species is therefore apparently widespread but rare in North America, 



272 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 

being known also from Churchill, Manitoba, and the extreme north- 
western corner of California. 

Pteromicra similis Steyskal 

In the specimens examined when drawing up the description of P. 
similis, no sixth tergite could be discerned; however, a specimen from 
Midland, Michigan, has a narrow but distinct sixth tergite. Also in 
disagreement with my description, the eyes of specimens collected by 
myself and Stuart Neft' on He Perrot, Quebec, August 23, 1956, were 
plain olive-green, although the specimens otherwise were typical. 

References 
Berg, C. O. 1953. Sciomyzid larvae (Diptera) that feed on snails. Jour. Para- 

sitol. 39:630-636. 
Steyskal, G. C. 1954. The genus Pteromicra Lioy (Diptera, Sciomyzidae) with 

especial reference to the North American species. Papers Mich. Acad. Sci., 

Arts and Letters 39:257-269. 
- — — ■ — 1956. New species and taxononiic notes in the family Sciomyzidae 

(Diptera, Acalyptratae). Papers Mich. Acad. Sci., Arts and Letters 41:73-87. 




Pteromicra perissa, new species: Fig. 1, sinistral profile of male terminalia; fig. 
2, ventral view of same; fig. 3, diagram of protandrium as if split along mid- 
ventral line and laid flat, D — mid-dorsal line. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 273 

A NEW BRUCHOPHAGUS FROM A LILIACEOUS PLANT 
WITH A HOST PLANT LIST FOR THE GENUS 

(Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae) 

B. D. Burks, Entomology Besearch Division, Agricultural Research Service, 
United States Department of Agriculture 

The genus BruchopJiagus Ashmead was originally described with- 
out included species (1888, Ent. Amer. 4 : 42) . Six years later Ashmead 
(1894, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 21: 328) referred three species to it. 
Two of these, horealis Ashmead and mexicanus Ashmead, were said to 
have been bred from Bruchus and the third, funehris (Howard), from 
the clover-seed midge. Shortly thereafter Hopkins (1896, U. S. Dept. 
Agr., Div. Ent. Bui. 6(n.s.), p. 73) studied funehris carefully and 
showed that it was not a parasite of the clover-seed midge, as stated 
by Howard when he described it, but developed by feeding in the clo- 
ver seeds themselves. 

Ashmead was unwilling to accept the judgment of either Howard or 
Hopkins about the host relationships of funehris. His final remarks 
on the subject (1904, Mem. Carnegie Mus. 1 : 260) were that he thought 
"that both Drs. Howard and Hopkins are w'rong and that Brucho- 
phagus funehris is a parasite upon some Bruchus, or the larva of a 
small rhvnchophorus beetle living in the clover seed." The same year 
Titus (1904, U. S. Dept. Agr., Div. Ent. Bui. 44, pp. 77-80) published 
his observations on the life history and habits of funehris, and these 
left no doubt that it was a phytophagous species. He concluded that 
''the clover-seed chalcis-fly, if ever a coleopterous parasite, has changed 
its diet." Since that time no one has seriously questioned the fact 
that this species is phytophagous, and it has been reared from the 
seeds of a large number of different leguminous plants. 

During the 53 years since 1904, additional species of Bruchopliagus 
have been described from the seeds of leguminous plants, so that now 
there are 15 species which are known to develop in leguminous seeds. 
Also, rearings have shown that B. mexicauus, thought by Ashmead to 
be parasitic on species of Bruchus, actually develops in the seeds of 
Astragalus, another legume. The generic name Bruchophagus (des- 
pite its unfortunate derivation) has thus come to be associated by 
entomologists with the phvtophagous habit in the seeds of legumes. 
In 1952, however, Nikolskaja (Fauna U. S. S. R. 44, p. 174) des- 
cribed a species of Bruchophagus which infests the seeds of a Primula, 
in the Primulaceae. The present paper describes a species from the 
seeds of Aloe, in the Ljliaceae, and further extends the range of plant 
families known to be attacked by members of the genus Bruchophagus. 
A host-plant list for the species of Bruchophagus is given at the end of 
this paper. 

Bruchophagus aloineae, new species 

Female. — Length 1.2-2.0 mm. Head and body black, anterior face of pronotum 
with a white spot on either side; antennae black; wings hyaline with tan or 
yellow venation; legs black or very dark brovoi with inner snrface of fore tibia, 



274 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 

apices of all femora, bases and apices of tibiae, and basal 4 segments of each 
tarsus tan. Setae of head, body, and appendages silvery, inconspicuous. 

Head, fig. 1, with a very vaguely defined transverse depression extending across 
frons just dorsal to level of ventral margins of compound eyes, area below this 
depression with strong striae converging toward mouth opening, dorsad of this 
depression the surface area of fronto-vertex with umbilicate punctation; malar 
furrow wanting; width of malar space two-thirds as great as height of compound 
eye; length of ocellar line one-third as great as postocellar line; antenna, fig. 2, 
with scape three times as long as pedicel, first funicle segment one-fourth longer 
than pedicel, second to fifth funicle segments equal in length and each as long as 
pedicel, club three and one-half times as long as fifth funicle segment. 

Dorsal surface of pronotum, mesoscutum, and mesoscutellum with umbilicate 
punctation made up of well-marked, closely set, shallow pits, interstices between 
punctures narrow — always much less than width of punctures themselves — and 
almost or quite smooth; anterior face of fore coxa smooth, a broad groove extend- 
ing from inner apical angle to outer basal angle ; depression on anterior face of 
mesepisternum, into which the anterior coxa fits when at rest, with its surface 
closely shagreened, lateral margin carinate; prepectus relatively narrow, usually 
with a large, triangular pit anteriorly, this pit occasionally divided by a septum; 
tegula inflated, its dorsal surface very obscurely sculptured; submarginal vein of 
forewing five times as long as marginal vein; stigmal, postmarginal, and marginal 
veins equal in length; dorsal area of mesepimeron posterior to femoral furrow 
with niimerous, closely set, longitudinal ridges, these sometimes rather irregular, 
but usually almost or quite parallel ; outer, dorsal surface of hind coxa shagreened. 

Propodeum with its surface flat and lying at a 90° angle with longitudinal axis 
of thorax ; median area of propodeum uniformly shagreened, laterally and dorsally 
coarsely rugulose. Petiole as broad as long. Gaster one and one-fourth times as 
long as thorax; basal four gastral tergites subequal in length dorsally when 
gaster is in normal position; fifth gastral tergite usually completely retracted 
beneath fourth, sixth gastral tergite half as long as third ; gastral tergites one 
to four smooth and asetose, fifth setose ventrally, sixth and epipygium densely 
setose; ovipositor sheaths directed obliquely dorsad, their apices normally ex- 
serted for a distance equal to length of sixth tergite. 

Male. — Length 1.1-2.0 mm.. Apical two-thirds of fore femur, entire fore tibia, 
and apical third of mid femur tan. Antenna, fig. 3, with scape enlarged and 
three and one-half times as long as pedicel, first and second funicle segments 
equal in length and each twice as long as pedicel, third and fourth funicle seg- 
ments equal in length and each half as long as scape, fifth segment seven-eighths 
as long as fourth, club three-fourths as long as scape. Petiole three times as long 
as wide. Gaster one-half to two-thirds as long as thorax. 

Type locality. — Port Elizabeth, South Africa. 

Types.— V. S. N. M. No. 63412. 

Described from 21 female and 18 male specimens, all intercepted 
in quarantine at Washington, D. C. The specimens were taken from 
sealed packages of seeds being- shipped into the United States for pro- 
pagation purposes; the dates given are those of the interceptions. Fe- 
male holotype, male allotype, and 1 male paratype, Port Elizabeth, 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 



275 



S. Africa, Oct. 24, 1934, with seeds of Aloe ferox, B. P. Q. No. 030955; 
8 female and 7 male paratypes, same data, but with seeds of Aloe 
lineata, B. P. Q. No. 030956 ; 2 female and 1 male paratypes, same data, 
but with seeds of Aloe africana, B. P. Q. No. 030953; 1 female and 2 
male paratypes, Kimberley, S. Africa, Nov. 27, 1934, with seeds of 
Aloe glohuligemma, B. P. Q. No. 032536 ; 1 female paratype, S. Africa, 
Jan. 10, 1936, reared from seeds of Aloe (Haivorihia) ferox, E. Q. 
Washing-ton No. A33710 ; 1 female paratype, S. Africa, June 4, 1935, 
with seeds of Aloe glohuligemma, B. P. Q. Washin^on No. 036379; 
4 female and 1 male paratypes, Germany, Nov. 6, 1934, in Aloe sp. 
seeds, B. P. Q. No. A28173 ; 3 female paratypes, Germany, Oct. 8, 
1934, with seeds of Aloe variegata, P. Q. No. A27779 ; 3 male paratypes, 
Potsdam, Germanv, Mav 8, 1933. with seeds of Aloe variegata, B. P. 
Q. No. A22270. 




Bruchophagus aloineae, n. sp. : Fig. 1, Anterior aspect of head of female; fig. 
2, antenna of female ; fig. 3, antenna of male. 

In addition there are more or less fragmentary specimens of this 
species, not included in the type series, in the U. S. N. M. collection 
from the following localities and hosts: Port Elizabeth, S. Africa, 
seeds of Aloe striata, Aloe (Raworthia) ferox, Aloe africana, Aloe 
microstigma, and Aloe lineata; Ethiopia, seeds of Aloe sp. ; Germany, 
seeds of Aloe variegata and Aloe sp. 

Bruchophagus aloineae differs from B. gihhus (Boheman) in hav- 
ing the dorsal pronotal punctures uniformly close together, with 
narrow, unsculptured interstices; in gihhus these punctures are rather 
haphazardly arranged, with some of the interstices as wide as the 
punctures themselves, and the surfaces of the interstices are sha- 
greened. B. aloineae differs from B. mexicanus Ashmead in possessing 
strong striae on the lower face ; this area is umbilicately punctate in 
mexicanus. The black antennal scape and mostly black anterior and 
mid legs of the female of aloineae distinguish it from B. ho7^ealis 



276 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 



Ashmead, as the antennal scape and two anterior pairs of legs in 
horealis are almost entirely yellow. 

Host-plant list for Bruchophagus 

The following- list has been compiled from data associated with 
identified specimens of Bruchophagus in the collection of the U. S. 
National Museum and from the literature reference files maintained 
there by the Insect Identification and Parasite Introduction Labora- 
tories, U. S. Department of Agriculture. The plant names were kindly 
checked by Dr. Velva E. Rudd, Division of Botany, U. S. National 
Museum. 



LEGUMINOSAE 
Astragalus macronyx 
Astragalus mollissimus, loco weed 
Astragalus sp. 

Cajanus cajan, pigeon pea 

Caragana arhorescens, pea tree 

Caragana frutescens 

Caragana pygmaea 

Colutea arborescens, bladder senna 

Colutea media 

GlycyrrMza glabra, licorice 

Hedysarum sibiricum 

Indigofera sp., indigo 

Lespedeza sp., bush clover 

Lotus cornlcidatus, birds-foot trefoil 

Lotus decumbens 

Medicago arabica, spotted bur clover 

Medicago falcata 

Medicago lilspida, toothed bur clover 

Medicago ruthemia 

Medicago sativa, alfalfa 

Medicago tornata 

Medicago tubercvlata 

Medicago tunetana 

Melilotus sp., sweetclover 

OnobrycMs caputgalli 

Onobrychis viciaefolia (= sativa), Sainfoin 

Ononis sp., rest harrow 

Oxytropis lambertii, loco weed 



Species of Bruchophagus 
macronycis Fedoseeva 
mexicanus Ashmead 
gibbus (Boheman) 
astragali Pedoseeva^ 
mellipes Gahan 
caraganae (Nikolskaja) 
caraganae (Nikolskaja) 
caraganae (Nikolskaja) 
coluteae (Boucek) 
coluteae Fedoseeva^ 
glycyrrhizae Nikolskaja 
hedysari Fedoseeva 
indigoferae (Risbec) 
gibbus (Boheman) 
gibbus (Boheman) 
Tcolobovae Fedoseeva 
gibbus (Boheman) 
gibbrts (Boheman) 
gibbus (Boheman) 
gibbus (Boheman) 
gibbus (Boheman) 
gibbus (Boheman) 
roddi Gussakovsky 
gibbus (Boheman) 
gibbus (Boheman) 
gibbus (Boheman) 
gibbets (Boheman) 
onobrycliidis (Nikolskaja) 
onobrychidis (Nikolskaja) 
ononis (Mayr) 
gibbus (Boheman) 



ll am indebted to Dr. 0. Peck, Canadian Department of Agriculture, for the 
reference to the original description of this species — Fedoseeva, 1954, Vestnik, 
Moscow Univ., 9, No. 5, p. 115. 

^This species is a homonym, and probably also a synonym, of B. coluteae 
(Boucek). 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 



277 



Sesiania sesban 

Sesbania grandiflora 

S mirnovia turlcestana 

Sophora japonica, Japanese pagoda tree 

Trifolium incarnatum, crimson clover 

Trifolitnn pratense, red clover 

Trigonella sp. 

PEIMULACEAE 
Primula sp., primrose 

LILIACEAE 
Aloe africana 
Aloe ferox 
Aloe glohuUgemma 
Aloe lineata 
Aloe microstigma 
Aloe striata 
Aloe variegata 



mellipes Galian 
melUpes Galian 
smirnoviae Nikolskaja 
sophorae Crosby 
gihbus (Boheman) 
gibhus (Boheman) 
gibbus (Boheman) 



inutabilis Nikolskaja 



aloineae 
aloineae 
aloineae 
aloineae 
aloineae 
aloineae 
aloineae 



Burks 
Burks 
Burks 
Burks 
Burks 
Burks 
Burks 



A total of 32 species have been referred to the genus Briichopliagus. 
In addition to those listed above as phytophagous, the following- spe- 
cies have been reared from cynipid galls: B. cynipseus (Boheman), 
jaceae (Mayr), phanacidis (Mayr), setigeriis (Mayr), and timaspidis 
(Mayr). There are six species of unknown habits: B. cylindricus 
(Thomson), inconspicuus Girault, maurus (Boheman), niger Girault, 
noctiia Girault, and sculpta (Ashmead). Three others still are said 
to parasitize Bruehidae : B. horealis Ashmead, hruchocida (Risbec), 
and sayeli (Risbec). 

Bruchophagus safivae Ashmead, Tschorbadjiev (1936, Mitt. Bulgar. 
Ent. Ges. 9: 169) evidently is a nomen nudum. Although this author 
credits the specific name to Ashmead, there is no record that Ashmead 
described such a species. If sativae were taken to have been validated 
by the very meager information given by Tschorbadjiev, the name 
should be attributed to him. 

Eurytoma aoaciae Cameron (1910, The Ent. 43: 114) [not E. aca- 
ciae Girault, 1914 nor E. acaciae Risbec, 1951], reared from the seeds 
of Acacia decurrens in New Zealand, possibly is a Bruchophagus. I 
have been unable to locate the type. 



278 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 



A NOTE ON TWO CHRYSOMELID BEETLES 

(Coleoptera) 

A species of ehrysomelid beetle, Ophraea arizo7iica Fall, hitherto 
not represented in the collection of the United States National Mu- 
seum, has recently been added in the shape of 25 specimens collected 
by Jack M. Kaiser on the leaves of Beloperone sp. at Peiia Blanca, 
Arizona (near Tucson). Fall (Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, 36, 1910, p. 
147) described this apparently rare beetle from one specimen sent 
him by F. H. Snow from the Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona. 

D. M. Weisman has recently collected a new species of Disonycha 
in Harnett County, North Carolina. The host plant is unknown as the 
beetle was taken by sweeping. 

Disonycha weismani n. sp. 

About 7.5 mm. in length, oblong oval, feebly shining, alutaceous, very finely 
and indistinctly punctate, pale yellow with dark antennae and tarsal joints and 
two small spots anteriorly on the prothorax and moderately Avide dark sutural, 
median and lateral vittae not joined at the apex of the elytra. 

Head with interocular space more than half its width, with occiput having a few 
punctures besides the large fovea near eye, the interantennal area wide and bulg- 
ing forward in a broadly rounded carina; pale with a very narrow darkening over 
occiput at edge of prothorax. Antennae Avith the two basal joints pale edged, re- 
mainder dark. Prothorax approximately twice as wide as long with rounded sides, 
not very convex ; faintly shining, alutaceous, very finely punctate ; pale yellow with 
two sniall spots anteriorly. Scutellum dark. Elytra alutaceous, faintly punctate 
and somewhat shiny ; pale yellow with moderately wide sutural, median and lateral 
vittae, none joined at the apex. Body beneath entirely pale. Legs pale with the 
tarsal joints dark. Length 7.7 mm.; width 3.6 mm. 

Type.— Male, U.S.N.M. Type No. 63507, collected by Donald M. 
Weisman, in sweeping- at Spout Springs, Harnett Co., North Carolina, 
on Aug. 30, 1952. 

Remarks. — This species has the same coloration as D. caroliniana 
(Fab.) and D. latifrons Schaeffer, but differs from either in the head 
the aedeagus, which is unlike that of any other DisonycJia. — Doris 
H. Blake. 




Ophraea ar'izonica Fcil 



Di'sonycha weiSfMonl n.; 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59', NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 279 

ON SOME MICROTINE-INrE STING POLYPLAX 

(Anoplura) 

By John E. ScanlonI and Phyllis T. Johnson^ 

For some years the relationship of Polyplax horealis Ferris, 1933, 
(from Clefkrionomys riifocanus, Fiiimark, Norway) to P. alaskensis 
Ewing", 1927, (from Microtus sp., Alaska) has been in doubt. The 
original description of P. alaskensis contains no figures and is vague 
in many details. Ferris noted in his original description of horealis 
that this name might prove to be synonymous with alaskensis Ewing, 
since he had not seen specimens of alaskensis and could not be sure 
of his interpretation of the latter. Ewing (1935) synonymized hore- 
alis Ferris under alaskensis Ewing, without seeing specimens of hore- 
alis. Quay (1949) published a redescription and figures of alaskensis 
from Microtus operarius, Seward Peninsula, Alaska, but did not men- 
tion horealis. Finally, in 1951, Brinck published a note asserting that 
horealis is a valid name, basing his conclusions on a comparison of 
Quay's drawings and description of alaskensis and Ferris' original 
description and figures of horealis. 

A re-examination of P. alaskensis holotype proves Brinck to be 
correct, and further shows that Polyplax ahscisa Fahrenholz, 1938, 
(from California off " Arviaola," which according to Ferris (1951) 
probably means Microtus), is a synonym of P. alaskensis (new syn- 
onymy). Dr. G. F. Ferris of Stanford University has kindly compared 
specimens of horealis from Alaska and Labrador with his paratype 
male of horealis and also has compared the holotype of alaskensis with 
horealis and California ''ahscisa," coming to the same conclusion. 
Specimens of Polyplax from California Microtus agree with Fahren- 
holz 's original description and figures of ahscisa as well as with holo- 
typic alaskensis. A figure of alaskensis holotype is included in this 
paper (fig. 3). 

P. ala.skensis is easily separated from horealis in the male by the 
shape of the pseudopenis (fig. 8), which is strongly curved apically 
and relatively much narrower than it is in horealis (fig. 7). Both 
sexes of horealis have an arcuate first abdominal sternum (figs. 9, 10), 
and the third abdominal sternite is triangulate, more than half as 
high (in the longitudinal axis of the body) a,s it is broad (in the 
transverse axis of the body). P. alaskensis (fig. 11) may have the 
first sternite weakly arcuate, but usually not approaching the condi- 
tion found in horealis and the third sternite is less than half as high 
as broad and not markedly triangulate. There are small discrepan- 
cies between Quay's redescription of alaskensis and the actual form 
of the holotype, although the lone specimen from his series we exam- 
ined agrees well with the holotype. This single male, from Microtus 



iMedical Service Corps, U. S. Army, Fort Sam Houston, Texas. 
^Entomology Eeseareh Division, Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department 
of Agriculture. 



280 PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 

operarius, does not have the first sternite as strongly arcuate as he 
draws and describes it. He also states that the first sternite of the 
female is broader than the second and concave posteriorly, but his 
figure does not show this to be the case. The thoracic sternal plate in 
alaskensis is normally quite broad anteriorly and with the sides 
angled and subsequently slightly concave to the apex, as in figure 6, 
whereas horealis has the sides almost evenly convex to the apex (figs. 
4, 5). In other respects alaskensis and horealis are very similar 
morphologically. Brinek (1951) mentions that in horealis the para- 
tergal plates (fig. 2) are not as markedly toothed as in alaskensis, 
but this character is quite variable. 

Both sexes of alaskensis and horealis may be separated from the 
very similar P. spinulosa (Burmeister) by the shape of the para- 
tergites 3-5. In alaskensis and horealis both dorsal and ventral apical 
lobes are acute, while in spinulosa the ventral apical lobes of these 
paratergites are rounded. Ewiiig (1935) used this character to sepa- 
rate alaskensis from spitnilosa. 

Since Ferris' (1951) publication "The Sucking Lice" will be the 
standard reference on Anoplura for many years to come, we append 
here a revision of couplets 21 and 22, page 205, of the key to Polypi ax 
species. It should be noted that as Ferris' key now reads, horealis 
will key to alaskensis and alaskensis will key to ahscisa. 
21(20) First abdominal sternite strongly arcuate and with its lateral angles 
somewhat prolonged; third abdominal sternite more than half as 
high (in longitudinal axis of body) as broad (in transverse axis 

ofbody); occurring on Clethrionomys and Phenacomys BOREALIS 

First abdominal sternite in both sexes not thus, its posterior margin 
almost straight and the lateral angles not produced ; third abdomi- 
nal sternite considerably less than half as high as broad _ 22 

22(21) In both sexes, paratergal plates 3-5 with only the dorsal apical angle 
produced into a point; dorsal lobe of the pseudopenis very short, 
scarcely one-fourth the length of the ventral lobe ; parameres well 
developed, extending forward between the posterior arms of the 
basal plate; occurring especially on species of Battus throughout 

the world _ .- SPINULOSA 

In both sexes, paratergal plates 3-5 with both apical angles produced 
into points ; parameres quite weakly developed and extending for- 
ward only slightly past the apex of the arms of the basal plate; 
normally occurring on species of Microtus ALASKENSIS 

The normal hosts of Polyplax alaskensis are members of the genus 
Microtus. Specimens have been examined as follows: Alaska (Golo- 
vin, Takotna and the Seward Peninsula, and the holotype) from 
Microtns sp. and M. operarius ; Oregon from M. monfanus ; California 
from M. cMifornicus sanctidiegi; Virginia, Pennsylvania, Delaware, 
New York, Massachusetts and Maine from Microtus pennsylvanicus \ 
Massachusetts from M. hreweri (this species of Microtus is found 
only on Muskeget Isl.) ; Canada, ''from an island in the St. Lawrence 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 19.57 28i 

River" from M. pennsylvanicus and at Toronto, Ontario from "mead- 
ow mouse." Ferris (1951) also reported alaskensis (as ahscisa) from 
Nevada. Seanlon (1954) reported alaskensis (as ahscisa) from Mi- 
crotus monicheUi, Mt. Fuji, Japan. A re-examination of some of 
Sasa's material from Microtus monfehelU, Mt. Fuji, reported as Poly- 
plax spinulosa (Burmeister) (Sasa, 1950) establishes that these speci- 
mens are alaskensis, not spinulosa. One female with the sides of the 
thoracic sternal plate somewhat less angled than is usually the case, 
from a species of Synaptomys (bog lemming, tribe Lemmini), Nor- 
way House, Northwest Territories, Canada, is also here referred to 
alaskensis.^ 

P. horealis has as its normal hosts species of Clethrionomys and 
Phenacomys. Its distribution is eireumpolar, as is probably true of 
alaskensis, but horealis is more northern, although there is some over- 
lapping. Specimens of horealis have been examined as follows: 
Alaska (Ladd Air Force Base) from Clethrionomys rutilus dawsoni; 
Canada, Northwest Territories, S. W. Keewatin from Phenacomys sp. 
and Clethrionomys sp., and Quebec and Labrador from Clethrionomys 
sp. Specimens from Clethrionomys rufocanus (the type host) from 
Korea, were reported as alaskensis by Seanlon (1955). The latter 
specimens and a Korean series from "Apodemus speciosus" differ 
slightly from the North American specimens in that the sternal plate 
of the thorax is somewhat broader anteriorly, but this series still fits 
well within the limits of horealis. " Apodemus speciosus" is prob- 
ably a lapsus for a species of Clethrionomys. 

Literature Cited 

Brinck, Per, 1951. Polyplax alasl-e7isis Ewing oeh P. horealis Ferris (Anoplura). 

Opusc. Ent. (Lund) 16:31. 
Ewing, H. E., 1927. Descriptions of three new species of sucking lice, together 

with a key to some related species of the genus PohjpIa.x. Proc. Ent. Soc. 

Wash. 29:118-121. 
, 1935. The taxonomy of the anopluran genera Polyplax and Eremo- 

phtJiirius, including the description of new species. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 

48:201-210, figs. 1, 2. 
Pahrenholz, H., 1938. Die Anoplurengattung Polyplax. Ztschr. f. Parasitenk. 

10:239-279, figs. 1-23. 
Ferris, G. F., 1922. Contributions toward a monograph of the sucking lice. Part 

IV. Stanford Univ. Publ. Biol. Sci. 2(4) : 183-270. 
, 1933. A new species of Polyplax (Anoplura). Parasitol. 25:127-129, 

figs. 1, 2. 
, 1942. Some North American rodent-infesting lice (Insecta, Anoplura). 



Micro-ent. 7:84-90, fig. 42. 
, 1951. The Sucking Lice. Mem. Pacific Coast Ent. Soc. 1:1-320, figs. 



1-124. 



^This specimen was referred to by Ferris (1922) and Hopkins (1947) as Poly- 
plax spinulosa. 



282 



PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 







8 O 



Fig. 1, Polyplax alaskensis Ewirig, 1927: paratergal plates, liolotype; fig. 2, P. 
borealis Ferris, 1933 : paratergal plates, male (Ladd Air Force Base, Alaska) ; 
fig. 3, P. alaskensis: holotype; fig. 4, P. borealis: thoracic sternal plate, male 
(Ladd AFB) ; fig. 5, P. borealis: thoracic sternal plate, male (Lake Marymac, 
Quebec) ; fig. 6, P. alaslcensis: thoracic sternal plate, holotype; fig. 7, P. borealis: 
aedagus (Lake Marymac); fig. 8, P. alaslcensis: aedeagus, holotype; fig. 9, P. 
borealis: first abdominal sternite, male (Ladd AFB); fig. 10, P. borealis: first 
abdominal sternite, male (Lake Marymac) ; fig. 11, P. alaskensis: first abdominal 
sternite, holotype. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 283 

Hopkins, G. H. E., 1949. The host-associations of the lice of mammals. Proc. Zool. 

Soc. Lond. 119(2) :387-640. 
Quay, W. B., 1949. Further description of Polyplax alaslcensis E^\-ing (Anoplura). 

Psyche 56:180-183, figs. 1, 2. 
Sasa, M., 1950. Note on the blood-sucking lice (Anoplura) of rodents in Japan 

(Part I). Jap. Jour. Exper. Med. 20:715-717. 
Scanlon, J. E., 1954. Anoplura from some Japanese small mammal hosts. Bull. 

Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 49(2): 29-35, fig. 1. 

, 1955. Anoplura from some Korean small mammal hosts. Bull. Brook- 
lyn Ent. Soc. 50(4; : 85-91, fig. 1. 

OBSERVATIONS ON THE BIOLOGY AND LIFE HISTORY 
OF THE BROWN COCKROACH PERIPLANETA BRUNNEA BURMEISTER 

Lafe E. Edmunds, Sanitary Engineering Branch, Engineer Research and 
Development Lahoraiories, Fort Belvoir, Virginia 

The brown cockroach, Periplaneta hrunnea Burmeister, is a common 
species in the southern and southeastern United States, from the 
Carolinas to Florida and west to Texas. It has been found indoors 
as far north as Philadelphia and was collected by the writer in 
Columbus, Ohio. In some areas of the south it is more common than 
the American cockroach which it closely resembles. 

This insect, typical of all roaches, is an obnoxious household pest. 
It has been collected in such places as army camps, outbuildings, city 
dumps, grocery stores, at lights, under bark, and in sewers. 

Little is known about the biology of P. hrunnea because only in 
recent years have entomologists become generally aware of the dis- 
tinction between this species and the other three species of Periplaneta 
found in the United States. P. brimnea very closely resembles the 
American cockroach Periplaneta amerioana Linn., and there are some 
marked similarities and differences in biology. 

The determination of P. hrunnea was made through the courtesy 
of Dr. P. W. Oman and Dr. A. B. Gurney, of the Insect Identification 
and Parasite Introduction Laboratories, Entomology Research Divi- 
sion, United States Department of Agriculture. The writer is in- 
debted to Dr. Ross Hutchins, of the Department of Zoology and 
Entomology, Mississippi State College, for the use of the controlled 
temperature equipment. 

Methods 

Cultures of P. hrunnea were started with adults and nymphs col- 
lected in March 1952, from the basement of the biology greenhouse 
on the campus of the Ohio State University. These cultures were 
transported by automobile to Mississippi State College where biological 
studies of P. hrunnea were made from 1954 through 1956. 

The cockroaches were reared in 1-gallon battery jars, the tops of 
which were covered with cheese cloth held in place by a rubber band. 



284 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 

Water was supplied bj' using' a glass vial 1-ineli in diameter and 2^4 
inches long. This vial was filled with water, plugged with cotton, and 
placed in a horizontal position on the floor of the jar. The cockroaches 
were fed a diet of commercial dog food, Purina Kibbled Meal, supple- 
mented by wheat germ. 

The life history studies were made at approximately 75° F., using 
controlled temperature cabinets. Examinations were made once daily 
at the same time each day, consequently, the durations given for 
stages and other periods are accurate to one calendar day. 

Observations 

The period between extrusion and deposition of the egg capsule 
by P. hrumiea ranged from 20 to 24 hours, with an average time of 
21 hours. The ootheca was glued to the substrate, generally near a 
food supply. When first deposited the egg capsule was light brown 
in color, changing within a few hours to dark brown. One hundred 
oothecae were removed from the cultures and measured ; they varied 
in length from 1.2 to 1.6 mm. The number of eggs contained in an 
ootheca were found to range from 21 to 28, with an average of 24. 

In ovipositing, the female roach secreted from her mouthparts a 
frothy white substance which she smeared over the spot on which 
she w^as going to deposit the egg capsule. Some females spent from 
30 to 40 minutes preparing this frothy bed. The egg capsule was 
then deposited in the froth and covered with additional froth secreted 
by the female. Some cockroaches were observed spending as much 
as 2 hours coating the egg capsule after it was deposited. This sub- 
stance hardened to become a very strong cementing material. It was 
so strong that it was difficult to pry the capsule loose without causing 
it to rupture. For several hours after a capsule was deposited the 
female rested with her body over the capsule and drove away any 
other roaches which approached. 

Ten egg capsules were removed from the cultures just as they were 
deposited. These were placed singly in 1-pint jars in a controlled 
temperature cabinet, and incubated at approximately 75°F. Nymphal 
cockroaches emerged from 8 of the capsules, the developmental period 
in the capsule ranging from 61 to 63 days. 

On October 23, 1955, 25 newly emerged nymphs of P. hrunnea were 
placed together in a quart battery jar provisioned with food and 
water. These roaches were kept in a controlled temperature cabinet 
at 75 °F. Daily examinations were made to determine the progress 
of development. The number of nymphal instars was not ascertained 
because the cockroaches consumed the cast exuviae. The first adult 
male completed development in 263 days, and the first female in 268 
days. All of the nymphs had completed development by 277 days. 
Pope (1951) found that the nymphal period of P. hrunnea varied 
from 110 to 327 days and that all stages were greatly influenced by 
temperature. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 285 

The newly emerged first-instar nymph of P. hrunnea is dark brown 
in color, with yellowish leg-s and mouth parts. The first 8 and last 
4 antennal segments are white, the median antennal segments are 
brown. A median translucent area allows light to pass completely 
through the mesothorax. Faint cream-colored spots occur on the 
dorso-lateral margins of the first and second abdominal segments. 
The body is 8 to 10 mm. in length. The first instar ranged from 16 
to 21 days in length, with an average of 17 days. 

The nymphal instars between the first and last instars generally 
resembled the last. During development there was an increase in 
size, and the appearance of larger and more distinct cream-colored 
spots on the dorso-lateral margins of the abdomen. 

The last nymphal instar, just prior to completing development, was 
chestnut to dark-brown in color and 25 to 30 mm. in length. Distinct 
cream-colored spots occurred on the dorso-lateral margins of the sec- 
ond to sixth abdominal segments. The thorax was chestnut colored 
with posterior dark brown margins. The first 29 to 30 segments of 
the antenna were chestnut-colored, distal segments darker. 

Copulation occurred within a few hours after the female of P. 
hrunnea completed development. Egg deposition started in from 16 
to 20 da.ys after the adult female emerged and continued throughout 
life. A female was capable of forming and dropping an oothecae at 
5- to 6-day intervals, but the time period between capsules was highly 
variable. Pope (1951) found that the maximum number of oviposi- 
tions was 30 but usually less. The maximum longevity of an adult 
roaches life Avas not determined, but some were kept for 20 months 
and were still living and reproducing. The adults of P. hrunnea 
usually shunned light and were nocturnal in habit. They were capa- 
ble of flight, which is generally of a gliding type. Cannabalism was 
common in captivity. Cockroaches that had been injured or weakened 
in some way are often eaten by others. Egg capsules after being 
deposited and left by the mother were often found and consumed by 
other cockroaches. 

Discussion 
The brown cockroach P. hrunnea and the American cockroach P. 
americana are often confused because they frequent similar habitats 
and are very much alike in appearance. Both species as adults are 
reddish-browai in color and have yellowish markings on the pronotum. 
They can be readilv distinouished bv using the following informa- 
tion (Table 1) : ^ 

a. The egg capsule of P. hrunnea is nearly 50 per cent longer 
than the American cockroach. It is less rounded laterally and much 
darker in color. The brown roach glues the egg capsule more securely 
when it is deposited. Lawson (1951) in studying the egg capsule of 
P. hrunnea found 22 to 28 eggs with an average of 24. The American 
roach has 16 eggs per ootheca. 

b. The first stage nymph of P. hrunnea has white antennae tips 



286 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 

and a translucent area through the mesothorax. The first stage nymph 
of P. americana has entirely dark antennae. The intermediate and 
last nymphal instars of the brown roach have cream-colored spots on 
the dorso-lateral margins of the second and sixth abdominal segments. 
The intermediate and last nymphal instar of the American roach have 
entirely brown abdomens. 

c. Pratt (1955) states that adult brown and American cock- 
roaches can be separated in both sexes by the shape of the cercus, a 
jointed appendage on each side of the tip of the abdomen. The cercus 
of the brown cockroach is stout, more evenly spindle-shaped, with the 
last segment somewhat triangular and less than twice as long as its 
basal W'idth. The cercus of the American cockroach is stout basally 
and tapers markedly toward the tip, and the last segment is more 
or less parallel-sided and two or more times as long as its basal width. 

Summary 
The brown eockroach, P. hrimnea, is a common noxious household 
pest in the southern United States, and closely resembles the Ameri- 
can cockroach. The ootheca of P. hrunnea contains an average of 24 
eggs, and is deposited in frothy material secreted from the female's 
mouth parts. At 75 °F. there is an egg-to-egg cycle of 339 to 351 
days. Nymphs hatch from the ootheca 61 to 63 days after oviposition. 
The first male to complete development required 263 days and the 
first female, 268 days. Egg deposition starts 15 to 20 days after the 
females become adults. 



Table 1. A comparison 


of the various 
and Periplaiu 


life stages 
eta hrunnea 


of Periplaneta americana Linn. 
Burm. 


Avg. no. 
eggs 
Species per capsule 


Incubation 
period 
(days) 


Nymphal 
period 
(days) 


Adult forms 

First ootheca 

(days) 


Total egg-to- 
egg cycle 
(days) 


P. brunnea 24 
P. americana* 16 


62-63 
42-63 


263-277 
98-200 


15-20 
10 


340-360 
150 ...... 



*Data taken from Piquett & Fales (1952). 

References 

Lawson, F. A. 1951. Structural features of the oothecae of certain cockroaches. 
Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 44(2) :269-285. 

Piquett, P. G., and Fales, J. H. 1952. Rearing cockroaches for experimental pur- 
poses. U. S. Dept. Agr. ET-301, 12 p. 

Pope, Pauline. 1951 (1953). Studies on the life histories of some Queensland 
Blattidae. I. The domestic species; II, some native species. Proc. Roy. Soc. 
Queensland 63:23-59. 

Pratt, H. D. 1955. Cockroach identification. Pest Control 23(5):9-12. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 287 

A NOTE ON THE OVIPOSITION BEHAVIOR OF 
SABETHES (SABETHOIDES) CHLOROPTEEUS HUMBOLDTl 

Pedro Galindo 
Gorgas Memorial Laboratory, Apartado 1252, Panama, B. de P. 

The author has maintained a laboratory colony of the mosquito 
Sahethes (Sabethoides) chloropterus Humboldt for nearly 2 years 
and a paper discussing in detail the bionomics of this species under 
laboratory conditions is now in preparation. However, considering 
that published information on the egg-laying activities of members of 
the tribe Sabethini is very scant and in view of the unique oviposition 
behavior observed by the author in S. cMoropterus, it was deemed of 
interest to publish these observations as the subject of a separate note. 

Galindo, Carpenter, and Trapido (1951) found that S. cMoropterus 
a forest mosquito, breeds primarily in a specialized type of tree-hole 
which possesses a large inner cavity and a relatively small opening 
and holds water continuously even during the dry season months. In 
attempting to simulate natural conditions in the laboratory colony, 
the author used as a receptacle for oviposition a well-ripened bamboo 
internode. The open top was fitted with a cover and a 1-inch hole 
drilled in the side near the top to give access to the central cavity, 
which was half-filled with water. Using this type of artificial tree- 
hole, large numbers of eggs have been obtained, making it possible 
to maintain a thriving colony. Statistical data on the number of eggs 
laid per female, time of oviposition, length of time spent in the egg 
stage, etc., will be presented in the bionomics paper in preparation. 
The present note will deal exclusively with a description of the man- 
ner in which the eggs are deposited. 

The female, when ready to lay, approaches the bamboo in the char- 
acteristic slow flight peculiar to the genus and usually flies around 
it two or three times probing here and there until the entrance hole 
is found. Once this is accomplished, the female hovers outside and 
in front of the opening at a distance from it which varies from a few 
millimeters to as much as 5 centimeters, with the fore and hind tarsi 
almost locked together above the thorax and the mid-legs extended 
downward and outward. After hovering for a variable length of time, 
and Avhile still in flight, the mosquito suddenly jerks the head and 
thorax back and thrusts the abdomen forward, forcibly ejecting at the 
same time 1 or 2 eggs which shoot through the entrance hole and into 
the water in the cavity. Almost in the same movement the female 
darts back rapidly a few centimeters and then resumes normal flight. 
The entire process takes place with incredible speed and is completed 
in but fractions of a second. A female which has just laid many come 
back immediately and go through the same motions for as many as 



iThis investigation was supported by the Research and Development Division, 
Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army, under Contract No. 
DA-49-007-MD-655. 



288 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 

18 consecutive times, or it may alight on the bamboo or some other 
surface nearby, only to resume egg-laying after a few minutes rest. 

A number of experiments were performed in order to determine 
the force with which the eggs are ejected and the accuracy displayed 
by the female in shooting the eggs through the entrance and into the 
bamboo. In one set of experiments, a black leather disk smeared with 
castor oil was hung inside the bamboo directly in back of the entrance 
hole and at distances of 2, 4 and 6 centimeters from the outer surface 
of the container. At 2 centimeters, out of 25 eggs released by the 
female 24 were caught on the disk ; at 4 centimeters, out of 40 eggs 
shot into the bamboo 18 were trapped in the castor oil, and at a dis- 
tance of 6 centimeters 4 out of 28 eggs were trapped. From these 
experiments we may conclude that eggs are released with such force 
that they travel in a straight horizontal line from a minimum of 2i/^ 
cms. to a possible maximum of 10 cms. In a second series of experi- 
ments, bamboo internodes with smaller entrance holes having diame- 
ters of 10/16, 8/16, 6/16 and 4/16 inch, respectively, were tried as ovi- 
position receptacles. It was found in these experiments that eggs are 
shot with unerring precision even through the smallest aperture tried, 
but here oviposition is somewhat inhibited perhaps due to failure of 
some females to detect the opening. 

The process described above may possibly explain how oviposition 
takes place in the many sabethine species which possess eggs of the 
same type as S. chloropterus and whose immature stages are found 
in uncut bamboo internodes with small holes in the side drilled by 
boring insects. Examples of these species occuring in Panama are : 
S. undosus, S. aurescens, S. intermedins, S. fahricii, Wyeomyia codio- 
campa, and W . hosmitos. 

References 
Galindo, P., Carpenter, S. J., and Trapido, H. 1951. Ecological observations on 
forest mosquitoes of an endemic yelloAv fever area in Panama. Amer. Jour. 
Trop. Med. 31:98-137. 



Short scientific articles, not illustrated, two double-spaced type- 
written pages or less in length, are welcome and will usually receive 
prompt publication. References to literature should be included in 
the text. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, Dp:CEMBER, 1957 289 

THE NORTH AND CENTRAL AMERICAN SPECIES OF PROPRISTOCERA 

(Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) 
Howard E. Evans, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

The genus Propristocera was described by Kieffer (1905, In Andre, 
Species des Hymenopteres d 'Europe, p. 247) to include 2 species 
from the Oriental region which differed from Pseudisohrachium in 
having glabrous eyes and simple, edentate mandibles. Later (1914, 
Das Tierreich, 41 : 484-488) Kieff'er expanded his concept of the genus 
to include certain other species which he had previously included in 
Prisfocera and in PseudisohrachiKm; these species possessed essen- 
tially "normal" 3- to 5-toothed mandibles. As thus defined, the genus 
included 9 known species, 3 Oriental, 2 Ethiopian (Seychelles), 1 
Australian, and 3 Neotropical (including one Mexican). To the best 
of my knowledge, the genus has received no attention since 1914, 
and no Nearctic species have ever been assigned to it. 

I have not seen specimens of the type species of Propristocera, P. 
interrupta Kieffer from Ceylon, or for that matter of any of the 
other species which Kieffer included in the genus. But there are sev- 
eral North and Central American species, all undescribed, which key 
to this genus in Kieffer 's generic keys and agree well with his generic 
diagnosis of 1914. These species cannot be placed in any other genus, 
and for the present, at least, I see no reason for not assigning them 
to Proprisfocera. One of the species occurs in eastern United States 
and three others in Mexico and Central America. 

Propristocera is a particularly interesting group because in many 
ways it links the other genera of Pristocerini. The resemblance to 
Pseudisohrachium is strong, but the eyes are weakly or not at all 
hairy and the genitalia are very different. The antennae, eyes, and 
genitalia are similar to Pristocera, and some species approach this 
genus in venation, but the claws are simple or have but a single 
weak tooth (as in Pseudisohrachium) and the structure of the clypeus 
is different. The complex aedoeagus of some species suggests Bissom- 
phahis, and in fact the genitalia of one species, tridentata, are nearly 
identical with those of certain species of BissomphaJus, and the cly- 
peus also resembles this genus. In fact tridentata (which I assign to 
Propristocera with somewhat more doubt than the other species) is 
virtually a BissomphaJus without the tergal pits and the transverse 
propodeal carina. In another species, laevigata, the spiracles of the 
first and second abdominal tergites are enlarged, suggesting the con- 
dition in BissomphaJus, with which the species otherwise has little 
in common. All in all, Propristocera is a nearly perfect mixture of 
the characters of these three genera. 

This fact, combined with the fact that the species are very distinct 
and separable by many more characters than is usual in the Bethyli- 
dae, suggsts that the genus may be primitive and somewhat ancestral 
to the other Pristocerini. This seems to be supported by geographic 



290 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 

evidence, for the known species are widely and discontinuously scat- 
tered throughout the warmer parts of the globe. I would hesitate to 
say that Propristocera is more primitive than Prist ocera, which is the 
most tiphiid-like of all the Bethylidae, but certainly it provides a 
likely ancestral stock for the more specialized genera Dissomphalus 
and PseudisohracJi i}( III , tying these genera to a Prist ocera-\\ke bethylid 
prototype. 

Unfortunately the females of Propristocera are completely un- 
known, and nothing whatever is known about the ethology of the 
genus. The only specimen I have ever collected was taken inside a 
window of my home. Other specimens have been taken at light (as 
the males of Pseudisohrachium and Dissomphahrs commonly are). 
The type series of angustata M'as taken on Ipomoea tiliacea (a morn- 
ing glory). Presumably the females are apterous and hypogaeie like 
other Pristocerini. 

Generic cliaraciers (males) — Mandibles with from tliree to five teeth, in certain 
exotic species with a single apical tooth. Clypeus strongly developed, the apex 
rounded or subtruncate, sometimes weakly notched, sometimes dentate, but never 
with a strong median truncate lolie as in Fseudisohraclimm. Antennae long, the 
outer antennal segments (9-11) at least 1.5 times as long as thick; segments of 
flagellum separated by constrictions and clothed with dense erect pubescence. 
Eyes bare or with very minute hairs (but in tridentata somewhat more evidently 
hairy). Ocelli of moderate size, forming an acute angle in front. Occipital carina 
distinct for its entire length, including dorsally. Mesonotum with well developed 
para.psidal furrows and notauli. Propodeum rather short, with well developed 
lateral carinae, with or without a median carina, and without a transverse carina 
bordering the declivity. None of the femora notably incrassate ; claws simple or 
with a very weak tooth. Fore wing with the radial vein very long, much more 
than twice the length of the stigma ; discoidal vein absent or present, the dis- 
coidal cell absent or incompletely formed (said to be complete in oriplana). 
Abdomen sessile or petiolate; second tergite without setigerous pits as in Bissom- 
phalvfi, but the spiracles of the first two tergites somewhat enlarged in laevigata. 
Subgenital plate simple, truncate apically. Genitalia with the lateral elements 
rather widely separated from the complex aedoeagus ; parameres of variable form 
but never deeply divided into two separate appendages ; basis volsellaris without 
a plate along the mesal margin which bears radiating grooves; aedoeagus not 
strongly depressed, consisting of several closely consolidated elements. 

Key to North and Central American Species 

1. Basal vein ending almost in the distal end of the subcosta, close to the 

stigma; discoidal cell complete; length 5-6 mm oriplana (Kieffer) 

Basal vein ending basad of the stigma by at least one third its length; 
discoidal cell incomplete or absent ; length under 4 mm. 2 

2. Clypeus tridentate apically ; mandibles with four teeth ; aedoeagus rela- 

tively short and broad, with well-developed ventral rami, fig. 5 _... 

tridentata, new species 

Clypeus simple or with a weak median tooth ; mandibles with five teeth ; 
aedoeagus relatively more elongate and without distinct ventral rami 3 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 195/ 



291 




Figs. 1-4, fore wing of various species of Propristocera ; fig. 1, P. tridentata, 
n. sp. ; fig. 2, P. polita, n. sp. ; fig. 3, P. angustaia, n. sp. ; fig. 4, P. laevigata, n. 
sp. Figs. 5-8, male genitalia, ventral aspect on left side, dorsal on right; fig. 5, 
P. tridentata, n. sp. ; fig. 6, P. polita, n. sp. ; fig. 7, P. angustata, n. sp. ; fig. 8, 
P. laevigata n. sp. 



292 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 

3. Abdomen petiolate; spiracles of tlie first two abdominal segments en- 

larged ; transverse median vein strongly oblique, the diseoidal vein aris- 
ing well down on it, fig. 4; parameres of genitalia very long and slender, 

fig. 8- laevigata, new species 

Abdomen subsessile ; spiracles of the first two abdominal segments not 
enlarged; diseoidal vein either absent or interstitial or nearly so with 
the media 4 

4. Front moderately shining, alutaceous ; diseoidal vein strong, fig. 3 ; geni- 

talia with the parameres short, with a lateral process, fig. 7 

angustata, new species 

Front strongly shining, very weakly alutaceous ; diseoidal vein completely 
absent, fig. 2 ; parameres rather long, their apices deflected mesad, fig. 
6 poJita, new species 

Propristocera tridentata, new species 
(Figs. 1, 5") 

Eoloiijpe: $, Cordoba, Mexico, 21 May (A. Fenyes) [U. S. Natl. Mus.]. 

This minute but remarkable species has a tridentate clypeus as in 
many Dissom])hali<s, but the propodeum lacks a transverse carina and 
the second abdominal tergite is simple. The genitalia are very Dis- 
sotiip]ia])is-Vike, and remarkably similar to those of D. harheri Evans. 
The antennae agree with Propristocera, but the eyes are slightly 
hairy, so the species is assigned here somewhat tentatively. Perhaps 
it represents a stock of the genus from which Dissomphalus evolved. 

Description. — Length about 2 mm. Body rich browm ; legs wholly straw-yellow, 
the coxae somewhat suffused with brown ; mandibles and clypeus mostly light 
bxown; scape and pedicel straw-yellow, the remainder of the antenna medium 
brown. Wings hyaline, clothed with light brown hairs; veins and stigma browm. 
Head and thorax with numerous light l)rown hairs ; eyes weakly hairy. 

Mandibles with a strong apical tooth plus three smaller teeth in a row. Clypeus 
large, well developed in front of the antennal bases; apex with three small teeth, 
the median tooth a continuation of the strong median carina. Antennae slender 
but not exceptionally long; flagellum with dense erect setae which are half or 
more as long as the width of the flagellum, and with distinct constrictions between 
the segments; antennal segments 9-11 each about 1.8 times as long as thick. 
Middle interocular line .5 times the transfacial line, 1.15 times the eye-height; 
ocello-ocular line 2.5 times the postocellar line. Front, vertex, and temples weakly 
shining, alutaceous; punctures sparse and weak. 

Pronotum smooth and rather fiat. Mesonotum moderately shining, alutaceous, 
weakly punctate ; parapsidal furrows weak but complete ; notauli strong on the 
anterior two-thirds, absent behind. Propodeum with strong median and lateral 
carinae, more or less smooth and shining above, but with some reticulations aris- 
ing from the median carina ; spiracles large, circular, opening latero-dorsally. 
Fore wing, fig. 1, with the transverse median vein erect, nearly straight; diseoidal 
vein unusually long, actually longer than the basal, interstitial with the media. 

Abdomen short, smooth and shining, subsessile. Subgenital plate weakly arcu- 
ately emarginate apically. Genitalia, fig. 5, very broad and relatively short; 
parameres short, curved, apically with small knobs and strong setae; volsellae 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 293 

with the digitus slender, curved, the cuspis short, serrate above; aedoeagus com- 
plex, with well-developed ventral rami, the dorsal body terminating in two large, 
complex lobes. 

Propristocera laevigata, new species 
(Pigs. 4, 8) 

Holotype : S, Cordoba, Mexico, 21 May (A. Tenyes). ParnUipe: 1 $, same data 
but 13 May 1908 [both U. S. Natl. Mus.]. 

This is an elongate, pale, highly polished species which is immedi- 
ately separable from all other species of Propristocera by the petiolate 
abdomen, the enlarged spiracles of the first two abdominal segments, 
the unusual venation, and the highly distinctive genitalia. 

Description. — Length about 3.5 mm. Entire body light chestnut-brown, the 
ocellar triangle and abdominal petiole suffused with darker ; legs entirely pale 
straw-yellow; mandibles straw-yellow, the apices rufous; antennae with the two 
basal segments straw-yellow, the remainder light lirown. Wings faintly clouded ; 
veins and stigma brown. Body sparsely clothed with pale setae ; eyes with only 
very minute hairs. 

Mandibles with five sharp teeth in an oljlique series. Clypeus large, rounded 
in front and with a very small median notch ; median line with a strong, sharp 
elevation. Antennae of moderate length, the flagellum clothed with pale, erect 
setae which are about half as long as the width of the flagellum, the setae on 
the under side of the last three segments shorter and more dense ; antennal seg- 
ments 9-11 each about 1.5 times as long as thick. Middle interoeular line .58 
times the transfacial line, 1.35 times the eye height; eyes bulging; ocello-ocular 
line 3.5 times the postocellar line. Front, vertex, and temples strongly shining, 
non-alutaceous, the punctures sparse, .shallow, and small. 

Pronotum short, sloping evenly, smooth and shining. Mesonotum strongly 
polished, the punctures inconspicuous ; parapsidal furrows present except on the 
anterior fifth ; notauli complete but weakened both anteriorly and posteriorly. 
Lateral f oveae of the scutellum large, deep, sharply defined ; metanotum also with 
a series of foveae on each side. Propodeum Avith a median impression and with 
lateral carinae, the upper surface smooth and polished except for some sculptur- 
ing anteriorly; spiracles circular and opening laterally. Fore wing with the 
transverse median vein strongly sloping, the discoidal vein distinct, about as long 
as the transverse median vein, arising well down on the latter, fig. 4. 

Abdomen with a relatively long petiole which is strongly sculptured and hirsute. 
Spiracles of the first two segments large, round. Genitalia, fig. 8, with tlie para- 
meres very long and slender, and with two additional short processes arising near 
their base; basis volsellaris with a plate along its niesal margin which may be 
homologous with a similar plate bearing radiating grooves in Fseudisobrachium ; 
aedoeagus complex and \A-ith tAvo small, pincushion-like pads near the apex. 

Variation. — The single topotypic paratype is very similar to the type in all 
details. The top of the head is somewhat more extensively infuscated. 



294 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 0, DECEMBER, 1957 

Propristocera polita, new species 
(Figs. 2, 6) 

Holotype: S, Columbia, South Carolina, 16 Aug. 1951 (L. & G. Townes) [Coll. 

H. K. Townes] Paratypes: 1 S, Greenville, S. C, 31 Aug. 1952 (L. & G. 

Townes) [Coll. H. K. Townes] ; 1 $ , Dunn Loring, Va., 11 Sept. 1948 (K. V. 

Krombein) [Coll. K. V. Krombein] ; 1 S , Butler, N. J., Summer 1955 (E. 

Borland; taken from light globe in house) [U. S. Natl. Mus.] ; 1 .^ , Ithaca, 

N. Y., 14 Sept. 1956 (H. E. Evans; taken inside window of house) [Cornell 

ITniv.]. 
Tliis highly distinctive species appears to be widely distributed in 
eastern United States, althoug-h its closest relative, angustata, occurs 
in Costa Rica. In common with angustata, the antennae are extremely 
long- and the pronotum is crossed by a carina followed by a depres- 
sion. In common with laevigata, the front is very highly polished. 
Unicjue characters include the complete lack of a discoidal vein, the 
strongly sculptured propodeum, and the unusual genitalia. 

Description. — Length about 3.5 mm. Head black, thorax dark brownish-fuscous, 
abdomen medium brown ; coxae brown, femora light brown, remainder of legs 
straw-colored; mandibles yellowish, rufous at the apex; scape and pedicel straw- 
yellow, tlie flagellum gradually darkened to brown at the apex. Wings hyaline, 
the setae light brown, the veins pale brown, the stigma medium brown. Head and 
thorax clothed with rather short golden-brown setae ; eyes with only very minute, 
scarcely noticeable setae. 

Mandibles tenninating in five strong, sharp teeth in a row. Clypeus with a 
strong median carina which in profile is strongly arched ; margin of clypeus with 
a weak median tooth. Antennae very long and slender ; flagellum with dense erect 
setae which are over half as long as the width of the flagellum ; antennal seg- 
ments 9-11 each about three times as long as thick. Middle interocular line .53 
times the trifacial line, 1.05 times the eye-height; ocello-ocular line 2.9 times 
the postocellar line ; occipital carina strongly raised, the groove in front of it 
somewhat foveolate. Front strongly polished, only very weakly alutaceous, the 
punctures small and widely separated ; center of the front with a longitudinal 
impression. 

Pronotum crossed anteriorly by a somewhat irregular carina behind which is 
a foveolate groove; posterior margin of pronotum strongly depressed. Mesonotum 
shining, weakly alutaceous, the punctures small and widely separated; parapsidal 
furrows strong on the posterior three-fourths, absent in front; notauli very strong 
on the posterior three-fourths, tapering off to thin lines in front. Pits on the 
sides of the scutellum rather shallow. Propodeum wholly covered with reticulate 
ridges, the dorsal surface depressed medially and with a median carina and 
several other carinae on each side of it, also with lateral carinae, but these carinae 
not set off strongly from the sculpturing; spiracles slit-like, opening dorsally. 
Fore wing with a transverse median vein slightly arched, the discoidal vein com- 
pletely absent, fig. 2. 

Abdomen subsessile. Subgenital plate broadly truncate apically. Genitalia with 
the parameres slender, the apical third deflected mesad; volsellae with a group 
of spines at the base and another at the apex of the digitus; cuspis complex; 
aedoeagus complex, as figured, fig. 6. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 295 

Variation. — The four paratypes vary in size from 2 to 3.2 mm. All but the 
specimen from Ithaca, N. Y., agree closely with the type in coloration; in the 
Ithaca specimen the entire body is black, the antennae are entirely dark brown, 
and the legs vary from dark brown at the coxae to light brown at the tarsi; in 
this specimen the wing veins are brown and the stigma dark brown. The para- 
types agree well with the type in head characters, but in the Ithaca specimen the 
transverse carina on the pronotum is largely obscured by the heavy sculpturing. 
In the specimen from Butler, N. J., tlie pronotum and mesonotum are unusually 
smooth and polished, and even the propodeum has small latero-dorsal areas de- 
void of sculpturing. 

Propristocera angustata, new species 
(Figs. 3, 7) 

Eolotype: 6 , San Pedro de Montes de Oca, Costa Eica, 3 Feb. 1935, on Ipomoea 
tiliacea (C. H. Ballon). Paratypes: 4 £ $, same data as type [all U. S. 
Natl. Mus. ; one paratype retained at Cornell Univ.]. 

This species seems to stand fairly close to Pristocera. The antennae 
are very lonfj, the cliscoidal vein is strong, and the genitalia are not 
very different from those of Pristocera. 

Description. — Length about 3.2 mm. Thorax and abdomen medium brown, the 
head dark brownish-fuscous; legs entirely straw-yellow, including the coxae; man- 
dibles light brown, darker apically; scape and pedicel straw-yellow, the remainder 
of the antenna gradually more inf uscated, the apical segments dark brown. Wings 
nearly hyaline, with dark setae, the veins medium brown, the stigma dark brown. 
Head and thorax with numerous light, golden-brown setae; eyes bare. 

Mandibles with a strong apical tooth and an oblique series of four smaller 
teeth. Clypeus fairly large, moderately developed in front of the antennal bases, 
the apex broadly subtruneate; median line barely elevated. Antennae very long 
and slender; flagellum densely clothed with pale setae which are about half as 
long as the width of the flagellum, and with distinct constrictions between the 
segments; antennal segments 9-11 each about 3.3 times as long as thick. Middle 
interocular line .58 times the transfacial line, 1.15 times the eye-height; ocello- 
ocular line 3.5 times the postoeellar line; front moderately shining, alutaceous, 
punctures sparse, small, barely evident except under high magnification. 

Pronotum smooth except for an interior transverse carina which is followed 
by a weakly foveolate depression. Mesonotum moderately shining, strongly aluta- 
ceous; parapsidal furrows and notauli both rather strong and practically com- 
plete. Propodeum with well developed median and lateral carinae, the dorsal 
surface alutaceous; spiracles slit-like, opening dorsally. Fore wang, fig. 3, with 
the transverse median vein sloping slightly, weakly arcuate below; discoidal vein 
rather strong, but scarcely as long as the basal, interstitial with the media. 

Abdomen subsessile. Subgenital plate broadly truncate apically. Genitalia, fig. 
7, with the parameres oddly shaped, with a short lateral process; volsellae with 
the digitus elongate, setose apically, the cuspis complex and difficult to resolve; 
aedoeagus terminating in two simple lobes. 

Variation. — The four paratypes vary in size from 2.5 to 3.5 mm. In most of 
them the head and thorax are dark brownish-fuscous, the head nearly black. In 
one of the specimens, perhaps more freshly emerged than the others, there is a 



296 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 

small median tooth on the clypeus. In one of the paratypes the discoidal vein is 
interstitial with the media, as in the type, but in the other three it is slightly 
disjointed. In other respects the paratypes agree closely with the type. 

Propristocera oriplana (Kieffer) 
Pri^stocera oriplana Kieffer, 1911, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles, 35:215. 
Propristocera oriplana Kieffer, 1914, Das Tierreich, 41:487. 

Kieffer described this species from three localities in Guerrero, 
Mexico : Omilteme, Tepetlapra, and Amiila. I have seen no specimens 
assignable to it. The species is particularly interesting because it 
shares so many characters in common with Pristocera: the size is rela- 
tively large (5-6 mm.), the discoidal cell is closed, the head is very 
coarsely punctate, and the pronotum is transversely furrowed. Kieffer 
presents a rather full description of this species, and it seems un- 
necessary to repeat it here. 



A NEW TACHYEMPIS (DIPTERA: EMPIDIDAE) 

This fall I received from P. H. Arnaud, of the National Museum, 
an interesting tiny Empid fly. It is an undescribed species of the 
genus Tachyempis, but is closely related to T. longispina which I de- 
scribed in the Genera Insectorum, fascicle 185, p. 289 (1927) from 
specimens from Cuba and Jamaica. In the key to species on page 
289 it forms a group with lo7igispina distinguished by having a very 
long spinous bristle attached to the end of the hind metatarsi, but is 
distinct in having longer wings. 

This little fly was taken from a nesting site of the bee Lasioglossum 
zephyrum (Smith), where it would station itself near the nest en- 
trance of the bee and make rapid passes at incoming pollen-laden bees. 

Tachyempis longipennis, sp. nov. 

Male. — Length 1.2 mm. Body siibshining plumbeous black, legs, palpi, and 
halteres yellowish, hind femora darker apieally, wings sub-hyaline, the base of 
the veins yellow, remainder of veins blackish, the fifth vein blackish throughout. 
The second vein reaches the margin very appreciably beyond the end of the fifth 
vein. In longispina the second and fifth veins terminate about opposite to each 
other. 

Holotype and two paratypes: Riply County, Ind., 14 July, 1955; 
Dr. Leland Chandler, collector. The type is deposited in the National 
Museum collection (No. 63,497). The two paratypes are placed in the 
collections of Purdue University and myself. — A. L. Melander, Riv- 
erside, Calif. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 



297 



INDEX TO VOLUME 59 



Aeai'icoris dybasi, 170. 
Adaniystinae, 173. 
Adamystis donnae, 173. 
Ameletopsinae, 246. 
Amyrsidea mouostoecha, 233. 
Amyrsidea phaeostoma, 233. 
Amyrsidea iniiseriata, 233. 
Aiiystidae, 172. 
Apion spp., 40. 
Aplomerus, 22. 
Arnaud, Paul. Note ]>y, 92. 
Aiitizies, 197. 

Bezzia atlantica, 13. 
Bickley, W. E., note by, 45. 
Black flies, 243. 
Brevisterna utahensis, 31. 
Bruchophagus aloineae, 273. 

Carabus auratus, 254. 
Catorhintha meiidica, spread of, 176. 
Ceratopogoii yezoensis, 82. 
Cnastis, 19. 

Colpocephalum echinatum, 234. 
Conopistha trigona, 79. 
Constitution changes, 90. 
Cuclotogaster phayrei, 234. 
Cuclotogaster subinsolitus, 235. 
Culicoides bermudensis, 13. 
Culicoides crepuscularis, 13. 
Culicoides floridensis, 12. 
Culisetn, 163. 
Culiseta minnesotac, 163. 
Culiseta niorsitans, 163, 19. 
Cushman, Eobert Asa, obituary of, 247. 
Cushnian, E. A., bibliography of scien- 
tific publications, 248. 

Dasylielea atlantis, 11. 
Dasyhelea bermudae, 11. 
Dasyhelea cincta, 9. 
Dasyhelea grisea, 10. 
Dasyhelea luteogrisea, 10. 
Dasyhelea scissurae, 11. 
Day, Max, note by, 91. 
Dendrocoris parapini, 198. 
Deuteroxorides, 17. 
Disonycha weismani, 278. 



Epicauta ennsi, 97. 
Eugalta, 17. 

Euhaenioganiasus ambulans, 32. 
Euhaemogamosus barVjeri, 34. 
Euhaemogamosus oudeinansi, 34. 

Forcipomyia ingrami, 8. 
Forciponiyia raleighi, 8. 
Forcipomyia varipennis, 8. 

Ganodes balteatus, 19. 
Gargaphia sororia, 175. 
Gasterophilus nasalis, 1. 
Gasterophilus veterinus, 1. 
Gelastocoridae, 145. 
Gelastocoris amazonensis, 148. 
Gelastocoris angulatus, 147. 
Gelastocoris bufo, 146. 
Gelastocoris fuscus, 146. 
Gelastocoris hungerfordi, 147. 
Gelastocoris major, 147. 
Gelastocoris nebulosus, 148. 
Gelastocoris oculatus oculatus, 148. 
Gelastocoris oculatus variegatus, 148. 
Gelastocoris peruensis, 148. 
Gelastocoris rotundatus, 146. 
Gelastocoris vicinus, 147. 
Gelastocoris viridis, 147. 
Goniocotes parviceps, 235. 
Goniodes cervinicornis, 236. 
Goniodes chloropus, 236. 
Goniodes coronatus, 236. 
Goniodes diardi, 236. 
Goniodes pavanis, 237. 
Goniodes processus, 237. 
Gurney, A. B., note by, 92. 
Gynandromorph, Mayfly, 167. 

Haemogamasus alaskensis, 36. 
Haemagogus spegazzinii faleo, 121. 
Heleidae, breeding habits, 61. 
Hexagenia munda elegans, 167. 
Hirstionyssus bisetosus, 83. 

Ichneumonidae, 100. 
Isehnoceros clivulus, 21. 



298 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 



Ischyropoda armatus, 36. 
Isoiiychiidae, 245. 
Ixodes downsi, 257. 

Ixodorliynchidae (Mesostigmata), 265. 
Ixodoihynchus gordoni, 267. 

Ledermuelleria clavata, 51. 
Ledermuelleria lacuna, 53. 
Ledermuelleria pectiiiata, 52. 
Ledermuelleria segiiis, 50. 
Ledermuelleriopsis plumosa, oi. 
Leonard, M. D., talk by, 204. 
Lipeurus boonsongi, 237. 
Lipeurus deignani, 237. 
Lipeurus introductus, 238. 
Liposcelis delta-clii, 127. 
Liposcelis lacinia, 125. 
Liposcelis nasus, 128. 
Lygaeidae, wing structure, 67. 
Lytta arigonica, 141. 

Mayfly, 167. 

Mclndoo, N. E., obituary of, 43. 

Menopon gallinae, 234. 

Meteoridea, compressiventris, 131 ; ja- 

ponensis, 133. 
Meteorus longiventris, 130. 
Microclirysa dichoptiea, 25. 
Microclirysa flaviventris, 25. 
Mirabilis nyctaginea, 177. 
Moss mites, 190. 

Neognathus, 55. 
Neoxorides, 20. 
Nerthra adspersa, 162. 
Nerthra alaticollis, 161. 
Nerthra amplicollis, 150. 
Nerthra annulipes, 160. 
Nerthra asiatica, 154. 
Nerthra borealis, 150. 
Nerthra ecuadorensis, 150. 
Nerthra eximia, 155. 
Nerthra femoralis, 159. 
Nerthra fuscipes, 151. 
Nerthra grandicollis, 152. 
Nerthra grandis, 159. 
Nerthra hamata, 158. 
Nerthra hungerfordi, 151. 
Nerthra indica, 152. 
Nerthra lobata, 154. 



Nerthra luteovaria, 159. 
Nerthra macrostyla, 158. 
Nerthra macrothorax, 157. 
Nerthra manni, 151. 
Nerthra martini, 149. 
Nerthra mexicana, 149. 
Nerthra mixta, 157. 
Nerthra montandoni, 150. 
Nerthra nepaeformis, 149. 
Nerthra nieuwenhuisi, 154. 
Nerthra nudata, 160. 
Nerthra omani, 157. 
Nerthra parvula, 149. 
Nerthra peruviana, 150. 
Nerthra praeeipua, 151. 
Nerthra ranina, 149. 
Nerthra raptoria, 149. 
Nerthra robusta, 158. 
Nerthra rudis, 150. 
Nerthra rugosa, 156. 
Nerthra serrata, 152. 
Nerthra sinuosa, 159. 
Nerthra stali, 161. 
Nerthra stygica, 148. 
Nerthra tenebrosa, 150. 
Nerthra terrestris, 149. 
Nerthra tuberculata, 161 
Nerthra unguistyla, 152. 
Nerthra unicornis, 150. 
Nerthrinae, 148. 

Odontocolon, 21. 
Oebalus ornatus, 41. 
O'Farrell, A. F. L., talk by, 93. 
Officers, Summary reports for 

201. 
Ophraea arizonica, 278. 
Opius ottotomoanus, 99. 
Oxylipeurus annamensis, 238. 
Oxylipeurus formosanus, 240. 
Oxylipeurus megalops, 240. 
Oxylipeurus unicolor, 240. 

Perillus unatus, 162. 
Periplaneta brunnea, 283. 
Peromyscus, 31. 
Podoschistus, 18. 
Poemenia, 16. 
Polyplax, 279. 



litnc. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 



299 



Porter, B. A., note by, 204. 
Propistocera, 289. 
Propistocera angustata, 295. 
Propistocera laevigata, 293. 
Propistocera oriplaiia, 296. 
Propistocera polita, 294. 
Propistocera trideiitata, 292. 
Ptecticus australis, 28. 
Ptecticus aurobruiineus, 29. 
Ptecticus cingulatus, 28. 
Ptecticus cyaneus, 30. 
Ptecticus wulpii, 29. 
Pterobosca fusicornis, 7. 
Pteromicra pectorosa, 271. 
Pteroniicra perissa, 271. 
Pteromicra similis, 2'72. 
Publication fund — Notice, 205. 
Pyrota bicurvata, 135 ; trochanterica, 

137; t. trochanterica, 138; t. wer- 

neri, 141. 

Rainwater, C. P., note by, 45. 

Rallicola kelloggi, 188. 

Rallicola mystax, 187. 

Rallicola ortygometrae californicus, 

186. 
Rallicola ortygometrae guami, 186. 
Rallicola ortygometrae subporzanae, 

186. 
Rugitermes laticollis, 81. 



Sabethes (Sabethoides) chloropterus, 

287. 
Sailer, R. I., note by, 203. 
Sargus metallinus, 26. 
Simopelta, 191. 
Simopelta perganei, 192. 
Siphlonuridae, 245. 
Snyder, T. E., note by, 92. 
Solubea, 41. 
Stage, H. H., talk by, 46. 

Tachyempis longipennis, 296. 
Thilakothrips babuli, 194. 
Tubulifera, 80. 
Type-species designations. Source of, 

171. 
Typhoctes glaber, 219. 
Typhoctes guatemalensis, 216. 
Typhoctes peculiaris, 226. 
Typhoctes peculiaris mirabilis, 230. 
Typhoctes peculiaris peculiaris, 227. 
Typhoctes striolatus, 223. 
Typhoctes willianisi, 220. 
Typhoetinae, 209. 

Wyeoniyia (Antunesmyia) alani, 244. 
Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) rooti, 244. 

Xorides, 22. 



300 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 

PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF 

WASHINGTON 



Volume 59 



OFFICERS FOR THE YEAR 1957 

Honorary President - E. E. Snodgrass 

President — -— F. L. Campbell 

First Vice President K. I. Sailer 

Second Vice President R. H. Nelson 

Recording Secretary ^ Kellie 'Neill 

Corresponding Secretary —^ Kelvin Dokwasd 

Treasurer — - F. P. Harrison 

Editor Alice V. Renk 

Custodian - .— H. J. Conkle 

Program Chairman J. F. G. Clarke 

Executive Committee A. B. Gurney, T. L. Bissell, R. A. St. George 

Nominated to represent the Society as Vice President of the Washing- 
ton Academy of Sciences.- .— _ C. F. W. Muesebeck 

Honorary Members C. F. W. Muesebeck, H. G. Barber 



Published by the Society 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 
1957 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 



301 



GREAT 
INSECTICIDES 




CONTROL THESE INSECTS 

CHLORDANE: Ants, Armyworms, Blister Beetles, Boxelder Bug, Brown Dog Tick, 
Cabbage Maggot, Carpet Beetles, Cattle Lice, Chiggers, Cockroaches, Crickets, 
Cutworms, Darkling Beetles, Dog Mange, Earwigs, Fleas, Flies, Grasshoppers, 
Household Spiders, Japanese Beetle Larvae, Lawn Moths, Lygus Bugs, Mole 
Crickets, Mosquitoes, Onion Maggot, Onion Thrips, Plum Curculio, Sarcoptic 
Mange, Seed Corn Maggot, Sheep Ked, Silverfish, Sod Webworms, Southern 
Corn Rootworm, Strawberry Crown Borer, Strawberry Root Weevils, Sweet 
Clover Weevil, Tarnished Plant Bug, Termites, Ticks, Wasps, White Grubs, 
Wireworms...and many others. 

HEPTACHLOR: Alfalfa Snout Beetle, Alfalfa Weevil, Ants, Argentine Ant, Army- 
worms, Asiatic Garden Beetle Larvae, Black Vine Weevil, Root Maggots, Clover 
Root Borer, Colorado Potato Beetle, Corn Rootworms, Cotton Boll Weevil, 
Cotton Fleahopper. Cotton Thrips. Crickets, Cutworms, Egyptian Alfalfa Weevil, 
European Chafer, Eye Gnats, False Wireworms, Flea Beetles, Garden Web- 
worm, Grasshoppers, Japanese Beetle, Leaf Miners, Lygus Bugs, Mormon 
Cricket, Mosquitoes, Narcissus Bulb Fly, Onion Maggot, Onion Thrips, Rapid 
Plant Bug, Rice Leaf Miner, Salt Marsh Sand Fly, Seed Corn Maggot, Spittle- 
bug, Strawberry Root Weevils, Strawberry Rootworms, Sugar Beet Root Mag- 
got, Sweet Clover Weevil, Tarnished Plant Bug, Tuber Flea Beetle. Western 
Harvester Ant, White Fringed Beetles, White Grubs (June Beetles), Wireworms 
...and many others. 

EN D R I N : Bud worms. Cabbage Worms, Cotton Boll Weevil, Cotton Bollworm. Cot- 
ton Fleahopper, Fall Armyworm, Grasshoppers, Hornworms, Leafworms, Rapid 
Plant Bug, Spiny Bollworm, Sugar Beet Webworm, Tarnished Plant Bug, Thrips. 

WRITE FOR FULL PARTICULARS 






General Offices and Laboratories 

330 East Grand Avenue, Chicago IT, Illinois 



Foreign Division 

350 Fifth Avenue, New York 1, N. Y. 



^31 



nerREsenTATives 



PRINCIPAL 



CITIES 



302 PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 59, NO. 6, DECEMBER, 1957 

Pyrenone* 



HELPS TO PRESERVE 
PRINCIPLE OF NATURAL CONTROL 



iTyrenone quickly kills destructive, annoy- 
ing and disease-carrying insects. 

In the absence of sunlight, it remains effective 
for long periods of time. In fact, a single application 
of Pyrenone protects stored grains from insect at- 
tacks for an entire storage season. 

On growing crops Pyrenone kills the accessible 
stages of insects fast — even between showers of 
rain. Yet natural factors of rain and sunlight do not 
permit Pyrenone to form long-lasting residues. Be- 
cause long-lasting residues are not present, the newly 
emerging parasites and predators are free to com- 
plete their life cycles and to continue to parasitize 
or feed upon destructive insect pests. 

This means that Pyrenone is completely com- 
patible with the natural control of crop-destroying 
insects. 



*Reg. U.S. Pat. Off.. F.M.C. 



FAIRFIELD CHEMICAL DIVISION 

Food Machinery and Chemical Corporation 

441 Lexington Avenue • New York 17, N. Y. 



'^^ BRANCHES IN PRINCIPAL CITIES 




fff, 



w 



In Canada: Natural Products Corpoiation, Toronto and Montreal 



A Cyanamid Report 



Resistance 



Resistance to chlorinated hydrocarbon type 
insecticides has been proven or suspected in : 



cockroaclies 

mosquitoes 

Colorado potato beetle 

dog and cat fleas 

bed bugs 

codling moth 

leafhoppers 



house flies 
flea beetles 
cotton boll weevil 
body lice 
lygus bugs 
cotton leaf worm 
dog ticks 



Many researchers have found malathion to be 
a capable replacement for the chlorinated 
hydrocarbons and have made recommendations 
for its use. If you have a "resistance" problem 
in your area, you might well consider malathion 
for your 1957 research schedule. 



cvAnrA.J%^j[ J» 



Developers and producers of malathion and parathion 



Write for 

particular 

technical 

information 



AMERICAN CYANAMID COMPANY 

Agricultural Chemicals Division 

Insecticide Research 

30 Rockefeller Plaza, N. Y. 20, N. Y. 




QUALITY INSECTICIDES 



Preferred by Home Owners, 
Food Processors and Dairymen 

QUICK ACTION GULFSPRAY (Liquid) 

A "space spray" for quick knockdown and kill of many 
kinds of flying and crawling insects. Contains 0.10% Pyre- 
thrins, 0.12% Piperonyl Butoxide, and 0.75% Methoxychlor. 

GULFSPRAY AEROSOL BOMB 

Gulf's carefully researched formula provides quick knock- 
down action and high kill. Contains 0.25% Pyrethrins, 1% 
Piperonyl Butoxide, and 2% Methoxychlor. 

GULF MOTH PROOFER (Bomb) 

An easy-to-use pressurized spray for protecting woolens 
against moth and carpet beetle damage. Contains 3% DDT 
and 3% Perthane. 

GULF ANT AND ROACH BOMB 

A convenient pressurized spray containing contact and resid- 
ual insecticides for killing ants and cockroaches. Contains 
0.08% Pyrethrins and 2% Chlordane. 

SPECIAL GULFSPRAY (Liquid) 

A superlative-quality insecticide specially formulated for 
use where foodstuffs are processed, stored, served, and sold. 
Contains 0.25% Pyrethins and 0.20% Piperonyl Butoxide. 

GULF LIVESTOCK SPRAY 

Long proven formula with effective insect- killing power and 
repellent properties. Contains 0.07% Pyrethrins and 0.19% 
Piperonyl Butoxide. 



GULF OIL CORPORATION 

GULF BUILDING, PITTSBURGH 30, PA. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF 

WASHINGTON 



Volume 60 



OFFICERS FOR THE YEAR 1958 

Honorary President _— _ E. E. Snodgrass 

Fresident — E. I. Sailer 

First Vice Fresident ,. -E. H. Nelson 

Second Vice Fresident _. P. W. Oman 

Becording Secretary .Helen Sollers 

Corresponding Secretary Paul Woke 

Treasurer ..._ F. P. Harrison 

Editor Eichard H. Foote 

Custodian — .H. J. Conkle 

Frogram Chairmen _„__ — J. G. Eozen, J. H. Fales 

Executive Committee — .T. L. Bissell, E. A. St. George, F. L. Campbell 

Nominated to re-present the Society as Viae Fresident of the 

Washington Academy of Sciences — -H. H. Shepard 



Published by the Society 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 

1958 



TABLE OF CONTENTS, VOLUME 60 

Al.LRED, I). M.: Eedescription of Ophioptes tropwalis Evving, 1933 (Aearina, 

Ophioptidae) 287 

Ananthakrishnan. T. N. : Two new species of tubuliferous Thysanoptera 

from India (Plilaeothripidae) -- -, 277 

Arnaud, p. H., Jr. : A synopsis of the genus Melanderia Aldrich (Diptera, 

Dolichopodidae) 179 

■ : See Foote, R. H. 

Baker, E. W. : The mite Dermafophagoides scheremetewskyi Bogdanov and its 

control in Russia (Aearina, Psoroptidae) 125 

: Chelacheles strabismus, a new genus and species of mite from 

Portugal (Aearina, Cheyletidae) 234 

Barber, H. G. : A new species of Nysius from Alaska and Alberta, Canada 

(Hemiptera, Lygaeidae) 70 

Barnett, H. C: Talk by 140 

BoESE, J. L. : See Tipton, V. J. 

Bohart, R. M. : A North American species of the genus Prosopigastra (Hy- 

menoptera, Sphecidae) — 122 

BoviNG, A. G. : Obituary of - 33 

Breland, O. p.: Notes on the Aedes muelleri complex (Diptera, Culicidae).— 206 

Bridwell, J. C. : Obituary of 27 

: Biological notes on AmpuUcomorpha confvsa Ashmead and its 

fulgoroid host (Hymenoptera, Dryinidae and Homoptera, Aehilidae) 23 

Buchanan, L. L. : Obituary of 292 

Carriker, M. a., Jr. : On a small collection of Mallophaga from the United 

States, with descriptions of three new species 167 

Campbell, F. L.: Talk by 141 

Cartwright, O. L. : Another old record of Aphotaenius carolinus (Van Dyke) 

(Coleoptera, Searabeidae) 134 

Cerqueira, N. L. : See Lane, J. 

Clarke, J. F. G. : The correct name for a pest of beans (Lepidoptera, Oleth- 

reutidae) 187 

Cook, David R. : A new species of Litarachna from the British West Indies 

(Aearina, Pontaraehnidae) 19 

Crabill, R. E., Jr.: A new Kethops from New Mexico, with a key to its 

congeners (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha, Cryptopidae) 235 

Cunliffe, F. : Pyroglyphus morlani, a new genus and species of mite forming 

a new family Pyroglyphidae in the Acaridiae (Aearina, Sarcoptiformes).. 85 
Davidson, J. A. : A new species of lizard mite and a generic key to the family 

Pterygosomidae (Aearina, Anystoidea) 75 

Davis, J. M. : Obituary of 136 

DoBROTWORSKY, N. V. : Designation of the type species of the subgenus Neo- 

theohaldia (Genus Theobaldia Neveu-Lemaire, 1902) (Diptera, Culicidae) 186 
Elkins, J. C. : Three new species of Cuernolestes Miller (Hemipera, Reduvii- 

dae) - - - 267 

Fairchild, G. B. and Hertig, M. : Notes on the Phlebotomn^ of Panama XV. 

Four apparently new synonymies (Diptera, Psychodidae) . - 203 

Foote, R. H. and Arnaud, P. H., Jr.: Notes on the taxonomy and habits of 

Cryptochaetum nipponense (Tokunaga) in Japan (Diptera, Cryptochae- 

tidae) ^ — -- 241 

Frick, K. E. : Liriomyza dianfhae, n. sp., a new pest of carnations in Cali- 
fornia (Diptera, Agromyzidae) 1 

Gray, Alice : Talk by --- 191 

Gregg, R. E.: Two new species of Mctapone from Madagascar (Hymenoptera, 

Formicidae) -- --- HI 

Hawes, Ina L. : Obituary of — - - - - 87 



Hertig, M. : See Fairchild, G. B. 

HiGGiNS, H. G. AND Mllaik, S. : A new Korean mite (Acarina, Caeculidae)-- 17 

: Notes on AUodamaeus ewingi Banks (Acarina, Belbidae) 131 

Hoffman, R. L. : The subspecies of Typocerus lunatus, a cerambycid beetle 

(Coleoptera) 217 

: A new milliped of the genus Sigmoria from western North Caro- 
lina (Polydesmida, Xystodesmidae) 281 

Hood, J. D. : A new Zeugmatothrips from Brazil (Thysanoptera, Phlaeo- 

thripidae) — ^ 225 

Hoogstraal, H. : The elephant louse, Hacmatomyzus elephantis Piaget, 1869, 

on wild African elephants and warthogs (Mallophaga, Haematomyzidae ) 232 

HuBER, Ivan : Color as an index to the relative humidity of Plaster of Paris 

culture jars 289 

Hull, F. M. : Some species and genera of the family Asilidae (Diptera) 251 

Hynes, Dennis: A description of the immature stages of Limnophila (Eu- 

tonia) marchandi Alex. (Diptera, Tipulidae) 9 

Knight, K. L. : See Stone, Alan 

: Talk by _. _.._. 190 

Kramer, J. P. : New records for the rice delphacid, Sogata orizicola Muir, in 

the United States (Homoptera, Delphacidae) 228 

Krantz, G. W. : Lohogyniella tragardhi, a new genus and species of diplo- 
gyniid mite associated with dampwood termites in Oregon (Acarina, 
DiplogjTiiidae) ._ 127 

Krombein, K. v.: Additions during 1956 and 1957 to the wasp fauna of Lost 
River State Park, West Virginia, with biological notes and descriptions 
of new species (Hymenoptera, Aculeata) 49 

: Biological notes on some wasps from Kill Devil Hills, North 

Carolina, and additions to the faunal list (Hymenoptera, Aculeata) 97 

: Date of publication, first supplement, Synoptic Catalog of North 

American Hymenoptera 266 

KuNS, M. L. : See Maldonado-Capriles, J., et al. 

Lamore, D. H. : The jumping spider, Phidippus auda.r Hentz, and the spider 
Conopistha trigona Hentz as predators of the basilica spider, AUepeira 
lemniscata Walckenaer, in Maryland (Araneida; Salticidae, Theridiidae, 
Argiopidae) ._.. ___. 286 

Lane, J. and Cerqueira, N. L. : The types of Wyeomyia (Wyeomyia) dyari 

Lane and Cerqueira, 1942 (Diptera, Culicidae) 135 

LaRivers, Ira: New Ambrysus records for Mexico (Hemiptera, Naucoridae) 71 

Leikind, M. C: Talk by .-- _.-- 93 

LiPovsKY, L. J.: See Traub, R., et al. 

Mackie, R. a. : A new species of Eumysia from southern Idaho (Lepidoptera, 

Pyralidae ) __ 5 

Maldonado-Capriles, J., Pippin, W. F. and Kuns, M. L. : An annotated check 
list of the mosquitoes of Mona Island, Puerto Rico, and the larva and 
male of Aedes obturbatar D. & K. (Diptera, Culicidae) 665 

McCoMB, C. W. : New synonymy in the genus Aphaereta, with a redescription 

of Aphaereta palllpes (Say) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) 223 

Medler, J. T. : A note on swarming and emergence of ants (Hymenoptera, 

Formicidae) — - 258 

MiSKiMEN, G. W. : The problem of color variation in Podabrus (Coleoptera, 

Cantharidae) -.- _ — 265 

MoNROS, F. DE A.: Obituary of -.. - — - 188 

Morrow, Mary Lou: See Traub, R. et al. 

MuLAiK, S. : See Higgins, H. G. 

Pippin, W. F. : See Maldonado-Capriles, J. et al. 

Reinhard, H. J. : Notes on Spathimeigenia with descriptions of four new spe- 
cies (Diptera, Tachinidae) - 207 



Sabrosky, C. W.: Talk by -- 93 

: An overlooked name in " Musca" (Diptera) 134 

: A Phragmites gall-maker new to North America (Diptera, Chlo- 

ropidae — 231 

Smit, F. G. a. M. : Differences, in the female sex, between two North Ameri- 
can bat fleas (Siphonaptera, Ischnopsyllidae) 175 

Snyder, T. E. : Two new Glyptotermes from the Philippines (Isoptera, Kalo- 

termitidae) -- 229 

SoMMERMAN, Kathryn M. : Two new species of Alaskan Prosimulium, with 

notes on closely related species (Diptera, Simuliidae) 193 

Spilman, T. J.: The transfer of Anamphidora from the Tenebrionidae to the 

Alleculidae (Coleoptera) 288 

Stannard, L. J., Jr.: Two new and two rare tubuliferous thrips, recorded 

principally from Illinois (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae) 271 

Steyskal, G. C. : Notes on North American Piophilidae (Diptera) 246 

St. George, K. A.: Talk by -- 43 

Stone, Alan: The identity of Culex aestuans Wiedemann (Diptera, Culicidae) 186 
and Knight, K. L. : Two new names in mosquitoes (Diptera, 

Culicidae) 69 

Thurman, Ernestine B.: Malaya jacobsoni (Edwards, 1930), a new occur- 
rence record for northern Thailand (Diptera, Culicidae) — 15 

: Laelaps keegani, nom. nov. for Laelaps berlesei Keegan, 1956 

(Acarina, Laelaptidae) — - 74 

Tipton, V. J. and Boese, J. L. : Steatonyssus furmani, a new Nearctic bat 

mite (Acari, Macronyssidae) 80 

Todd, E. L. : A note on the identity of Nerthra planifrons (Melin) (Hemip- 

tera, Gelastoeoridae) — 79 

TowNES, Henry: The application of the name Plectiscus (Hymenoptera, 

lehneumonidae) 221 

Traub, E., Morrow, Mary Lou, and Lipovsky, L. J. : New species of chiggers 

from Korea (Acarina, Trombiculidae) 145 

VOGT, G. B. : Talk by - 44 

Weber, N. A. : Talk by 45 

: Some attine synonyms and types (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) 259 

Werner, F. G. : Some notes on Boheman's Anthicidae from "California" 

(Coleoptera) -_.. 213 

WiRTH, W. W. : Talk by - 142 

: A review of the genus Gastrops Williston, with descriptions of 

two new species (Diptera, Ephydridae) 247 



VOL. 60 



FEBRUARY 1958 



NO. 1 



PRDCEEDIIVGS 



of the 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

., WASHINGTON 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 
WASfflNGTON 25, D. C. 

PUBLISHED BIMONTHLY 




BBIDWEIiL, JOHN C. — Biological Notes on Ampulicomorpha confusa Ash- 
mead and its Fulgoroid Host (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae and Homoptera: 
Achilidae) ...^... 



COOK, DAVID R. — A New Species of Litarachna from the British West 
Indies (Acarina: Pontarachnidae) „ _ 

FRICK, KENNETH E.— Liriomyza dianthae n. sp., a New Pest of Carna- 
tions in California (Diptera: Agromyzidae) ^ 



23 



19 



HIGGINS, HAROLD G. and MULAIK, STANLEY— A New Korean Mite 

(Acarina : Caeculidae) _.._ _ ^ 17 

HYNES, DENNIS — A Description of the Immature Stages of Limnophila 

(Eutonia) marchandi Alex. (Diptera: Tipulidae) 9 

MACKIE, RICHARD A. — A New Species of Eumysia from Southern Idaho 

(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) 5 

THURMAN, ERNESTINE B.— Malaya jacobsoni (Edwards, 1930), A New 

Occurrence Record for Northern Thailand (Diptera: Culicidae) 15 

CORRECTION .„ ..._ 16 

OBITUARY— Adam Giede Boving, 1869-1957 _ 33 

OBITTJARY-^ohn Colbum Bridwell, 1877-1957 ^ 27 

SOCIETY MEETINGS _ _ ,_... 42 

BOOK REVIEWS _ ^I. _. _ 14, 22 

ANNOUNCEMENTS .8, 41 



THE 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 

Organized March 12, 1884 



OFFICEBS FOS 1958 

R. I. Sailer, President 

Entomology Research Division, AR.S, USDA 
Plant Industry Station, North Building 
Beltsville, Maryland 

R. H. Nelson, First Vice President 
Entomological Society of America 
1530 P St., N.W. 
Washington 5, D. C. 

P. W. Oman, Second Vice President 

EntomoloCT^ Research Division, ARS, USDA 
Plant Industry Station, North Building 
Beltsville, Maryland 

Helen SolI/ERS, Recording^ Secretary 
Plant Pest Control Division, ARS 
U.S. Department of Agriculture 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Pat;l Woke, Corresponding Secretary 
7213 Beacon Terrace 
Beltsville, Maryland 

F. P. Harrison. Treasurer 
Department of Entomology 
University of Maryland 
College Park, Maryland 

R. H. POOTE,. Editor 
c/o Division of Insects 
U.S. National Museum 
Washington 25, D. C. 

H. J. Oonkle, Custodian 

Plant Quarantine Division, ARS 
U.S. Department of Agriculture 
Washington 25, D. C. 

J. G. RozEN, Program Chairman 
c/o Division of Insects 
U.S. National Museum 
Washington 25, D. C. 

H. H. Shbpard, Nominated to Represent the 
Society as Vice President of 
the Washington Academy of 
Sciences. 

FMR,D-CSS 

U.S. Department of Agriculture 

Washington 25, D. C. 



Executive Committee 

T. L. BiSSBLL, University of Maryland 

R. A. St. George, U.S. Dept. Agriculture 

F. L. Campbkli/, National Research Council 

Honorary President 

R. E. Snodgrass, U.S. National Museum 

Honorary Members 

C. F. W. Muesebeck, U.S. National Museum 

H. G. Barber, U.S. National Museum 

A. B. Gahan, Arlington, Virginia 



Regular meetings of the Society are held in 
Room 43 of the U. S. National Museum on the 
first Thursday of each month from October to June, 
inclusive, at 8 P.M. Minutes of meetings are pub- 
lished regularly in the Proceedings. 

MSnCBEBSSIF 

Members shall be persons over 18 years of age 
who have an interest in the science of entomology. 
Annual dues for members are $4.00; initiation fee 
is $1.00 (U. S. currency). 

PBOCEESIKGS 

Published bimonthly beginning with February by 
the Society at Washington, D. C. Members in good 
standing are entitled to the Proceedings free of 
charge. Non-member subscriptions are $5.00 per 
year, both domestic and foreign (U. S. currency), 
payable in advance. All remittances should be 
made payable to The Entomological Society of 
Washington. 

The Society does not exchange its publications 
for those of other societies. 

All manuscripts intended for publication should 
be addressed to the Editor. Acceptable papers sub- 
mitted by members will be published in the order 
received and will be given precedence over those 
by non-members. Immediate publication may be 
obtained at a cost to the author of about $10.00 
per printed page, plus cost of all engraving. Titles 
of papers should be concise but comprehensive and 
should indicate the systematic position of the sub- 
ject insect. By-lines should indicate present mail- 
ing address of the author and his organizational 
affiliation, if possible. Citations in the text of pa- 
pers longer than one printed page should be by 
author and date and should refer to a list of con- 
cluding references in which author, year, title, 
name of publication, volume and page are given in 
that order. In shorter articles, references to litera- 
ture should be included in parentheses in the text. 

Proportions of full-page illustrations should 
closely approximate 4-5/16 x 6" (26 x 36 picas) ; 
this usually allows explanatory matter to appear on 
the same page. Cost of illustrations in excess of 
that for one full-page line cut will be borne by the 
author. 

Reprints of published papers may be obtained at 
the following costs plus postage and insurance, 
provided that a statement of the number desired 
accompanies the returned proofs: 



Spp. 
$5.00 

3.80 6.00 



2 pp. 4 pp. 
50 copies: 

$2.00 $3.00 

100 copies: 
2.50 

Additional copies, per 100: 
1.00 1.15 2.00 



1 2 pp. 1 6 pp. Covers 
$5.60 $6.25 $4.00 



7.20 



2.60 



8.25 4.75 



3.15 



1.50 



Purchase of reprints by institutions whose in- 
voices are subject to notarization or other invoice 
fees will have the cost of such fees added to the 
purchase price. 



Entered as second-class matter at the Post Office at Wasliinffton, D. C. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Entomological Society of Washington 

Vol. 60 FEBRUARY 1958 No. 1 



LIRIOMYZA DIANTHI N. SP., A NEW PEST 
OF CARNATIONS IN CALIFORNTAi 

(Diptera: Agromyzidae) 

Kenneth E. Frick 

Irrigation Experiment Station, Prosser, Washington 

Late in 1956 a leaf miner appeared very suddenly in three or four 
commercial carnation plantings in Redwood City, California. The 
larvae form large white mines in the leaves (Pritchard, 1957, figs, of 
mined leaves). There may be several larvae per leaf and some leaves 
become almost totally mined. The presence of the conspicuous white 
mines reduces the market value of the cut flowers. Both F. L. Blanc, 
Bureau of Entomology, California Department of Agriculture, and 
A. Earl Pritchard, Division of Entomology, University of California, 
have written that this species is quite destructive. I am indebted to 
these tw^o workers for specimens and information concerning this 
leaf miner. 

At first Dr. Pritchard felt that the species may have been imported 
from Europe. The only records that I could find of a European 
Liriomyza attacking plants in the family Caryophyllaceae w^as L. 
strigata. That species is very yellow in comparison with L. diantln. 
In a later letter, he mentioned that carnations had recently been im- 
ported from South America to the San Francisco Bay area. There 
are no South American records of agromyzid leaf miners on any 
member of the Caryophyllaceae but it must be remembered that the 
South American fauna is very poorly known. 

A description is published at this time so that entomologists con- 
cerned with control and suppression may have a name available. 
Liriomyza dianthi Frick, new species 
(Figs. 1 and 3) 

Male. — Predominantly shining black, sparsely marked with yellow. Head yel- 
low (fig. 1); ocellar triangle and occiput black, black reaching eye margin 
immediately dorsad of the median posterior curve of the eye, extending to vertex, 
both vertical setae arising from black; black from vertex extending down geno- 
vertical plates to lowest orbital seta or slightly beyond; all orbital setae at edge 
of black; subantennal grooves light brown. Antenna with first segment yellow; 
second and third light brown; third very dark brown distally; arista very dark 
brown. Proboscis yellow ; palpi light brown, brown distally. Thorax with meso- 
notum shining black, not pollinose, black extending laterally to humerus and 
beyond bases of presutural, supraalar, and outer postalar setae. Scutellum with 
very large lateral black triangles, Avidth of yellow about one-third the basal scu- 
tellar width; distal scutellar setae arising from yellow at edge of black or from 
black at edge of yellow. Humerus about one-half black, humeral seta arising 



^Scientific paper No. 1583, Washington Agricultural Experiment Stations, Pull- 
man. Project No. 1260. 



2 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1958 

from yellow or on yellow and black. Pleura, except for sutures, primarily black 
(fig. 3) ; anepisternum dorsally yellow for about one-fourth of the anterior height; 
katepisternum narrowly yellow dorsally ; pteropleuron, mesepimeron, and hypo- 
pleuron dark. Legs black; coxae black except forecoxa being light brown on 
distal one-third; femora distally light brown to yellow for a distance subequal 
to the femoral diameter,, fore and midfemora light brownish posteroventrally on 
distal one-half; tibiae and tarsi black. Wing tinged with brown; base dark; 
veins dark brown, except costa to midway to humeral crossvein and radial sector 
to branch of Ri that are yellowish; calypter dark gray, margin and fringe black. 
Halteres yellow. Abdomen shining black, intersegmental membranes, where visible, 
yellow. Male terminalia black, cerci yellow. 

Head, in profile, with eye nearly eight-tenths as wide as high, rounded anteriorly. 
Gena, midway between vibrissal angle and posterior margin, one-third the eye 
height, sloping strongly posteroventrally from vibrissal angle; vibrissa strong; 
four setae on subcranial margin. Genovertical plates extending beyond eye mar- 
gin ; two upper-orbitals, reclinate and somewhat outwardly inclined ; two lower- 
orbitals, inwardly inclined ; five and six orbital setulae. Antenna with third seg- 
ment subcircular, slightly broader than long, setulae in length less than the basal 
diameter of the arista; arista slightly longer than eye length, slightly swollen 
on basal one-fourth, setulae very short. 

Thorax with four strong dorsocentral setae; fourth the longest, first about 
six-tenths, second about two-thirds, and third al)Out eight-tenths the length of 
the fourth ; spacing between dorsocentrals sul)equal, first and second about equi- 
distant from the transverse suture. About 11 acrostichals, in four very sparse, 
irregular rows, extending from the first dorsocentral posteriorly to the third 
dorsocentral. Intraalar rows without intraalar seta; five to six setulae anterior 
to the transverse suture; two to three posterior, one very close to being in line 
with the dorsocentrals. Inner postalar about six-tenths the length of the outer. 
Humerus with three setulae plus the humeral seta. 

Wing 2 mm. long. Costa terminating at wing tip ; second segment nearly four 
times as long as fourth ; third and fourth sul)equal in length ; m-m crossvein about 
1.4 times its length from r-m. perpendicular to penultimate section of Mj^o; 
ultimate section of Mj^o 7.7 times as long as the penultimate; ultimate section 
of M^^^ two times the penultimate. 

Female. — Larger, nearly 2.5 mm. in wing length. Head with eye about seven- 
tenths as long as high; gena, midway between vibrissal angle and posterior 
margin, four-tenths the eye height; three setae on subcranial margin. Mesonotum 
with 15 acrostichals, extending posteriorly to one-third the distance from third 
to fourth dorsocentrals; inner postalar two-thirds as long as the outer. Wing 
with second costal section about five times the length of the fourth, third eight- 
tenths the length of the fourth; ultimate section of M.^^^ 1.8 times as long as 
the penultimate. Seventh abdominal segment conical, subequal in length to the 
length of a tergite; basal one-third to one-half dull black, tomentose, shining 
black distally. 

Bolotype $ . — Redwood City, San Mateo County, California, XII-3-1956 (H. 
Sciaroni), ex leaf of carnation, Dianthus earyophyllvs L., deposited in the Cali- 
fornia Academy of Sciences. Allotype 9 . — topotypical, XI-27-1956 (V. A. Cana- 



PROC. ENT. SOO. WASir., VOr,. 60, NO. ], rEBRUARY, 1958 







Fig. 1. — Head, in profile, of holotype $ of Liromyza diantlii. The solid line 
equals 1 mm. for the two illustrations of the heads; fig. 2, head, in profile, of 
topotypical paratype $ of Liriomysa langei; fig. 3, pleura of holotype $ of 
Liromi/sa dianthi. The solid line equals 1 mm. for the two illustrations of the 
pleura; fig. 4, pleura of topotypical paratype $ of Liriomi/za langei. 



4 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1958 

vese), ex leaf of carnation (emerg. XII-10 1596), Calif. Dept. Agric. No. 56 K 
647, also in the California Academy of Sciences. Paratypes. — 1 5,4 $ 9 , same 
data as holotype; 2 S S, S 9 9, same data as allotype (emerg. XII-1, 3, 14- 
1956); 1 $,299 (in alcohol), same data as holotype; 1 S (in alcohol), same 
data as allotype. Paratypes have been deposited in the collections of the United 
States National Museum, California Department of Agriculture, California Insect 
Survey, and the author. There are also three moldy and teneral specimens, same 
data as the holotype. These 19 specimens are all that are known to exist. 

Some of the variations between specimens that have been noted may be men- 
tioned here. The acrostichals vary from 10 to 20, in from four sparse, somewliat 
regular rows (where 15 or more setae are present) to four ill-defined roAvs (with 
the smaller numbers of setae), and extending posteriorly from the third dorso- 
central to nearly one-half the distance to the fourth dorsocentral. The inner 
postalar varies from six-tenths to seven-tenths the length of the outer. The 
humeral seta usually arises from yellow and the setal base may or may not touch 
the black area. This seta rarely arises from the black area of the humerus. The 
central yellow area of the scutellum is relatively narrow and the distal seutellars 
vary in having the setal bases on black, on yellow but touching black, or all on 
yellow, but not more than two setal base diameters removed from the black. 
Crossvein m m is usualy farther from r-m than its own length but in two speci- 
mens it is closer (nine-tenths of the length of mm) and in one specimen it is 
exactly its own length from r-m. The ultimate section of M^j^^ varies from 
1.8 to three times as long as the penultimate, but is usually about twice as long. 

L. dianthi is most similar to L. langei Friek. The type localities of 
these two species are only 15 miles apart. When L. langei was de- 
scribed it was the only North American species lacking the mesonotal 
prescutellar yellow area but having- the yellow third antenna! segment 
distally infnscated (Frick. 1951). Since that time chlamydafa (Melan- 
der) has been transferred from Haplomyza and placed into this gronp. 
L. chlamydata\siQkH crossvein m-m, which separates it from L. dianthi. 
It is much darker in overall coloration than is L. langei and has the 
mesepimeron black, the same as it is in L. dianthi. 

L. langei may be separated from L. dianthi by the slightly different 
head shape, the eye not being rounded anteriorly, the genovertieal 
plates dorsally only slightly extending beyond the eye margin, and 
the genovertieal plates and third antennal segment more lightly in- 
fnscated, being a light brown (fig. 2). The pleura of L. langei is more 
yellowish than the pleura of L. dianthi and the mesepimeron is more 
than one-half yellow (fig. 4). The fore- and midfemora of L. langei 
are more yellow, especially on the outer one-third where the femora 
are brownish with yellow streaks. The scutellum of L. langei has a 
relatively broad yellow area with the basal scutellar width being at 
least three-fifths yellow. The distal scutellar setae are at least one- 
half as far removed from the lateral black triangles as they are from 
each other, or at least the diameter of four setal bases from the black. 



PROC. ENT. SOO. WASH., V0[,. 60, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1958 5 

Three larvae were lent by F. L. Blanc. They are very typical of 
the genus Liriomyza. The only unusual character is the relatively 
larye number of bulbs (8 or 9) on each posterior spiracle. The usual 
number is three. None of the bulbs is elongate and they are in an 
irregular row that slightly curves at both the dorsal and ventral ends 
towards the midline of the larva. The anterior spiracles each bear 
five to seven short bulbs. 

Eeferences 
Frick, K. E., 1951. Liriomyza langei. a new species of leaf miner of economic 

importance in California. Pan-Pac. Ent. 27:81-88. 
Pritchard, A. E., 1957. New carnation pests. California Agriculture 11 (3). -5. 



A NEW SPECIES OF EUMYSIA FROM SOUTHERN IDAHO' 

Lepidoptera : Pykalidae 

ElCHARD A. MaCKIE, 

University of Idaho, Moscow 

During the course of studies on insects associated with range plants 
in southern Idaho a caterpillar was found severely defoliating Atri- 
plex confertifolia (Torr.), a valuable desert forage plant, in several 
localized areas of the Raft River Valley, near Malta, Idaho. A few 
specimens were reared and the adults subsequently identified by J. 
F. Gates Clarke as an undescribed species of Eumysia. The purpose 
of this paper is to provide a name for this species so that it might 
be used elsewhere. 

The author is indebted to Dr. W. F. Barr, University of Idaho ; Dr. 
J. F. Gates Clarke, U. S. National Museum, and Dr. F. D. Rindge, 
American Museum of Natural History, for their assistance in the 
preparation of this paper. Dr. Clarke also made available to the au- 
thor paratype specimens of most of the other members of the genus. 
Special thanks are also due Arthur D. Cushman, U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, whose excellent drawings appear in this paper. 

Eumysia idahoensis, new species 
Male. — Alar expanse 22 mm. Body and forewings slate-gray in appearance, 
uniformly flecked with white. Head with antenna white, broadly annulated with 
black; labial palpus gray. Thorax with legs gray, darkened at joints. Fore wing 
dark slate-gray above, abruptly lighter in color beyond subterminal line, ocher- 
ous scales scattered over surface, moderately concentrated in areas of submedial 



^Published with the approval of the Director of the Idaho Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station as Research Paper 429. 



6 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1958 

and siihterminnl lines; submedial line moderately distinct, bordered inwardly by 
mixed black and oclierous scales to wing base and from posterior margin of wing 
to radial vein ; subterminal line distinct, extending from costal to posterior mar- 
gins of wings, interrupted twice medially leaving a small white dot near center; 
termen with row of seven black dots; undersurface solid gray-brown, abruptly 
gray beyond subterminal line and along costa, termen spots distinct. Hind wing 
above and below fuscous; costal margin white above and blackish below; termen 
and posterior margin blackish. Abdomen predominately dark gray ; posterior 
margin of each segment with white scaling; segments 4, 5, and 6 with hind angles 
moderately tufted. 

Genitalia with gnathos stout; hook prominent, distinctly curved; anellus rec- 
tangular in form, rounded posteriorly. 

Female. — Alar expanse 20 mm. Body and forewings gray, slightly lighter than 
male. Fore icing gray with markings similar to male, slightly heavier concentra- 
tions of oeherous scales about areas of subterminal and submedial lines; under- 
side correspondingly lighter than that of male. Hind wing above and below 
slightly lighter than that of male and only faintly dark along termen and pos- 
terior margin. Abdomen same as male but lacking tufts on segments 4, 5, and 6. 
Genitalia typical with papilla analis flatly rounded posteriorly. 

Types. — Holotype, male (USNM No. 63511), allotype, female and three male 
paratypes from Malta, Cassia County, Idaho, Dec. 28, 1951 (J. R. Douglass). 
Additional paratypes as follows: One male and one female from 15 miles south 
of Nampa, Canyon County, Idaho, May 1952 (W. F. Barr) ; one male and two 
females from Raft River Valley, Cassia County, Oct. 9, 1951 (L. J. Farmer) ; 
one male from 4 miles southeast of Idahome, Cassia County, Dec. 20, 1951 (G. 
Zappettini) ; one male from 4 miles east of Idahome, Cassia County, Feb. 27, 1956 
(W. F. Barr) ; two females from 4 miles east of Idahome, Cassia County, Feb. 
18 and 21, 1957 (R. A. Mackie). All type material was reared from Atriplex 
confertifolia. Paratypes are to be deposited in the collections of the U. S. Na- 
tional Museum, American Museum of Natural History, and University of Idaho. 

Food plant. — Atriplex confertifolia is the preferred host and lar<j;e 
collections of larvae have been taken from this plant. Three larvae 
also were collected from Saltsage, Atriplex nuttaUii Wats., and 4- 
winged saltbush, Atriplex canescens (Pursh). 

Distribution. — Collections of E. idahoensis have been made only 
from sonthern Idaho, but this insect has not been fonnd throughout 
the entire distributional ranges of its hosts. Thus far, no adults have 
been taken in the field and the distribution of the species is based 
entirely on larval collections. E. idahoensis is particularly abundant 
in several localized areas of the Raft River Valley near Malta and 
Idahome, Cassia County, Idaho. It also has been collected 15 miles 
south of Bruneau and 5 miles north of Murphy, Owyhee County; 15 
miles south of Nampa, Canyon County, and 15 miles west of Moun- 
tain Home, Elmore County. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1958 7 

A moderate amount of variation has been noted in the eight speci- 
mens examined. The ground color of the forewing varies from a light 
to a dark gray, and the subterminal and submedial lines may be ob- 
scured, especially in the extremely light or dark specimens. The sub- 
terminal line may be interrupted from one to several times, but one 
large break, anterio-medially, is present in all specimens. The male 
genitalia of three dissected specimens were found to be quite uniform 
in structure and appearance. 



^Ss\\p 





Figure 2 



Fig. 1. Male genitalia of Eumysia iddhoensis ; fig. 2, female genitalia of 
E. idahoensis. 



8 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1958 

E. idahoensis most closely resembles E. semicana Heinrich, known 
onlj' from Yakima, Washington, in general coloration and specifically 
in the color of the antenna, bnt may be separated by its much smaller 
size and by the presence of a distinctly lighter area beyond the sub- 
terminal line. E. idahoensis also differs from the remaining members 
of the genus Eiimysia in color and size. It is the darkest species and 
averages smaller in wing expanse than any of the others. No other 
Eumysia has been recorded from Idaho. E. mysiella (Dyar) has 
been recorded from Arizona and New Mexico to as far north as 
Stockton, Utah; midella (Dyar) from New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, 
California, and British Columbia, and iMllidipenneUa (Hulst) from 
Colorado, New Mexico, California, and Washington. 

The character which appears to be the most distinctive in separating 
idahoensis from other members of the genus lies in the structure of 
the male genitalia. Heinrich (1956) stated that "there are no struc- 
tural differences in the genitalia that can be used to distinguish these 
supposed species." Only an illustration of the genitalia of mysiella, 
the genotype, was available to the author but an apparently signifi- 
cant difference between the two species is evident. The gnathos of 
mysiella as pictured is rather long and tapers terminally, whereas that 
of idahoensis (Fig. 1) is stout and tapers toward the base. The hook 
at. the terminal end of the gnathos is distinctly curved in idahoensis 
but is straight in mysiella. The anellus also is different in the two 
species, that of idahoensis being rectangular in form and much longer 
than broad, whereas in mysiella it is as wide or wider than long and 
more or less crescent shaped. The male and female genitalia figured 
are of paratype specimens from the type locality and from the "Raft 
River Valley," respectively. 

References 

Dyar, H. G. 1925. Notes on some American Phycitinae. Insec. Inseit. Mens. 13: 

220-221. 
Heinrich, Carl. 1956. American motlis of the subfamily Phycitinae. U. S. Natl. 

Mus. Bui. 207: 187-189. 



ANNOUNCEMENT 

An important part of the Society's program is to make available 
back issues of the Proceedings. In recent months stocks of many 
issues have dwindled to unprecedented lows. Members who wish to 
contribute to this important function are urged to send any of their 
back issues (preferably with covers unmarked) to the Custodian 
(address on inside front cover). 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1958 9 

A DESCRIPTION OF THE IMMATURE STAGES OF 
LIMNOPHILA (EUTONIA) MARCHANDI ALEX. 

(DiPTERA, TlPri.IDAE ) 

Dennis Hynes, Dcparfnicnt of Biology, University of Florida, Gaiiu srille, Florida 

LimnophUa marchandi belongs to an aberrant gronp of crane-flies 
foniposino' the snbgenns Enionia, for which no ininiatnre stages have 
previonsly been described. Full}- grown larvae and pupae of this fly 
were collected on the Edwin S. George Reserve in Livingston County, 
Michigan, during the spring of 1953, at the northwestern edge of 
"Southwest Swamp." As in the adult stage, the last instar larvae 
and pupa of this subgenus are readily distinguishable from the other 
species of the genus LimnophUa by their conspicuously large size. 

The habitat consists of moist soil composed of leaf debris and the 
rhizomes of mosses and ferns {Osmunda) impregnated with organic 
mud. The larvae were never taken deeper than 2 inches, and the 
pupae were taken near the surface of the soil. During the spring 
thaw, Avater completely covered this area, and later, during the time 
of collection and after the water had receded, no vegetation was pres- 
ent. In the summer a lush cover of plants occurred over the habitat. 

Data which I have from closely related species found along streams 
in the Southeast indicate that this species probably completes its life 
cycle within 1 year. The pupal stage lasts for 7 days at room tem- 
perature. The larvae are carnivorous and will viciously attack other 
larvae, even of the same species and size, in the rearing cages. After 
emergence the adults were kept in the rearing cages from 3 to 5 days 
before they died. 

The descriptions of the immature stages are drawn from 4 larvae 
and 1 larval exuvia, 4 pupae and 10 pupal exuviae. Three mature 
eggs were obtained from females which, when dying, oviposited on 
the bottom of the rearing cage. 

Fgg. — Length 1.08-1.09 mm.; width 0.37-0.40 mm.; eyliiidrieal, elliptical, curved 
very slightly, the ends bluntly rounded. Chorion dark brown to black, smooth. 

Larva. — Length 35.0-38.0 mm. ; width 3.5-4.0 mm. ; body elongate, slender, 
terete; covered with golden-yellow setae (fig. 1). Abdominal segments 2 through 
7 have anterior patches of setae forming creeping-welts. Setae of these areas are 
vertical and short, the remainder appressed to body. Pencils of longer setae on 
each of the thoracic and abdominal segments. Chaetotaxy of these pencils of setae 
is shown in fig. 2a for the first thoracic segment; that of the second and third 
thoracic segments and the first abdomiiial segment in fig. 2b; and that of abdomi- 
nal segments 2 through 7 in fig. 2c. 

The diameter of the body decreases sharply immediately posterior to a band of 
short, brown setae which surrounds the anterior portion of the eighth abdominal 
segment. Four short, stout, white anal gills are present. The spiracular disk 
(fig. 6) is obliquely truncate with four pronounced lobes. The ventral pair of 
lobes is slightly longer than the lateral pair. There is a vestigial dorsal lobe with 
the area only slightly expanded. Lateral and ventral lobes have a fringe of 
delicate hairs which become progressively longer from the base to the tips of 



10 PROC. ENT. SOr. ■\VASH., VOL. 60, NO. 1, FEBRT'ARY, 1958 

tilt' lobes, their greatest length no more than twice that of the lobes. Ventral 
lobes with V-shaped dark brown marking — the outer arm of the V broad; the 
inner arm narrower, disappearing mid-length, appearing at base of lobe in tri- 
angular form ; outer arm of V extended, partially surrounding the ventral and 
mesal margins of the spiracle. Lateral lobes possess triangular dark brown mark- 
ing which ends adjacent to the lateral margin of the spiracle. 

Head capsule (fig. 3) of the hexatomine type, depressed dorso-ventrally, the 
greatest width about one-half the length from labrum to caudal margin. Dorsal 
plate wide anteriorly, becomes narrower mid-length, broadens posteriorly into 
spatula, which because of weak chitinizatiou appears to be incised at medial-caudal 
area. Edges of dorsal and lateral plates have distinct heavily chitinized ridges 
at niiiigins. Labrum tri-loljcd, a fringe of setae at ventral cephalo-lateral portions. 
The central lobe with membranous bulge on lateral edges which is covered with 
numerous indistinct papillae and a long sensory hair. At inner liase of either 
bulge occurs a group of five or six chitinized papillae; between these on either 
side of median line is a sensory hair. The epipharyngeal surface possesses a central 
lobe-like area, slightly chitinized, which has on its tip two small divergent papillae 
directed cephalad. The hypopharynx, heavily chitinized, consists of two lateral 
rods and a transverse rod, the latter finely ribbed, giving finely serrated ai)pear- 
ance to anterior edge; mentum nu'mbranous except for small chitinized area occur- 
ring just caudad of transverse rod. At either siile of this plate auil directly 
below hypopharynx a pencil of setae arises. Directly caudad to the hypopharynx 
on the inner margin of the esophagus a number of spines are found which appear 
fused at their bases. At mid-length of the head capsule surrounding the inner 
edge of the esophagus is an irregular band composed of numerous rows of spines 
with tips directed sharply caudad. The antennae are two-segmented with basal seg- 
ment conical and stout ; the second segment about one-third as long as first 
and barrel-shaped ; on the inner edge of the tip of the second segment is 
a sensory hair ; on tlu' outer edge a large, delicately sculptured papilla al)Out 
one-half as long as the second segment ; between the two is a small conical 
papilla (fig. 5). The outer lobes of maxillae are slightly divergent, conical, 
stout at bases, and gradually narrow to bluntly pointed tips; tips are curved 
laterally, base of outer lobes supported by chitinized plates which project slender 
rods cephalad; outer lobe has .short golden-yellow setae appressed to surface. 

Dimensions of head cap.sule: caudal margin to cephalic edge of labrum, 3.7 mm.; 
caudal margin to tip of maxillae, 4.5 mm.; width at base of mandibles, 1.4 mm.; 
depth at base of mandibles, 0.40 mm.; length of antennae, 0.31 mm. 

Pupa. — -Length from cephalic tip of breathing horns to tip of Cauda, 31.5-33.5 
mm.; dextral-sinastral diameter at base of wing pads, 4.50-4.85 mm.; dorsal- 
ventral diameter at liase of wing pads, 4.28-4.40 mm.; length of breathing horns, 
2.52-2.60 mm. 

Tiiorax rust-l)rovvn, alidonu'n golden-brown, eighth and caudal segments rust- 
brown. The entire body delicately sculptured (fig. 7). The abdominal pleura have 
a yellow to white stripe present from the first through the seventh segments along 
the medially carinate pleura. Form slightly depressed dorso-ventrally, stout to 
the eighth segment, then the diameter decreases abruptly ending in fleshy cauda. 
All abdominal tergal and sternal areas armed with spined tubercles. Tergal, 
sternal, and pleural plates fused, margins indistinct. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 1. FEBRUARY, 1958 



11 




— 1 1 









4 5 

Fig. 1. Lateral view of larval body of Limnophila marcliandi ; fig. 2, chaetotaxy 
of segments — tergal, pleural, and sternal areas shown from left to right — (a) 
first thoracic segment, (b) second and third thoracic, first abdominal segments, 
(c) second through seventh abdominal segments; fig. 3, ventral view of head 
capsule ; fig. 4, ventral view of mandible ; fig. 5, antenna. 



12 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOI,. 60, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1958 

Mesonotal breathing horns (Byers, 1952) stout and laterally compressed, dull or 
brass yellow, have distinct niinuli, the tips flattened and divided laterally into a 
thick inner flap and thin outer Hap, l»uth delicately scul])tured. Antennal sheaths 
arise mid-length of mesal margin of eyes, ending just caudad of prothoracic leg 
fold, curving at tips. Eyes and antennal sheaths at this point emargiuate or nearly 
so, dull yellow. Labral sheath bluntly rounded, two strongly divergent, heavily 
chitinized lobes appear at tip, the labial sheaths. The annulated maxillary sheaths 
end at, and perpendicular to, the antennal sheaths. Wing pads end just lief ore the 
posterior margin of the second abdominal segment. Wing pads of mature speci- 
mens are dark rust-brown at margins, especially at base, sometimes making vena- 
tion obscure. 

Pronotum with lateral cephalic edges inflated, dull yellow, and unarmed. Medial 
line very dark, weakly carinate. Mesonotum rust-brown with dark thin median 
stripe, a black spot occurring dorsallj' on this line ; setif erous, prominent, rounded, 
flattened abruptly at sides forming a pronounced ridge which extends laterally 
and slightly dorsad from the breathing horn to a point two-thirds the distance 
from breathing horn to wing-pad, then swings obliquely dorsad ending just before 
wing-pad base. At the point of pronounced bending of the lateral ridge occurs 
another ridge running ventrad, ending just dorsal to the tip of tlie antennal 
sheath. Anterior portion of the mesonotum medially cariiuite. The metanotum 
with distinct dark brown median spot at cephalic edge with two brown spots on 
either side. At base of metanotum just dorsal to the origin of the haltere sheaths 
occurs a dark brown longitudinal band. Haltere sheaths inflated at origin, 
gradually disappearing under wing-pads at the caudal margin of the first ab- 
dominal segment. Leg sheaths end at caudal third of third abdominal sternite. 
Posterior to the ends of the leg sheaths, a ridge occurs on which three transverse 
rows of spined tubercles appear, the central row containing about thirteen 
tubercles, and the two lateral rows containing 3 to 4 tubercles each. Along the 
side of the metathoracic leg sheaths occurs a longitudinal row of 10 to 18 
tubercles. 

Tiie first abdominal tergite with central brown splotch, one small lateral brown 
marking on either side, a small but elongate marking lateral to these. The 
second through seventh tergites and the third through seventh sternites have a 
deep furrow transversing the anterior third of the area. The posterior third of 
these areas has a medial dark spot. Abdominal tergites two through seven have 
V-shaped markings on each side of spot, the arms not connected, the point di- 
rected caudad. Alidominal sternites three through seven have Y-shaped markings 
on each side of spot, the arms not so divergent as on the tergites, connected, the 
point directed cephalad. Sternites three through six have two rows of snined 
tubercles, one anterior to furrow, the other near the caudal margin of the 
sternite. The latter is a straight, transverse row, while the former is usually 
separated to either side of the mid-line. The abdominal tergal and sternal mark- 
ings and arrangement of tubercles are shown in fig. 8, a and b respectively. 

The seventh abdominal segment has many large, spined tubercles surrounding 
the caudal edge of the segment. The eighth segment is abruptly smaller in diam- 
eter, with a spined tubercle at the medial caudal edge of pleura, sternite un- 
armed, dorsally possessing four large and slightly divergent tergal arms, not 
spined at tips and directed slightly caudad. The anterior pair of tergal arms 








:|/^^\/; 



1 







S 9 

Fig b spn:u-uh,r .lisk of LimnophUa marchandi (fringe of setae not sIlo^^mV 
ment'oitf"' l'"" ^' ^"'^f-' ""'''''' ^^- «' diagrammatic fke^hslowrng SrTge- 



14 PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 60, XO. 1, FEBRrARY, 1058 

is slightly wider apnrt and more divergent tliaii the posterior pair. Female eauda 
have tergal and steri;al valves inflated, curved dorsally ; both are dark at tips, 
lighter at base (fig. 9). The male cauda end in a pair of slightly divergent, 
pointed lobes, with tips directed very slightly niesad; sternal lobes bulbous, 
darkened at tips, lighter at bases. 

Eeferences 

Byers, G. \V. 1951^. The genus DoJicliojU'-a in North Anu'rica. Publication No. 
3728, University of Michigan ^Microfilms, Ann Arbor, ^Michigan. 



BOOK REVIEW 

BEITRAGE SUE SYSTEMATIK DER LARVEN DER ITONIDIDAE (i=CECI- 
DOMYIIDAE, DIPTERA (('ontrilnition to the systematics of the larvae 
of the Itoniiliiiae ). Teil 1, Porricondylinae und Itonidinae Mitteleuropas. 
By Edwin Mohn. Zoologiea, Original-Abhandlung aus dem Gesamtgebiete 
der Zoologie, Band 38, Lieferung 1, Heft lOo. E. Schweitzerbart 'selie 
Verlagslnichhandlung, Stuttgart. J^i). 1-1237, 3 text figs., 30 plates. 

Consistent witli most publications of its kind, the pi-esent work comprises a 
number of sections as follows: 1) materials; '1) methods; 3) discussion of 
characters (with text figures) ; 4) bionomics; 5) general remarks about generic 
groupings; and 6) the descriptive portion. Descriptions are given of the char- 
acters of the larvae of the family ; of the two subfamilies, Porricondylinae and 
Itonidinae; and of each of the 176 genera. With only a few exceptions, each genus 
is represented by only one species. The treatment of the larvae of each species 
includes a diagnosis, description, habitat, location of material studied, collection 
locality, imitortant literature references, and previously published illustrations. 

In most cases only one species is used to illustrate the characters for one genus, 
in the opinion of the reviewer the sole fault of the work. The generic diagnoses 
and the concluding key to genera, then, are based on rather limited information 
and may be misleading to use unless this fact is kept in mind. On the other hand, 
the publication will be of considerable value to workers in the Americas, since 
many of the genera includi'd in its have species that occur in the Neotropical and 
Nearctic Regions. 

This is the first comprehensive treatise dealing with the larvae of gall midges 
ever to appear ; it deserves high praise as a point of departure for the systematist 
in opening a hitherto inaccessible fund of separating and identifying characters. 
The males of some genera, and the females of most, almost defy determination, 
and it is the feeling of this reviewer that the final answer to exact identification 
in these cases is to be found in the immature stages. The work will also serve as 
a beginning for a comi^rehensive study of relationships among the genera. That 
subject has been in dispute by all gall midge workers and is one that is now 
ready for a thorough revision ; not only have we recorded a large number of 
species, but Dr. Mohn's contribution very materially augments our present store 
of knowledge in this respect. — Rjchakd H. Foote, Entonio1o(/f/ Fcsearrli Branch, 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, I). C. 



PKOC. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, XO. 1, FEBRITART, 1958 15 

MALAYA JACOBSONI (EDWARDS, 1930), A NEW OCCURRENCE 
RECORD FOR NORTHERN THAILAND 

(Diptera: Culicidae)! 
Ernestixe B. Thurman2 

Iyengar (1953) reported Harpagomyia geyiurostris (Leicester, 
1908) [Malaya genurostris Leicester, 1908] from Southern Thailand 
constitnting the initial record of the occurrence of the genus in the 
country. Thurman and Thurman (1955) collected this species in a 
light traji o]ierated in Northern Thailand. fStone and Knight (1957) 
revalidated Malaga Leicester, 1908, as the name of the genus and 
relegated Harpagomyia de Meijere, 1909, as a synonym. The present 
note adds a second species in the genus to the reported fauna of 
Northern Thailand, namely, Malaya jacobsoni (Edwards, 1930). 

31. jacobsoni adults were netted or collected while resting on trunks 
of trees on 9 occasions from December 30, 1952, to March 31, 1953. 
Collections were made in 5 shady jungle areas during the daytime 
and at night on Doi (mountain) Sutep, Doi Chiengdao, and at Tad 
Muey Falls at elevations ranging from 1,000 to 5,000 feet. (Collec- 
tors: the late Deed C. Thnrman, Jr., Manop I\attana.pradit]i, and the 
author. ) 

To the list of species reported as collet-ted in a light trap in Chieng- 
mai (Thurman and Thurman, 1955) add tlie name of M. jacobsoni; 
2 females collected July 9, 1952. 

Adult M. genurostris differ from M. jacobsoni by having a complete 
line of silvery scales between the eyes, silvery scales on the abdominal 
sternites, and silvery scales on the thoracic patches. The flat scales 
on the vertex of M. jacobsoni are metallic blue and do not form a com- 
plete line between the eyes ; golden scales are present on the abdominal 
sternites; and metallic blue scales are on the thoracic patches. 

References 

Iyengar, :\I. (). T. 195?.. Fil.-niasis in Tliailand. Bui. Org. Mond. Sante Bui. 
WHO 9:7.!l-7(i(i. 

Stone, A., and Knight, K. L. 1957. Type .specimens of mosquitoes in the United 
States Xational Museum, V: Tlie Sabethini (Dii)tera: Culicidae). Journ. 
Wash. Acad. Sci. 47(4) : 1 1 7-126. 

Thurman, D. ('., Jr., and Tliurman, Ernestine B. 1955. Report on the initial oper- 
ation of a nu)s(juit() light trap in Northern Thailand. Mosq. News 15(4): 
218-2114. 



^Acknowledgment is made of support ]iy tlie Division of Researcli Grants, 
National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare, under Grant E 809-C2 awarded to William E. Bickley, 
Department of Entomology, University of Maryland; and to the U. S. Opera- 
tions Mission to Thailand, International Cooperation Administration; and the 
assistance rendered by the United States National Museum; and the Entomology 
Research Division, United States Department of Agriculture. 

-Sanitarian (R\ on detail from the Division of Research Grants, National 
Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, Bethesda, Maryland, formerly as- 
signed as ;Ma]:iria Control Training Adviser with U. S. Operations Mission to 
Thailand, Tnternntional Coojx'ration Administration. 



16 



PROC. KNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1958 



POB/RECTION 

The illustration below should replace that appearing m an article hy Tibbetts 
and Strandtmann on p. 268 of Vol. 59, No. 6 (1957) of the Proceedings. The 
reprints of that article are correctly printed. The illustration now appearing on 
p. 268 of that bound number correctly appears in an article by David E. Cook 
on p. 19 of the present issue. 




Lxodorhynchns gordoni, n. sp., female: Fig. 1 vc^.ter; fig. 2. dorsum; fig. 3, 
gnathosoma; fig. 4, chela; fig. 5, tritosternum ; fig. 6, chehcera. 



PKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOI,. 60, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1958 17 

A NEW KOREAN MITE 

(ACARINA, CaECULIDAE) 

Harold G. Higgins and Stanley Mulaik 
University of Utah, Salt Lahe Citij 

In a small collection of mites received by the senior author from 
Korea there was an apparently nndescribed rake-leg'ged mite of the 
genus CaecuJiis. This mite is named after Mr. Ted Tibbetts, who col- 
lected this species from several localities in Korea. The ty})os will 
be deposited in the T^uiversity of Utah Acarina collection. 

Caeculus tlbbettsi sp. nov. 

Diaf/nosis. — Propodosonial pinte projocfs over the gn;\tliu.soin;i ; inetiipodosonial 
plate witli (> setni' in a 2 2-1! sequence; k's T composed of 7 segments and slightly 
shorter than the hod^-; trocdianter I with 2 setae on the inner edge, 2 dorsal 
setae, and 2 small setae on the outer border; basifennir and telofemur I each 
with 1 large blunt spine on their inner border. 

Description. — This animal is of medium size, and has a color of deep brown. 
The propodosomal plate is notched near the tip, narrowed near the attachment 
of legs I, projects over the gnathosoma, and covers the gnathosomal tubercles 
from above. This plate has 2 small setae in the notched areas on the anterior 
edge. A small seta is also found anterior to the eyes. Median metapodosomal 
plate has (i sjiatulate setae in a 2-2-2 sequence. The left and right lateral meta- 
podosomal plates each have 3 spatulate setae in a 1-1-1 sequence and 2 slitlike 
stigmata. The anterior transverse opistliosomal plate has 5 setae in a more or 
less straight line. There are 5 setae in a curved line on the posterior transverse 
opistliosomal plate. 

Legs. — Leg I is longer than any other leg, but is slightly shorter than the 
body. Trochanter I has 2 large clavate setae located on tubercles on the inner 
edge, 2 dorsal clavate setae, and 2 small setae on the outer-ventral border. Basi- 
fennir and telofemur I each has 1 long lilunt spine on their inner border. These 
spines are nearly as long as the segments on which they are located. Genua I 
has 2 long, blunt spines on the inner edge, T)ut the posterior one is the shorter. 
Tibia I has 2 long spines and 1 short spine on the inner edge. The posterior 
tibial spine is about one-half the length of the other spines and is pointed for- 
ward. Tarsvis 1 has -i short, sharp spines on the inner edge terminating in a 
single claw. 

Measurements of the holotype are: Length of body, 1.13 mm., width, .68 mm., 
length of leg I, without the coxa, 1.05 mm. Three other adult specimens have 
the following measurements: Length, 1.20, 1.12, 1.07 mm.; distance between 
eyes, .38, .32, .21 mm.; length of leg I, 1.05, .99, .92 mm. 

Biscussion. — Speeimeus are available from three localities in Korea. 
Although there are apparent differences between individuals, all speci- 
mens are believed to represent only one species. For example, one 
specimen from Amsa lacks the notched propodosomal plate, but it 
agrees within the known limits of individual variation in other details. 



18 



PROC. EXT. SOC. "WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1958 



The liulotype and 1 paratype were taken from nnder stones at Seoul, 
Korea, May 27, 1953 by Ted Tibbetts. Additional specimens, includ- 
ing' 2 immatures, were taken at Seoul, May 27, 1953 ; 2 immature 
specimens were collected 8 miles S.E. Seoul, July 23, 1953; 1 speci- 
men was found in moss and lichens at Osan. Feb. 17, 1953 ; and 1 
specimen from cedar and oak litter at Amsa, August 15, 1953. 




rig. 1, Dorsal vieAv of adult, Cacciihis lilthrll.si ii. sp. ; fig. 2, dorsal view of 
right trochanter I.; fig. 3, variation in tliL' anterior edge of the propodosomal 
plate; fig. 4, dorsal view of larva. 



PROC. EXT. SOr. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1958 19 

A NEW SPECIES OF LITAKACHNA FROM THE BRITISH WEST INDIES 

( ACARINA : Poxtarachnidae) 1 
David R. Cook, Depart mcni of Biolomj, Watjne State University, Detroit, Mich. 

While studying the parasites of gobiid fishes at the Lerner Marine 
Laboratory of the American Museum of Natural History, Biniini, B.W.I. , 
during December 1955, Dr. Dominie L. DeGiusti collected specimens 
of the mites described in this paper. A marine li.ydrachnid was found 
in the digestive tract contents of two fishes belonging to the genus 
BatJii/gohius. Each was so freshly swallowed that they were still mov- 
ing about. These two mites, a male and a female, belong to a new 
species of Litaraclina distinct enough to necessitate establishing a new 
subgenus. They are the first members of the family Pontarachnidae 
recorded from eastern North America. A species belonging to a re- 
lated genus, Fonfarachno cruciata, was described by Hall (1012) 
from beach pools in the Laguna Beach area of California. 

Genus LITARACHNA Wiilter 

lAlaraclma Wiilter, 19l2(;. Tiiternatl. Eev. (4es. II ydrol.idl. llydic^r. 14: Wl. 
Geiicrotype. — Litararltna co mm mi is Walter. 

Generic diagnosis. — Soft IkkHimI, dorsiim without sclerites ; papituluiii opening ven- 
trallv, without a rostrum; posterior apodenies of capitulum broadly spreading; 
chelicera typical of Hydracarina in general, not styletlike; coxae directed pos- 
teriorly, fourth coxae widely separated; fourth coxae with a pair of long narrow 
projections that flank the genital field; genital acetabula absent; glandularia lo- 
cated between the projections of the fourth coxae with two gland openings and 
an associated seta; legs without swiumiiug hairs; nuirine. 

Subgenus PARALITARACHNA, new subgenus 

Siibgcneroti/pe. — Litarachna {ParalitaracJina) degiustii, new species. 
Siibgeneric diagnosis. — Differs from Litarachna s.s. (and all other known mem- 
bers of the family Pontarachnidae) in having the first pair of coxae fused in the 
midline. 

LITARACHNA (PARALITARACHNA) DEGIUSTII, new speiies 

(Figs. 1-G) 

Female. — Length of body approximately 30:2//; length between anterior end of 
the first coxae and posterior end of projection from the fourth coxae 183^; first 
coxae fused in the midline, apodemes between the first and second coxae distinct 
along the full length ; with a moderate-sized, V-shaped identation at the posterior 
end of the first coxae; first coxa with two setae lateral to the capitulum and one 
seta posterior to the capitulum; second coxae touching each other; apodemes be- 
tween second and third coxae distinct only in the anterior half; second coxa with 
two setae in the anterior portion and a single seta located slightly posterior to 



1 Contribution from the Department of Biology, Wayne State Tniversity. 



20 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 1, FKBRIIARY, 1958 




Litarachna (Paralitarachna) degiustii, new species: Fig. 1, Ventral view, 
female; fig. 2, first leg, female; fig. 3, palp, male; fig. 4, fourth leg, female; 
fig, 5, ventral view, male; fig. 6, chelicera, male. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1958 21 

the apodeine between tlie second and third coxae; apodemes between the third and 
fourth coxae distinct in the anterior half and again at the very posterior end; 
posterior projections from the fourth coxae approximately 4:0 fi in length, these 
forming a genital bay that encloses the genital field; lateral surface of the fourth 
coxae with a shorter projection that partially surrounds the glandularia; glandu- 
laria constricted near middle, with one portion bearing a seta and the smaller 
gland opening, and the other portion bearing the large gland opening. 

Genital field, 59/i in length, 4(t/x in width, consisting of pre- and postgenital 
sclerites, these not bearing setae; neither genital acetabula nor acetabular plates 
present; setae not present in the area between the projections of the fourth 
coxae and the genital field; capituhim 4(V in width at the anterior end; length 
between anterior end of the capitulum and the posterior end of the capitular apo- 
demes approximately 95/tt ; capitular apodemes broadly spreading ; dorsal lengths 
of the palpal segments were: P-I, 17^; P-II, ll/j.; P-III, 24;tt; P-IV, 80/x; P-V, 
26fj.; P-IV with a setae-bearing projection on the ventral side similar to that 
found in L. duho.scqi Walter; P-Y relatively short. 

Legs without swimming hairs; dorsal lengths of the segments of the first leg 
were: I, 38^4; II, 30^; HI, 34/x; IV, 40/x; Y, 61^; VI, 76/ti; segments of the 
first leg relatively stocky, chaetotaxy shown in figure 2; lengths of the seg- 
ments of the fourth leg Avere: I, 58/u; II, 45^; HI, 52^1 ; IV, 83^; V, 92m; 
VI, 99m ; segments relatively thin, chaetotaxy of fourth leg shown in figure 4. 
Male — Length of body approximately 272/i, length between anterior end of 
the first coxae and the posterior end of the projection from the fourth coxae 
192m; first coxae fused in the midline; apodemes between the coxae similar 
to those of female except that the first pair are closer together; glandularia 
similar to those of female except that they are not greatly constricted in the 
middle. 

Genital field, not including small projection from anterior end, 31m iu length, 
29m ill width; genital field consisting of a sclerotized ring bearing four pairs 
of setae; genital acetabula and acetabular plates absent; with three pairs of 
setae between the projections of the fourth coxae and the genital field; 
capitulum 3nM in width at the anterior end, similar to that of female; legs 
and palps similar in shape and chaetotaxy to those of the female; lengths 
of the palpal segments were as follows: P-I, 17m; P-H, <ifiM; P-HI, 23m; P-IV, 
78m; P-V, 26m; dorsal lengths of the segments of the first leg were: I, 33m; 
II, 29m; III, 35w; IV, 41m; V, 65m; VI, 78m; lengths of the segments of the 
fourth leg were: I, 52m; H, 44m; HI, 50m; IV, 78m; V, 90m; VI, 98m; length of 
chelicera 159m; distal half of the end segment of the ehelieera minutely serrate. 
Typcs.—llolotyiw female, collected by Dominic L. DeGiiisti near the 
Lerner Marine Laboratory, Bimini, B.W.I.. diirin^- December 1955. 
Allotype male, same data. Both types will be placed in the Chicago 
Natural History Museum. 

Hal) it at. —Both, mites were recovered from the digestive tract of gobiid 
fishes collected in relatively shallow water (less than 1 meter) oyer 
a bottom composed of a mixlure of sand and mud. The lack of swim- 



22 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH.. VOL. 60, NO. 1, PEBRrARY, 1958 

minji' haii-s on the lej>-s -would siigo'est that these mites are very weak 
swimmers at best, and spend most of the time on the bottom. 
Remarks. — Litarachna degiustii may be easily separated from all other 
members of its g-eniis by the possession of fused first coxae. The pres- 
ent species seems to be most closely related to the Mediterranian species, 
L. duhoscqi Walter. The palpi of these two species are very similar, 
having a short fifth segment and a projection on the ventral side of 
the fourth segment. The genital field is rather similar in both cases. 

References 

Hall, H. X. M. 1912. Some marine and terrestrial Aearina from Laguna Beaeli. 

Pomona Coll. Annual Ept. Laguna Marine Lab. 1: 177-186. 
Walter, C. 1926. Marine Hygrobatidae. Revision der Wassermilben-Genera 

Pontarachna Philippi und Nautarachna Moniez. Internatl. Rev. Ges. 

Hydrobiol. Hydrogr. 14: 1-.54. 

BOOK REVIEW 

A REVISION OF THE GENUS PSELAPTRICHUS BRENDEL (COLE- 
OPTERA: PSELAPHIDAE), by Robert O. Sc-huster ami (Gordon A. Marsli. 
University of California Publications in Entomology, University of Cali- 
fornia Press, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 117-158, 74 figs., 5 maps. 1956. $1.00. 

This paper represents a discerning, well expressed taxonomic and distributional 
account of a genus of beetles which until recently has been nearly overlooked. 
A combination of several factors are combined in it. creating a noteworthy en- 
deavor in the field of modern systematic entomology. 

First, the authors ' efforts in collecting and preparing these beetles for study 
is no small achievement, for the members of the genus are very small creatures 
(the average length being about 1.50 mm.) which are found only in the accumu- 
lated litter of the forest tloor. That the beetles are difficult to collect and tedious 
to study is, I think, best exemplified by the fact that of the thirty-two species now 
included in the genus, all but three were described either in this paper or in a 
previous one by these two men. 

Next, the data are employed to their fullest extent and are interpreted in terms 
of present-day theories of systematics. Of special interest, -in my opinion, is the 
section pertaining to speciation and distribution, where the authors' ideas con- 
cerning species formation, ecological factors governing distribution, and phylogeny 
of these beetles are discussed in an appropriately conservative manner. 

Lastly, the completeness of the illustrative material appears exceptional. Over 
seventy figures are presented, which permit the easy comparison of many of the 
morphological structures which have been employed in the key and descriptions. 
In addition to these, maps are included which depict the collection localities for 
each species and which in many instances also indicate the probable range of the 
species — Jerome G. Rozen, Jr., Entomolog// Bcsearch Branch, U. S. Department 
of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 



PROC. KNT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 60, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1958 23 

BIOLOGICAL NOTES ON AMPULICOMORPHA CONFUSA ASHMEAD AND 
ITS FULGOROID HOST 

(Hymenoptera : Dryinidae and Homoptera: Achilidae)! 
John Colbirn Bridwell- 
FortA'-three years ago W. H. Ashmead (2) described a small, black- 
ish winged wasp in the U. S. National Museum from California as 
Ampulkoinorijha confusa as the unique North American representa- 
tive of the peculiar tribe Embolemini in the family Proctotrypidae. 
After describing this insect he added that he had seen another indi- 
yidual of the species from Nevada in the collection of the American 
Entomological Society. There seems to be no record published of this 
species having been taken since, but there is another specimen with 
the type in the National ]\Iuseum taken by W. F. Fiske in North Caro- 
lina. It was not until 1924 that any further record of the presence 
of the Emboleminae in our country was published. C. T. Brues (3) 
described a species of the wingless genus Myrmecomorphus as Pedi- 
nomma ncarcticum from one individual from near Boston and another 
from Long Island. In the U. 8. National Museum there are three indi- 
viduals Vjelonging to this genus which seem to represent three species. 
One of these from near Boston probably represents Brues' species. 
Another was taken by A. H. MacAndrews in North Carolina, and the 
third was taken by Pergande in Mexico. Besides these American 
Emboleminae, the U. S. National Museum has a specimen of Enibole- 
mus ruddii Westwood and some specimens of an undescribed Emhole- 
nu(S from Java. These peculiar insects have been but rarely taken in 
Europe and the limits of variation have not yet been established. 
Seven nominal species are recorded: two in Emholeiiius, supposedly 
winged males, and four in MyrmccomorpliUH, wingless males and fe- 
males. None of these have been taken in series except Emholemus 
ruddii. A single species of Myrmecoinorphys has been described from 
Chile. The biology of these insects has remained entirely unknown 
until the summer of 1936, when it became my good fortune to encoun- 
ter Ampulicomorpha and to learn the main facts of its life history. 

On April 13, 193fi, while examining some rotten oak logs near the 
locally well-known Gravelly Spring, about two miles east of Vienna. 
Virginia, a white oak log covered with a small shelf fungus was found 
to support many insects of various orders and a small winged, blackish 
wasp was seen to run swiftly ovei- the surface of the bark and hide 



'Published ]iostlmniously. See Mr. B rid well 's oliituaiy, ]\. '27. — Ed. 

- In Novemlier 1954, 'Mr. Bridwell gave five iiiifinislied drafts of this manuscript 
to G. B. Vogt, Entomology Eeseareh Division, HSDA, to prepare for publication. 
The work might otherwise have been destroyed in a fire, along Avith numerous 
other papers, in Mr. Bridwell 's home in 1955. Of the five drafts, the third was 
selected for publication as the most complete; it is modified only in those portions 
enclosed in brackets [ ] by slight changes of wording or insertion of excerpts from 
the other drafts. ITnused taxonomic notes, all unfinished drafts, and the speci- 
mens used in this study are deposited in the U. S. National Museum. Mr. Brid- 
well made brief reference to the findings presented herein in 1937 (1). 



24 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 1, FEBKIARY, 1958 

among the fungi. This was captured and on examination it proved 
to be an Ampulicomorplia, which had no appreciable characters to 
distinguish it from the type of Ampulicomorpha confusa Ashmead. 
On April 23, while examining some pine logs {Pinus rigida Mill, and 
P. virginiana Mill.) in a similar condition of decay and bearing shelf 
fungi, two other individuals of Ampulicomorpha were seen and one 
of them captured. These logs lay on the ground in the space between 
the tracks of the Washington and Old Dominion and Arlington and 
Fairfax Railroads, a little west of the place where they cross each 
other about one mile east of Vienna. 

Careful re-examination of the logs in both stations showed sonu^ 
firm, half ellipsoidal cocoons firmly attached to the wood beneath the 
loose bark and covered with the debris from the adjacent surface, but 
unfortunately those found no longer contained living contents, the 
adults having emerged. They were, however, as was subsequently 
learned, the cocoons of these wasps. Careful consideration of the in- 
sects seen upon these logs made it clear that the only insects common 
to the pine and oak logs which seemed likely to be the prey of the 
wasps [were] some fulgorid nymphs found on both. When these were 
submitted to P. W. Oman he told me that they must be nymphs of 
some achilid (Pulgoroidea) species, presumably Epiptrra or Catonia. 
Subsequent rearing showed the nymphs upon the pine logs to be those 
of Epiptcra floridae (Walker) while the nymphs from oak were not 
distinguishable. 

These n.^mips occur in small colonies beneath the loosened bark of 
oak and pine logs in close association with white sheets of compacted 
fungus hyphae, and each nymph bears on each side of each of the 
three tergites before the pygofer a snbquadrate glandular area which 
secretes numerous fine, straight threads of "wax" which are fragile 
and easily detached and the location of each of the colonies may be 
recognized even after the insects are gone by the fibers remaining. 

It was not until August 16 that Aynpulicomorplia was again en- 
countered. [On the pine logs an adult was found very near one of 
the still problematic cocoons with an emergence hole. Other cocoons 
with living contents were found in places where the former presence 
of the fulgorid nymphs was indicated by the wax strands. Still others 
were associated with the nymphs themselves, which were rapidly 
transforming to adults. But I did not then or subsequently find any 
remains of nymphs which indicated the method of attack by the wasps 
upon them. On this and subsequent visits up to August 27, more than 
20 viable larvae and pupae were found in cocoons. Also, some adults 
were taken in the open, so that altogether some 10 adults were secured. 
On Auorust 18 it was discovered that the females were winged, and 
with difficulty were distinguishable from the males.] 

From this material, it was possible [by September 2, when the last 
wasp died] to follow out the biology of the species and to learn that it 
is in all essential particulars a dryinid biology. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, XO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1958 25 

The Epiptcra nymphs, as stated, live in close association with hyphal 
sheets of fungi and when placed in confinement wdth the host material 
on bits of bark, they run about briskly until they find a favorable 
position where they may remain quiescent for long periods of time. 
When disturbed or startled, they make a single leap, which in the 
open may project them a distance of several inches. "When an adult 
female Am/pulicomorjjha was placed in a glass tube with these nymphs 
a great commotion ensued and continued for several minutes. The 
wasp, her long antennae held at right angles to her body, ran rapidly 
in pursuit of the running nymphs and these, when closely pressed, 
jumped but often too late. Often the pursuit was too rapid to be 
followed by the e^'e, but soon a nymph would be seen firmly gripped 
by the wasp. Once seized, the nymphs were unable to dislodge the 
wasp, and the wasp would be seen with its head on the upper side of 
the body of the nymph in the space between the wing pads and the 
body disposed across the body of the nymph, and the abdomen of 
the wasp bent down and firmly pressed against its ventral surface, 
stinging at a point near the mid-ventral line behind the hind leg. In 
some cases, when more than one wasp was placed in a tube, two fe- 
males attacked the same nymph on opposite sides. In no case was 
an external egg seen. 

The Epiptera nymphs transformed so rapidly that when the Ampu- 
Ucomorpha adults were available only a few nymphs w'ere present. 
What at first seemed a series of unfortunate accidents was [further] 
reducing the scanty material at hand. Several nymphs w'ere seen 
wounded on the middorsal line where the integument is destined to 
split in ecdysis. Not until the last available female made the last 
observed attack was this explained. In this case I was able to see the 
wasp gnaw away at the middorsal line of the nymph until the body 
fluid began to ooze forth, upon which the wasp fed.^ In the other 
attacks observed, which lasted perhaps from three to five minutes, 
the wasp w^as vigorously engaged in stinging and ovipositing. The 
nymphs, after being released, seemed none the worse for the attack 
and walked off about their affairs as if nothing had happened. None 
of the earlier observed attacks resulted in the development of any 
larvae, and it seemed this part of the story would not be secured, 
but after the last female had died one of the nymphs, perhaps four or 
five days after being placed with the wasp, show'ed a translucent, 
rounded mass under the wing pad, which increased in size for three 
or four days, remaining colorless, and then managed to comj^lete its 
feeding and eocooning, while not under observation and these details 
were not seen. The larva, however, died without completing its trans- 
formation and was devoured by a mite. [It is pointed out that simi- 
larly in other Dryinidae the egg is inserted within the body of the 
prey and the resulting larva emerges into a larval sac beneath the 

3 [E. C. L. Perkins (4) in his observations of the dryinid Eclifhrodelphax states 
tliat under unnatural conditions such as the confinement of a small jar or glass 
tube, and probably under the pressure of hunger the wasps attack their leafhopper 
hosts frequently killing them outright and to some extent devouring them.] 



26 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1958 

wing pad and after some days of yrowtli entirely devonrs the body 
contents and then leaves the empty skiji of the host to coeoon else- 
where.] 

After a female Ampulicomorplia was placed in a tnbe with nymphs 
of Epiptera and some attacks npoii the nymphs had been made, the 
conmiotion soon died down and was]) and nymphs became c^uiet, mov- 
ing about only when disturbed. With the addition of fresh nymphs 
to the tube, the same commotion and attack would be renewed, fol- 
lowed again by quiet. While very few nymphs besides the preadult 
instar were available for use, it seemed that these were preferably 
attacked when present. In no instance did the wasps show^ any inter- 
est in adults of Epiptera present with them. While these experi- 
ments were going on, a species of Catonia, the other achiliid genus in 
the local fauna, was bred and on two or three occasions nymphs of 
Catonia were placed with the Ampuiicomorpha, which showed no 
interest in them. It is desirable, however, that this matter should 
be further investigated since it is not quite certain that these may not 
sometimes be attacked. 

The cocoons collected were placed in separate tubes for rearing, and 
Avhen newly emerged males and females were placed together copula- 
tion resulted immediately, with almost no preliminary courting, and 
continued for some minutes. Thereafter the sexes seemed indifferent 
to each other but the addition of fresh males would result in renewed 
mating. 

When males were placed in tubes with cocoons, they showed no 
interest in them, differing in this conspicuously from the males of the 
bethylid genus Sclerodcrmus, (studiecf some years ago), which would 
force their way into the unopened cocoons and mate with the young 
females within (5). Unlike that genus the cocoons remain intact after 
emergence, except for the opening through which the adult escapes. 

While the Ampulicomorphu cocoons are often found in groups with 
a colony of Epiptera, they are never placed in cocoon masses such as 
are common among the bethylids, each one being formed separately 
and entirely distinct from the others, even when touching. 

The pupae of Ampuiicomorpha lie in the cocoons with the dorsum 
against the substratum so that the mandibles of the developing adult 
lie in contact with the wall of the cocoon, a little before its end and 
in emerging the adult itself unaided gnaws out an emergence hole 
and escapes with none of the subsocial behavior of Sclerodermns. 

Literature Cited 
1. Briilwfll, J. V. 1937. [Notes on the Prey of Bcmhcc'nuis and Atupnl'icomorplia 

sp.] Proc. Ent. See. Wash., vol. 39: 14-15. 
■1. Ashmead, W. H. 1893. U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 45: 79 80. 

3. Brues, C. T. 1922. Psyche 29: 7. 

4. Perkins, E. C. L. 1905. Eept. Experiment Sta. Hawaiian Sugar Planters Assoc. 

Bull. #1(1): 1-69. 

5. Bridwell, J. C. 1920. Proc. Hawaii Ent. 8oc. 4: 291-314. 



PROC. KNT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 195^ 



27 




JOHN COLBURN BRIDWELL, 1877-1957 

John Colburu Brichvell was born at Pella, Texas, September 23, 
1877, and died near Cnlpeper, Yiryinia, Anyust 9, 1957. Of the 
Bruehidae, or seed beetles, he became the leading scholar of his time, 
and he also contributed significantly to our knowledge of other insect 
groups, especially the aculeate wasps. From 1920 until 1943 he was 
a member of the Entomological Society of Washington, and during 
much of that period he was located at the U. S. National Museum. 
He was an unusual entomologist, endowed with tremendous enthusi- 
asm for natural history, remarkably well schooled in fundamentals 
and the early literature of his group, very well informed on botanical 
matters, and a keen observer and indefatigable collector in the field. 

Bridwell's paternal ancestors were English; his great-grandfather, 
Strother Bridwell, moved westward from Stafford County, Virginia, 
in the middle 1700 's. His mother's people were Scotch-Irish and 
Dutch ; they too came to America at an early date, and their descend- 
ants still live in eastern Massachusetts. William Wallace Bridwell. a 
circuit-riding Methodist minister, was father of the future entomolo- 
gist, who was born in a frontier home at Bella, in northern Texas, 
not far from the Chickasaw Nation in w^hat is now Oklahoma. He had 
six brothers and one sister. The family moved to Baldwin, Kansas, 
site of Baker University, when Bridwell was only four to five years 
old. He was graduated from Baker with a degree of B.S. in the Class 
of 1900. In 1899 he published his first paper, a list of Kansas Hymen- 
optera. As a boy he had suffered an injury to his leg, when a gun 
went off in a spring wagon while on a hunting trip. This mad<^ him 
lame all the remainder of his life and may have been partly respon- 
sible for his spending time in the quiet pursuit and observation of 



28 FKO(". ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 1, TEBRUARY, 1958 

insects as a young man, thus determining his career. It may also 
have helped to shape his personality, giving him an independence 
and a distaste for routine work patterns. 

The chronology of Bridwell's professional affiliations after leaving 
Baker University, and prior to going to Hawaii in 1913, is as follows : 
Fellow, Ohio State University, ir)()l-irK)2; Assistant to State Ento- 
mologist, Georgia, 1902 ; Federal employee on tobacco stalk weevil 
{Trichobaris) at Willis, Texas, March- July, 1903; instructor in Zo- 
ology, University of New Hampshire, 1903; Fellow, Massachusetts 
Agricultural College, 1906; Professor of Biology, Pacific College (Ore- 
gon), 1907; instructor in Zoology and assistant entomologist, Oregon 
State College, 1907-1911; instructor in Entomology, University of 
California (Berkeley), 1911-1913. Some of the positions Avere held 
for brief periods. He remained in New Hampshire at least until the 
spring of 1904, as shown by the record of Ctenothrips hridwelli 
Franklin, which he collected at Dover, N. H., April 11, 1904. While 
in Massachusetts he identified many Hymenoptera in the College col- 
lection, and he was closely associated with Dr. H. J. Franklin, who 
was actively studying bumblebees, and with Dr. E. A. Back, who 
later was witli him in Hawaii and who became his supervisor in the 
Bureau of Entomology. 

In 1913 Bridwell was appointed Assistant Superintendent, Division 
of Entomology, Board of Agriculture and Forestry, Territory of 
Hawaii. He arrived in Honolulu about June 3, 1913, about two weeks 
after the arrival of Dr. Filippo Silvestri, who, since the previous 
July, had been on a trip to Africa in search of parasites which it was 
hoped would contribute to the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly 
and the horn fly. His work on the program of rearing and releasing 
parasites began June 8, and he had the advantage of spending a few 
days with Dr. Silvestri. During the summer he assisted David T. 
Fullaway in the rearing activities, and during October 1-December 31 
was in charge of the program, aided by a crew of three to five workers. 
The magnitude of the program is indicated by the published figure of 
92,658 parasites (4 species) which were reared during October-Decem- 
ber, and the total of 99,376 parasites (5 species) which were liberated 
in the period June 1-December 31, 1913. 

In May 1914, Bridwell and Fullaway left Hawaii for Olokomeji, 
Nigeria, for the special purpose of obtaining Tetrasticus giffardianus, 
a parasite which Silvestri had discovered the previous year, but which 
did not survive the trip to Hawaii. They soon found it and other 
parasites, and Fullaway departed with them for Honolulu. Bridwell 
remained in West Africa to collect specimens of the rich fauna, and 
within a few months made a large collection. However, he contracted 
a serious case of malaria and went to South Africa to be hospitalized. 
After recovering, he made further collections, made an extended stop 
in Australia for additional field work, and finally returned to Hawaii 
late in 1915. 



PROC. EXT. SOC. WASIT., Vol,. 60, NO. 1, FEBRIARY, 1958 29 

Early in 1916 BridwcU left the employ of the Board of Agi'ieiilture 
and Forestry, spent some time working privately at the Experiment 
Station of the Hawaiian Sngar Planters' Assoeiation, and late in the 
fall was appointed to the statf of the Bishop Mnsemn as an assistant 
to O. PI. Swezey, Honorary Cnrator of Entomology. A primary task 
was to aid in the arrangement of the Helms Collection, recently ob- 
tained from Anstralia, but an accident disabled him so that little was 
accomplished that year. By 1918 he had returned to private research 
and was studying Bruchiclae with great enthusiasm. This specialty 
led to his employment, November 20, 1919, to February 1, 1920, by 
the Union Feed Company of Honolulu, to study the insects, mainly 
bruchids, attacking algaroba beans. 

In January 1920 Bridwell was appointed as a specialist on Bruchi- 
dae and their parasites by the Bureau of Entomology, and in the late 
spring- of that year went to Washington to undertake the study of 
the family, thus beginning his long association with the IT. S. National 
Museum. In December he went to Texas to collect and ship bruchid 
parasites to Hawaii, and from then until he left the Bureau in early 
1924 he divided his time between the Museum and the field. 

Bridwell left for India in August 1924 and remained there until 
1927, engaged in a busines.s partnership based on the exportation of 
cashew nuts. His time, except for side trips, was mainly divided 
between Portuguese Goa and the vicinity of Bombay. 

Following his return to AVashington in 1927, Bridwell did private 
research, maiidy on bruchids, at the National Museum until he left 
the Washington area in Mareh 1944. During part of this period he 
w-as aided by a private eooperator interested in supporting research 
on bruchids. While working at the Museum Bridwell lived in several 
communities, mainly in Virginia, and twice his residence burned. 
After leaving the Museum he lived about two years at Ilillsboro, Vir- 
ginia, then at Culpeper for about a year, and finally he lived alone 
in a small country house at Lignum, Virginia, from May 1947 until 
it burned in December 1955. While there he assembled a few notes 
for publication, but suffered the loss of nearly all remaining unpub- 
lished notes, of which there were many, in the fire. In the spring of 
1956 failing health forced him to enter a home for the aged. Follow- 
ing his death and cremation, the ashes were scattered in a woodland 
area of natural beauty, at Cabin John, Maryland, in accordance with 
his wish. 

Surviving relatives include a daughter, Juliet, in Washington, 
D. C, and seven granddaughters, also two brothers, Arthur in Bald- 
win, Kansas, and Robert in Cleveland, Oklahoma. On November 11, 
1912, at Ukiah, California, Bridwell married Miss Juliet Greer, who 
was President of her class at Vassar College, and was Dean of Domes- 
tic Science and Art at Oregon State College, when they met. Mrs. 
Bridwell continued some teaching, both in Hawaii, where their daugh- 
ter was born in 1918. and in New York Citv during her husband's 



30 HKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOI,. 60, XO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1958 

early years in Washington. She shared many travels with him, join- 
ing- him in India in 1925, and meeting him in Australia on his return 
from Afriea. In Australia his collecting ventures in unexplored areas 
led to long absences, and after one such occasion he and Mrs. Bridwell 
sat in their hotel in Sydney and read in New York and San Francisco 
jiewspapers that he had been lost in the busli I She died December 12, 
1942, when the family was living at Vienna. Virginia, near Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

During" his residence in Honolulu, Bridwell was a member of the 
Hawaiian Entomological Society, and he was elected Secretary-Treas- 
urer for 1914, but was able to serve only briefly because of his depar- 
ture for Africa. He was very active in the presentation of notes at 
meetings, and they may be consulted in the Proceedings, volumes 3 
and 4. Later he became active in the Entomological Society of Wash- 
ington. Abstracts of the notes given bv him there appear in volumes 
10-13, 15 and 19 (1920-23, 1925, 1929) of the Journal of the Wash- 
ington Academy of Sciences (pages carrying reports of Entomological 
Society meetings shown in Contents at end of each volume), and 
in the Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, vol- 
umes 35-37, 39, 44, and 46 (1933-1944). Among notes dealing with 
bruchids, the following merit special mention : Jour. AVash. Acad. 
Sci. 12: 464, 467, 1922; 13: 261-262, 1925; 15: 80, 1925; Proc. Ent. 
Soc. Wash., 37: 185, 1936; 46: 23, 1944. 

A great many unusually valuable specimens deposited in the Na- 
tional Museum, mostly in Bruchidae, Chrysonudidae, Curculionidae. 
and Hymen()i)tera, attest Bridwell 's remarkable observational ability 
through their significant associated biological infoi'mation. For many 
years he cooperated closely with the late H. S. Barber, not only in 
the acquisition of notes on the habits and relationships of various 
beetles, but on the intricacies of their nomenclature as well. He 
always retained a deep interest in Hymenoptera. In 1936 he discov- 
ered in Virginia, for the first time in the United States, the ant Ancr- 
gates, a social parasite of another ant, Teirmiioriuni. In the mid<:lle 
and late 1930 's he worked out the unusual biologv of the previously 
little known primitive sawflies of the genus Xjicla. and studied their 
parasites of the genus Idiogramuia (formerly Lysiognathus) (re- 
ported in notes, and by Cushn^an, Jour. AVa^h. Acad. Sci. 27: 438-444, 
1937). He was proud that standard reference works, such as Clausen's 
Ento'~'oidia"'()us Insects, contaiiK'd references to his pioneer work with 
Wtisps in Hawaii. 

BridwelFs life was plagued bv misfortunes, the aci-iden^-s and fires 
already mentioned, and also by his own fertile mind that seemed 
ever to beckon him along the untrodden paths of new investinations 
before the results of the previous ones were written. It is a nitv that 
an entomologist of his great and proven ability did )iot publish more, 
yet his publisher! record and the assembled material resulting from 
his collecting and observations are marks of long-lastino- accomplisli- 
nient. ASHLEY B. GURNEY 

GEORGE B. VOGT 



proc. ent. soc. ■\vash., vol. 60, no. ], fehrt'ary, 1958 31 

Papers by John Colbtrn Bridwell 

1899. A list of Kansas Hymenoptera. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 16: 203-211. 

1904. (Letter to Dr. L. O. Howard, dated Sept. 5, 1903, under "Additional obser- 
vations on tlie to1)ac(-o stalk weevil")- U.S.D.A., Div. Ent. Bull. 44: 44-46. 

1906. A second species of tlie hymenopterous genus Odontofhiics Konow (Xyeli- 
nae.) Ent. News 17 : 94. 

1914. (Report [Division of Entomology, Board of Agric. & For.] for period from 
Oct. 1 to Dee. 31, 1913). Bull. Board of Agric. & For., Terr, of Hawaii 
3: 154-160 (plus 7 tables). 

1916. Breeding fruit-fly parasites in the Hawaiian Islands. Jour. Econ. Ent. 9: 
472-476. 

1917. Xotes on Synaf/ris. Proc. Haw.niiaii Ent. Soc. ■" : 261. 
. A note on an Epi/ris and its prey. Ibid., 3: 262-263. 

■ . Notes on the Tliynuidae. Ibid., S: 263-265. 

. Notes on a peregrine bethylid. Ibid., 3: 276-279. 

. Notes on Blctyopliorodelpliax ntirdhili.s. Ibid.. 3: 279-280. 

1918. Notes on the entomology of Hawaiian Eiiphorhia with the description of a 
new Dictyophorodelphax (Homoptera, Delphacidae). Ibid., 3: 385-387. 

. Notes on the habits of Broscom/ iii iis optaiiis Sharp (Carabidae). Ibid. .5." 

391-392. 
. Certain aspects of medical and sanitary entomology in Hawaii. Trans. Med. 

Soc. Hawaii for 1916-1917: 27-32. 
. Insects in relation to the storage of food in Hawaii. Proc. Hawaii Ent. 

Soc. 3: 506-509. 
. Notes on the Brudiidae and their pai-asites in Ihe Hawaiian Islands. Ibid., 

3: 465-505. 

1919. Descriptions of new species of hynienojiterous ])arasites of muscoid Diptera 
with notes on their habits. Ibid. 1: KWi 1 79. 

. Bruchididae of the Helms Collection. Ibid., / .■ 41. 

. Dictyophorodelplutx pr<irdiet(i sp. nov. (Homoi)tera, Delphacidae). Ibid., 4: 

72-73, fig. 1. 
. Miscellaneous notes on Hymenoptera. With descriptions of new genera and 

species. Ibid., 4: 109-165. 
. Some notes on Hawaiian and other Bethylidae (Hymenoptera ) with descri]i- 

tions of new species. Ibid., 4: 21-38. 

. Notes on Nesornimrfta antcnnaUi (Smith) (Hymenoptera). Iliid., ■/.• 40-41. 

. Some additional notes on Bruchidae and their i)arasites in the Hawaiian 

Islands. Ibid., 4: 15-20. 

1920. Some notes on Hawaiian and other Bethylidae (Hymenoptera) with descrip- 
tion of a new genus and species. 2nd paper. Ibid., 4: 291-314. 

. The insect fauna of the Hawaiian bunch grasses {Erafirosiis vorinhilis and 

allies). Ibid.. 4: 278-283. 
. Insects injurious to the Algaroba feed industry. Hawaiian Planters' Eecord 

22: 337-343. 
. Notes on the Bruchidae and their parasites in the Hawaiian Islands, 3rd 

paper. Ibid., •/ .• 403-409. 



32 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1958 

1920. MiscellaueoiiH notes on Hymenoptcia, L'ud paper, with descriptions of new 

species. Ibid., 4: 386-403. 
. A new lowland Plagithmysine carambyeid from Oaliu with notes on its 

habits (Coleoptera). Ibid., 4: 314-323. 
. Notes on Nesotocus Giffardi Perkins (Coleoptera). ll)iil., 1: 250-256, 6 

figs., 1 pi. 
1923. The host plant and habits of AcdiitltoscelifTe.s (jrisiolus (Fall) Coleoptera). 

Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington Jo: 79-80. 

1929. Description of a bruchid innnigrant into Hawaii breeding in the seeds of 
Convolvnlaceae (Coleoptera). Ibid., SI: 112-114. 

. The cowpea bruchid (Coleoptera ) under another name — a plea for one kind 

of entomological specialist. Ibid., SI: 39-44. 

. A preliminary generic arrangement of the i)alni bruehids and allies (Cole- 
optera) with descriptions of new species. Ibid., SI: 141-160. 

. Thelytoky or arrhenotoky in Sclerodermus immigrans. Psyche 36: 119-120. 

1930. (Designation of Bntchiis robiniae F. as genotype of Amblyccrus Thunberg). 
Footnote 7, p. 29, In Pierce, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 77:, Art. 17, pp. 1-34. 

1931. Bruchidae infesting seeds of Compositae, with descriptions of new genera 
and species (Coleoptera). Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington 33: 37-42. 

1932. The subfamilies of the Bruchidae (Coleoptera). Ibid., 34: 100-106. 

■ — — . Collecting insects in herbaria. Jour. N. Y. Bot. Garden SS : 105-109. 

1933. (J. C. Bridwell iSc L. J. Bottimer) The hairy-vetch bruchid, Bruchus brachi- 
ali)< Fahraeus, in the United States. Jour. Agric. Research (U. S.) 46: 
739-751. 

1938. (Synonymous names of Acanihoscelides obtectits (Say) and Callosobruchns 

maculatiis F. ) pp. 4-5 In A. O. Larson & C. K. Fisher, U.S.D.A. Tech. Bull. 

593, pp. 1-70. 
. SjJeculariu.s cri/thriHac, a new bruchid affecting seeds of Erythrina (Cole- 
optera). Jour. Washington Acad. Sei. J8 : 69-76. 
1940. (H. S. Barl)er & J. C. Bridwell) Dejean catalogue names (Coleoptera). 

Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. S:> : 1-12. 
1942. Two new American Itean liruchids (Coleoptera). Rev. Chilena Hist. Nat. 

44: 249-258 (1940). 
1944. A new Amblyccriis affecting seeds of Prosopis chilensis in Puerto Rico and 

Hispaniola. Jour. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico ,f 7 : 133-135 (Number for July 

1943). 
1946. The genera of beetles of the family Bruchidae in America north of Mexico. 

Jour. Washington Acad. Sci. S6 : 52-57. 
1952. A new genus of Bruchidae aft'ecting Hibiscus in Argentina (Bruchinae; 

Acanthoscelidini). Ibid., 4^: 49-50. 
. Notes on Bruchidae affecting the Anacardiaeeae, including the description 

of a new genus. Ibid., 4:^: 124-126. 



PROC. ENT. HOC. WASH., VOL. 60, XO. ], FEBRUARY, 1958 







Adam Giede Boving 

lS()!t-19.'i7 

Adam Giede Bu\iny, internationally known si.>eeialist on beetle lar- 
vae, died at his home, 221 Kock Creek Church Road, Washington, 
D. C, on March 16, 1957, in his 88th year. His death was preceded 
by tW'O short bouts of illness caused first by heart failure and then 
circulatory difficulties from which, however, satisfactory recovery was 
being made. His passing was peaceful, the result of a second throm- 
bosis. 

Born in Saby, Denmark, July ;il, 1869, he was the son of Niels 
Orten Boving, a Lutheran minister. Because the income of a country 
minister must have been extremely modest, Adam and his two brothers 
and three sisters kncAv the necessity for frugality early in life. It was 
at considerable sacrifice by the rest of the family that Adam was 
encouraged in his intense desire to follow scholarly pursuits. After 
the required preparatory education, including six years in Latin 
school, he entered the I^niversity of Copenhagen in 1888. 

He lived at the home of a wealthy uncle during the first two years 
at the University, but moved to less pretentious quarters, where he 
found living under more difficult economic conditions more satisfying, 
since his pursuit of knowledge was not interrupted by so many social 



:'A PliOf. EXT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 1, FEBRrAKY, 1958 

divcrsioii.s. lie .supported liiniself by teaching courses in botany and 
zoology in a school for boys and a school for girls. He enjoyed teach- 
ing very much and continued for years afterwards, even after he had 
.completed his education and obtained a position at the Zoological 
Museum. 

At the University, l)(")\ing came under the influence of Professor 
Frederik Meinert, and in later years he fondly referred to Meinert 
as "my old teacher." Meinert had considerable acquaintance with 
innnature insects and it is very likely that he influenced Boving's 
choice of the subject for his dissertation. The chrysomelid genus- 
Donacia, larvae of which live on aquatie plants below the water level, 
was the subject of his thesis research. Careful observations on the 
biology and the intricate adaptations to submerged living, coupled 
with a painstaking study on anatomy, led to a dissertation of out- 
standing merit. Much of the information was gathered while Adam 
"lived with" the insects at a small lake, Furesfien, where Professor 
Wesenberg Lund maintained a summer laboratory. Biiving defended 
his thesis successfully and received the degree of Doctor of Philosophy 
in 1906. Before he completed his formal education he had an official 
status at the Royal Zoological Museum, and after he received his 
degree he continued as Assistant Curator of Entomology until he 
came to the United States. 

During the winter of 1907-08, Dr. Boving studied the collections 
of beetle larvae at Paris, London and Cambridge. He had many 
pleasant experiences there and was greatly stimulated through ac- 
quaintance with several leading scientists in those entomological cen- 
ters. While still at London, in the spring of 1908, he was asked to 
join a Danish expedition that was organized to study the geology and 
biology of SontheHstei-n Iceland. The report of the trip formed the 
basis, years later, for his address as retiring President of the Ento- 
mological Society of Wasliington. 

In 1903, Dr. Boving married Paula Bronnum. Eight years later 
his wife became ill and died shortly thereafter from tuberculosis. 

From 1906 to 1913 Boving broadened his knowledge of coleopterous 
larvae, and the background obtained during those years prepared 
him for the breadth of his later understanding- of the problems pre- 
sented by those larvae. It was also during this period that he pro- 
duced a significant contribution to the basic information on adult 
Coleoptera : a study of the musculature of male genitalia of dytiscids. 

The circumstances through which Dr. Boving knew of the possi- 
bility of a position in the United States Bureau of Entomology are 
obscure. At any rate Boving came to the United States and received 
a conditional appointment, effective April 1, 1913. as "Expert" in 
the Bureau of Entomology. Biiving was not loathe to leave Denmark 
for the larger United States. He felt that there was greater oppor- 
tunity to carry on research in his chosen field, and he greatly admired 
L. 0. Howard. Furthermore he was too able a man to remain Assist- 



PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 60, NO. 1, FEIiRUARY, 1958 35 

ant Curator at tlic Cojieiihagen Museum, but the position of Curator, 
to which he had aspired, was not avaihible to him. 

He found life and associations pleasing in this country and felt so 
strongly about the desirable features of the United States that he 
was able to convince Anna Christensen that she should leave Denmark 
and join him here. She came in lf)16 and arrived at New York after 
being on board ship for 18 days. The Bovings were married in New 
York and then proceeded to Washington. Shortly thereafter they 
bought the house on Rock Creek Church Road that was to become 
their home. Boving became a citizen of the United States in 1918, 
and continued in the Department of Agriculture until his retirement 
at the end of July 1989. At that time he hold a position as Senior 
Entomologist. 

Even though retired he was actively involved in research on larvae 
and imagines of the scarabaeid genus PJiyUophaga, sponsored jointly 
by the American Philosophical Society and the National Academy of 
Sciences, reported in 1942 as Memoir No. 2 of the Entomological 
Society of Washington. During World War TI he was prevailed upon 
to reenter Government service and was reinstated effective June 1, 
1942. Altliough in his 78rd year he was in good health and was able 
to work tlie six-day work week required during the war years. His 
reinstatement continued almost three years before he again retired, 
April 80, 1945. AVhile he was reemployed, Dr. Boving spent a month 
(February, 1944) on the Texas-Mexico border with personnel of the 
Division of Foreign Plant Quarantines. It was one of the pleasanter 
trips of his career for he had an opportunity to pass on to the inspec- 
tors a part of the vast fund of knowledge he possessed and to train 
them to make identifications of tlie more commonly intercepted beetle 
larvae. 

When Boving came to the United States he found a great deal to 
interest him in the collections of the National Musenm. Numerous 
larvae were available for study, larvae collected by Hubbard, Schwarz 
and Barber in their foresighted realization of the importance of lar- 
vae to a knowledge of insects. Furthermore, Boving was most closely 
associated with entomologists who were concentrating on forest insects 
and who were rearing and conducting field studies on many species 
of insects, under the direction of A. D. Hopkins. From those roarings 
a large amount of material accumulated, much of it representing 
groups the larvae of which were previously unknown. In later years 
these collections were augmented significantly by gifts and exchanges 
which were arranged in large part by Dr. Boving. The National 
Museum contains many larvae sent from Denmark, especially by J. P. 
Kryger. and tliat fine material attests the long friendship and mutual 
respect of the two men. Other important exchanges were arranged 
with such ontstanding students of beetle larvae as van Emden in Eng- 
land and Gardner in India. In the United States also, respect for 
Boving resiilted in the deposit at tlie Museum of important material 
from Keifer, Ritcher, Glen, etc. 



36 PROC. ENT. SOO. AVASH., VOL. 60, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1958 

Dr. Boviiig' must have brought with him from Denmark the idea 
of separatinji- the larger groups of Coh^optera on the basis of larval 
characters. It was not long after his arrival that he and F. C. Craig- 
head began working together on such a project. Later they received 
active assistance from 8t. George^ liyslop, and others. The masterful 
Synopsis of the Principal Larval Forms of Coleoptera was completed 
in the middle 1920 's and was published by the Brooklyn Entomologi- 
cal Societv, with a personal subsidv from Boving, in four parts in 
1930 and "l931. 

There can be no doubt of the stimulating effect that the Synopsis 
had on the study of beetle larvae in the United States as well as in 
other countries. For the first time a serious effort to arrange the lar- 
vae of this major order of insects in a natural or nearly natural sys- 
tem was successful. No attempt was made by the authors to develop 
any startling changes in the existing classification of the Coleoptera. 
Some changes were imperative, however, and subsequent reexamina- 
tion of the adults has proved them justified. The desirability of addi- 
tional changes was indicated in places as a guide to workers on adult 
Coleoptera that the existing arrangement should be reviewed. 

Before, as well as after, the appearance of the Synopsis, Dr. Boving 
published many important papers dealing with large families of Cole- 
optera or important groups within families. The breadth of interest 
and facility with which these various problems were approached and 
handled demonstrate his remarkable abilities. After retirement he 
continued his very active interest in these researches and produced a 
monumental work on larvae of the Anobiidae. At the time of his 
death he was studying larvae of the Nitidulidae. He had completed 
careful drawings of the available genera, developed a key to them, 
and had hoped to include a diagnosis for each genus. His excellent 
drawings ami the uuinusi'i-ipt notes Avill be prepared for formal 
publication. 

Dr. Boving 's stature as a scientist was widely recognized in this 
country and various countries in Europe. He was an honorary mem- 
ber of several of the numerous scientific societies to which he belonged. 
European societies with which he was affiliated include the following: 

Zoological and Botanical Society of Fiidand (Correspondent) 

Entomological Society of Fiidand (Correspondent) 

Entomological Society of Denmark (Honorary Member) 

Danish Natural History Society (Correspondent) 

Entomological Society of Stockholm (Honorary Member) 

Boyal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters 
He was a member of the following societies in the Ignited States: 

Washington Academy of Sciences 

Entoniolo<>-ical Societv of Washington (Honorary Member) 

Society of Sigma Xi — District of Columbia Chapter (Honorary 
Mendjer) 

Biological Societv of Washinuton (Life Member "» 



PKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1958 37 

Brooklyn Entomoloyical Society (Honorary Member) 
Entomological Society of America (Honorary Fellow) 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (Correspondent) 
American Association for the Advancement of Science 
He was appointed as an Associate in Zoology by the Smithsonian 
Institution in 1939. 

One of the finest honors paid Dr. Boving was his designation as a 
Knig'ht of the Order of Dauuebrog-, conferred on him in 1927, and 
in 1919 he received the more imposing- title of Commander in the 
same Order. It is probable that the fact that he was born in Denmark 
had some bearing on his being so honored by the Danes. However, 
the decisions to confer the honors were undoubtedly' based on a recog- 
nition of Dr. Boving 's contributions to entomology and demonstrate 
the importance attributed to scientific accomplishments by the Danish 
Government. The honor was, further, a recognition of his help to 
many visiting- Danish scientists by making- their trips to the United 
States more pleasant and profitable. 

His scientific stature was again recognized by Danish scientists in 
1934. At that time he and his family were invited to make a trip to 
Denmark where he delivered a series of lectures on the organization 
of entomological research in the United States. He also had an oppor- 
tunity to discuss the classification of beetle larvae with scientists from 
Denmark and other European countries. 

Dr. Boving is survived by his wife, Anna, who resides at the home 
on Rock Creek Church lioad, a son, Dr. Bent Boving, who holds a 
responsible position in the Department of Embryology, Carnegie In- 
stitution of Washington, in Baltimore, Maryland, and three grand- 
children. Three sisters, living in Denmark, also survive. 

In addition to a delightful personality. Dr. Boving possessed many 
sterling qualities of mind and heart. A man of high ideals, and abso- 
lute freedom from professional jealousy, his genial, wholesome, cour- 
teous disposition readily won for him enduring- friendships wherever 
he went, and the breadth of his intellectual attainments and ability 
to converse with his friends on a wide variety of subjects of interest 
to them proved unquestionably one of his fine attributes. That gift 
and the obvious friendliness of both Dr. Boving and his sweet wife, 
Anna, made even casual visitors completely at ease in their company 
and in their home. An energetic, careful worker, a patient observer, 
tireless in his efforts always to maintain highest standards of excel- 
lence, association with him was made a constant source of inspiration 
to his colleagues. Likewise, he will, long be remembered with gratitude 
for his deep interest in the problems and the advancement of younger 
workers, particularly those whose good fortune it was to be for a 
time under the stimulus of his leadership. It was a source of deep 
satisfaction to him that some of these later advanced into positions of 
leadership and responsibility in entomology. A quiet, serene and 
kindly spirit, tlie memory of Adam Giede Boving will long hold high 
place of veneration and affection in the hearts of all of those who 
knew him best. 



38 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, N'O. 1, FEBRTARY, 1958 

Bibliography^ 

190r>. Doiiaciinlarvenies Naturhistorie. Copenliagen. 263 pp., 7 pis., 70 text figs. 
1907. Oni Paussidenie og Larven til Paufisiis kannpgieteri Wasm. Vidensk. Medd. 
Xaturhist. Foren. 1907: 109-136, 1 pi., 5 text figs. 

1910. Natural history of the larvae of Donaciinae. Intern. Rev. Hydrobiol. Leip- 

zig. 108 pp., 7 Ills., 70 text figs. 
Nye Bidrag til Caraberues Udviklingshistorie, Part 1. Eiit. Medd. (2nd 
series) 3: 320-376, PI. 6, 15 text figs. 

1911. Nye Bidrag til Carabernes Udviklingshistorie, Part II. Ent. Medd. (2nd 

series) 4: 129-180, Pis. 5-9. 

1913. Studies relating to the anatomy, the biological adaptations, and the mechan- 

ism of ovipositor in the various genera of Dytiscidae. Intern. Rev. 
Hydrobiol. Leipzig, pp. 1-28, Pis. 1-6. 

1914. On the abdominal structnre of certain beetle larvae of the campodeiform 

type. Proe. Ent. Soc. Wash. 16: 55-61, Pis. 3-5. 
• — ■ — . On Mncmonica aiiricijanca Walsingham. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 16: 151-163, 

Pis. 9-16. (August Busck and A. G. Bciving). 
. Notes on the larva of Hydroscapha and some other aquatic larvae from 

Arizona. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 16: 169-174. Pis. 17-18. 
1917. A generic synopsis of the coceinellid larvae in the United States National 

Museum, with a description of the larva of Syperaftpif^ hinotata Say. 

Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 51: 621-650, Pis. 118-121. 

1919. Captain Allan Hinson Jennings. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 21: 61-63, PI. 3. 

(W. Dwight Pierce, August Busck and Adam Boving). 

. in. Runner, G. A. The tobacco beetle: an important pest in tobacco products. 

(With technical descriptions of coleopterous larvae.) U. S. Dept. Agr. 
Bui. 737, pp. 12-14, 33-34, Pis. 1, 4. 

1920. in Ainslie, George G. The cornpith weevil (Crnfriniis pcnicellus Hbst.) 

(Description of last instar larva\ Jour. Econ. Ent. 13: 277-280, Fig. 10. 

. Larvae of North American beetles of the family Cleridae. Proc. IT. S. 

Natl. Mus. 57: 575-649, Pis. 42-53. (A. G. Boving and A. B. Cham- 
plain). 

1921. The larva of FopUlia joponica Newman and a closely related undetermined 

ruteline larva, a systematic and morithdlogical study. Proc. Ent. Soc. 
Wash. 23: 51-62, Pis. 5-6. 

. Biology of Emhaphion muricatiim. Jour. Agr. Res. 22: 323-334, Pis. 31-32. 

(J. S. Wade and A. G. Boving). 

. The larvae and pupae of the social lieetles Coccidofvoplnis socialifi (Schwarz 

and Barber) and Ennausihius u-hceh ri (Schwarz and Barber) with re- 
marks on the taxonomy of the family Cticu.jidae. Zoologica 3: 197-221, 
Pis. 7-10. 

1922. The larva of the North American beetle Zenodosus sangioineus Say of the 

family Cleridae. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 24: 9-11, PI. 4. (A. G. Boving 
and A. B. Champlain). 



1 This list of pul)lications, including jiapers npi)earing in 1942, was prepared by 
Dr. Boviuii himself. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1958 39 

1922. ill Burke, H. E. The lead-cahle horer or ' ' short-circ-uit l)eetle'' in ("ali- 
fornia. Appendix: Taxonomy and morphology of the larval stages of 
Scobicio declivis Leconte. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bui. 1107: 49-54, Pis. 1-2. 

1924. The historieal development of the term ' ' triungulin. ' ' .lour. Wash. Acad. 

Sei. 14: 203-204. 
. The lilister beetle Tricriiiiin .sdiu/iiiiiiprnnis — liiology, descriptions of difi'er- 

ent stages, and systematic relationships. Proc. V. S. Xatl. ]Mus. (i4: 

1-40, Pis. 1-5. (J. B. Parker and A. G. Biiving). 
■ . The larva of the weevil Liiiniobdris rcciiro.sfris Leconte. .lour. X. Y. Ent. 

Soc. 32: 198-204, PI. K). 
. Life-history studies of the tobacco flea-beetle in the Southern cigar-wrapper 

district. Jour. Agr. Res. 29: 575 584, figs. 2-6. (F. S. ("liamlierlin, 

J. N. Tenhet and Adam G. Boving). 
. Herlufe Wingi', (1857-1923). Jour. Mamm. 5: 196-199. 

1925. Address of tlie letiring President. A Summer Trip in Iceland South of 

Yatna-jokul. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 27: 17-35. 

1926. Immature stages of Eiilechriops cfOftsifpii Barber, with comments on the 

classification of the tribe Zygopsini (Coleoptera: Cnreulionidae). Proc. 
Ent. Soc. Wash. 28 : 54-62, PI. 7, text figs. A, B. 

. The immature stages of Pscphcnoides galiani Champ. (Coleoptera: Dryopi- 

dae). Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 74: 381-388, Pis. 89-90. 

1927. The larva of Xevennannia clorcatomoiiles Fisher with comments on the 

classification of the Anobiidae according to their larvae (Coleoptera : 

Anobiidae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 29: 51-62, PI. 3. 
. On the classification of the Mylabridae-larvae (Coleoptera: ^lylabridae). 

Proc. Ent. Soc. Wasli. 29: 133-143, PI. 8, text fig. 1. 
. Immature stages of Euinycterus (?) saccharidis Barber, with comments on 

the classification of the tribe Barini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae'). Proc. 

Ent. Soc. Wash. 29: 151-159, PI. 9, text fig. 2. 
. Descriptions of larvae of the genera Diabrotica and Plu/Uobrotica. with a 

discussion of the taxonomic validity of the subfamilies Galerucinae and 

Halticinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 29: 

193-205, PI. 11 (p. 206). 

1928. The larva of Enoclenis lecontei Wolcott and Callimenis arcufcr Chapin, of 

the beetle family Cleridae. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 30: 93-100, Pis. 5-6. 

1929. On the classification of beetles according to larval characters. Bui. Brook- 

lyn Ent. Soc. 24: 55-97, Pis. 1-17. 
. Beetle larvae of the subfamily Galerucinae. Proc. IT. S. Natl. Mus. 75: 

1-48, Pis. 1-5. 2 text figs. 
. The pacific flathead borer. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bui. 83. 36 pp., 12 figs. 

(H. E. Burke and A. G. Boving). 
. Taxonomic characters for identification of the mature larvae of Pissodes 

strobi Peck and Pissodes approximatus Hopkins (Fam. Curculionidae). 

Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 31 : 182-187, PI. 8, 3 text figs. 

1930. Description of the larva of Cerotoma trifurcata Forster (Coleoptera: Chry- 

somelidae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 32: 51-59, PL 2. 



40 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1958 

1930-31. An illustrated synopsis of the principal larval forms of the order Cole- 
optera. Ent. Americana, 11 (n.s.), 351 i)p., 125 pis. (A. G. Roving and 
F. C. Craighead). 

1933. Description of the larva of Decadiomus pictus Chapin (Scvninini, ("occin- 

ellidae). Proe. Biol. See. Wash. 46: 101-104, PI. II. 

1934. Kampen mod dc skadelige Insekter i De Forenede Stater. Copeidiagen. 

IH lip. 

1935. Larva of Titr'ujii.s flciifiaii.ri van Zwaluwenburg. Proc. Hawaii Ent. Soc. 

9: 49-61, PI. 1, 4 text figs. (J. A. Hyslop and A. G. Boving). 

1936. Description of the larva of Plectris aliena Chapin and explanation of new 

terms applied to the epipharyiix and raster. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 38: 
169-185, Pis. 9-10, 2 text figs. 

1937. Keys to the larvae of 4 groups and 43 species of the genus FJn/Jlopliafia. 

U. S. Dept. Agr. E 417, 8 pp., 1 pi. (Mimeograph). 

1938. The developmental stages of the Danish Hydrophilidae. Vid. Medd. fra. 

Dansk Naturh. Foren. 102: 27-162, figs. 1-55. (A. G. Boving and 
K. L. Henricksen). 

1939. Descriptions of the three larval instars of the Japanese beetle, PopilUa 

japonica Newm. (Coleoptera : Scaraliaeidae). Proe. Ent. Soc. Wash. 
41: 183-191, Pis. 24-25. 

1940. Morphological investigation of the taxonomically important structures of 

the larvae of the beetles of the genus riii/lloplKU/a. Yearliook, Amer. 

Phil. Soc. 1940: 123-125. 
1942. Descrix^tions of the larvae of some West Indian melolonthine beetles and a 

key to the known larvae of the tribe. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 92: 

167-176, Pis. 18-19. 
. Description of the third-stage larva of Amphimallov majalis Ra/.oumowsky. 

Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 44: 111-121, Pis. 10-11. 
. A classification of larvae and adults of the genus Ph/illophafKi. Memoir 

No. 2, Ent. Soc. Wash. 96 pp., 11 Pis., 6 text figs. 
1945. Description of the larva and pupa of the scarab beetle Ancyloniicha min- 

danaona (Brenske). Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 35: 13-15, figs. 1-8. 

1954. Mature larvae of the beetle-family Anobiidae. Dan. Biol. Medd. 22(2) 

298 pp., 50 pis. 

1955. A correction. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 57: 202. 

1956. A description of the mature larva of Ptiniis raliforniciis Pic. Ent. Medd. 

27: 229-241. 

C. F. W. MUESEBECK 

J. S. Wade 

W. H. Anderson 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, lOog 41 

NOW AVAILABLE 



Memoir 5 

of the 

Entomological Society of Washington 



A CLASSIFICATION OF THE SIPHONAPTERA OF 
SOUTH AMERICA 

WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES 
by Phyllis Truth Johnson 

The study of South American fleas was begun in 1879 when Weyeu- 
bergh published the first descriptions of species from that region, using 
specimens mounted on cardboard as was usual in that day. These 
fleas were restudied in balsam by Jordan and Rothschild in England 
shortly after the turn of the century, and from that time to the 
present day a large number of siphonapterologists, both in England 
and the Americas, have contributed to this study. Dr. Johnson's 
work is the first comprehensive taxonomic treatment of the fleas of 
tlie region, which comprises Trinidad and all of the continent and its 
coastal islands. The contemplated 275 page volume wdll be indispensa- 
ble to the serious student of this important order of insects. 

Memoir 5 opens with two discussions of morphological characters, one devoted 
to the terms used in the taxonomic section and the other to their taxonomic 
validity and possible phylogenetic significance. All the families, tribes and genera 
known to occur in South America are completely described and illustrated, and 
the species within each genus have been listed with host and locality data. De- 
scriptions of 17 new species and two new subspecies bring the total number to 
170. Keys to families, tribes, genera, and species are included. The discussion of 
each genus is terminated by a section giving the synonymies of the hosts con- 
cerned. The 114 plates are said to contain among the best illustrations of fleas 
currently available, and are grouped according to family. A section listing hosts, 
each with the flleas known to occur on it, recapitulates the host-flea information; 
sections dealing with references, systematic index and list of abbreviations close 
the volume. 

Orders at the price of $9.00 to members and $10.00 to non-members may be 
placed with the Society for Memoir No. 5. Orders should be addressed to Mr. 
Herbert J. Conkle, Custodian, Plant Quarantine Branch, Agricultural Research 
Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington 25, D. C. 



42 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1958 

SOCIETY MEETINGS 

The 66()th regular meeting of the Entomological Society of Washington was 
called to order at 8:00 PM by President F. L. Campbell in Eoom 43 of the U. S. 
National Museum on Thursday, February 7, 1957. Forty two members and fifteen 
visitors were present. The minutes of the previous meeting were read and 
approved. 

P. X. Peltier gave the report of the Treasurer for 1956. Kellie O'Neill read 
the report of the Corresponding Secretary for 1956 for Kelvin Dorward, and 
Herbert J. Conkle gave the report of the Custodian for 1956. Each was accepted. 

The following candidates for membership wert presented and elected: Mrs. 
Minnie B. CalJaicay, Entomology Research Branch, ARS, U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, Washington 25, D. C. Stanley B. Joseph, Route 1, Box 28A, Annap- 
olis, Md. Horace B. Lanchester, Agricultural Research Service, Agricultural Cen- 
ter, Beltsville, Md. Dr. Frederico Lane, Departamento de Zoologia da Secretaria 
da Agricultura, Caixa Postal 7172, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Florence A. Snyder, Divi- 
sion of Insects, U. S. National Museum, Washington 25, D. C, and Nixon Wilson, 
522 N. 3rd St., Bardstown, Ky. 

President Campbell suggested that local members of the Society contribute to 
the funds for the local Science Fairs in justice to non-resident members who Avill 
be called upon for support in their own areas. He will recpiest members to fill out 
cards for the Washington Academy of Sciences to indicate what they might be 
able to do to assist with the Science Fairs in the Washington area. 

Dr. Samuel H. Williams, Stanford Research Institute, spoke briefly about his 
recent experiences in Austria. Dr. Williams served as a guest professor in the 
Zoological Institute of the University of Vienna and became one of the best known 
and most respected American scientists in Austria because of his long and devoted 
service to that country in behalf of the United States. In 1956 Dr. Williams' 
reputation was carried into Hungary by the Hungarian revolution of 1956, and he 
assisted many Hungarian scientists to make American contacts. Dr. Williams 
extolled the courage of Hungarians who had escaped Hungary and the hardships 
they had endured, and commended the Austrians for help in the form of food 
and shelter they gave to many thousands of Hungarians. In conclusion, he asked 
his audience to bear in mind the Hungarian scientists who have come or who may 
come to the United States and who will need further help. (President's abstract) 

W. E. Bickley announced a forthcoming lecture entitled "Recent Researches on 
Honey Bee Physiology and Behavior," by Dr. Eva Ci-ane, sponsored by the Uni- 
versity of Maryland chapter of the Sigma Xi. Dr. Bickley also introduced Frank 
J. Burke, who exhibited cynipid galls on black oak, Quei-cus volutina, upon which 
his senior entomology project was based. 

Robert H. Nelson reported briefly upon a paper delivered by A. N. Tissot at 
the recent meeting of the Cotton States Branch, ESA. Dr. Tissot demonstrated 
an increase in the number of southern entomologists who received their training 
in southern institutions. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. AVASH., VOL. 60, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1958 43 

The principal paper of the evening was an address by retiring. President E. A. 
St. George, ' ' Highliglits of Fifty Years of Eesearch on Insects Attacking Forest 
Products. ' ' Mr. St. George traced the beginnings of forest entomology in the 
United States by describing the study made by Dr. A. D. Hopkins of the killing 
of pines by Deiidroctonus frontalis Zim., and the publication at about the same 
time of forest insect information by Dr. A. S. Packard in the Fifth Eeport of the 
U. S. Entomological Commission. In the U.S.D.A. career that made Dr. Hopkins 
known as the father of forest entomology, he was employed jointly by the Division 
of Entomology and the Forest Service, and when the Division of Forest Insects 
was created in 1902 he was called to Washington to become its chief and served 
until 1923. Dr. F. C. Craighead followed him and was succeeded in 1950 by the 
present Division leader, Dr. J. A. Beal. Mr. St. George recounted a number of 
advances in forest entomology made by Dr. Hopkins and his assistants, some of 
whom became specialists in taxonomy and Avere assigned to the Division of Insect 
Identification. Eesearch on forest product insects includes studies on ambrosia 
beetles, bark beetles and wood borers at the Eastern Field Station, at Tallulah, 
La., and at Gulfport, Miss., and work on protection of logs and posts by sapstream 
injections at Asheville and Bent Creek, N. Car., and Hat Creek, Calif. At the 
Eastern Field Station the natural resistance of Avood and of preservatives applied 
to wood by various methods were evaluated. Entomologists in Australia, South 
Africa, HaAvaii, and Panama cooperated in the "International Termite Exposure 
Test," now in its 28th year. The pressure treatment of buildings was studied in 
Panama, and the evaluation of soil poisons for termite control Avas studied at 
Long Island, Beltsville, CroAvn Point, La., Saucier, Miss., and the Canal Zone. 
Eesearch on the biology and control of Lyctus powderpost beetles has been in 
progress since the early days of the Division at the Eastern Field Station, and 
includes projects at Tallulah, La., Beltsville, and Gulfport. During the past 5 
years, the old house borer, Hyloirupes bajalus (L.), has received a great deal of 
attention, and research on it has been initiated at Gulfport, Miss., and New 
Haven, Conn. 

Society members with long memories recognized some of the pioneer forest ento- 
mologists in the slides Mr. St. George shoAved. (Secretary's abstract.) 

Visitors introduced were Faustino C. Francia, Forest Products Laboratory, Col- 
lege of Agriculture, University of the Philippines ; Dr. William Goodwin, en route 
to Libya with ICA ; and Stanley Joseph, new member. 

The meeting Avas adjourned at 11:00 PM. — Kellie O'Neill, Recording Secre- 
tan/. 



The 661st regular meeting of the Entomological Society of Washington was 
called to order at 8:00 PM by President Campbell in Eoom 43 of the U. S. 
National Museum on Thursday, March 7, 1957, with 39 members and 21 visitors 
attending. The minutes of the previous meeting Avere read, corrected, and approved. 



44 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1958 

President Campbell announced the appointment of a committee consisting ot 
H. H. Shepard (chairman), W. H. Anderson, and E. F. Knipling, to revise the 
Society's constitution and by-laws. He exhibited the Air Force edition (unbound) 
of the Handbook of Biological Data, and the directory recently issued by the 
Chemical Society of Washington, expressing his wish that the Society might have 
a similar one. 

F, W. Poos read J. S. Wade's "Note on the Respiration of Entomologists," 
from the 1929 Proceedings (31: 139). The concensus indicated that Mr. Wade's 
observations are still pertinent. 

The principal paper of the evening was presented by George B. Vogt and was 
titled, 'A Survey of Ralogeton glomeratus Mey and Related Plants and the 
Insects Affecting them in the Old World." An eight-month survey of this and 
related plants and the insects affecting them was carried out in the arid regions 
of southern Spain, the Middle East, and the Far East. The purpose of this survey 
was to observe possible agents for biological control of this serious weed pest of 
western rangelands. The itinerary began with Vogt in southern Spain (near sea 
level) in late March and proceeded to Syria via Lebanon, central and northern 
Iran, north-central Afghanistan and via New Delhi to Indus Valley (elevation 
10,500-11,000') in Ladadakh. After September 10 the itinerary reversed over the 
same route in order to obtain the late seasonal picture. At Kabul, Vogt joined 
C. J. Davis and J. J. Drea and the three observed together the areas in north- 
central Afghanistan and Iran. Davis and Drea remained in Tehran in order to 
set up a laboratory for propagation and testing of candidate biological control 
agents for halogeton. Early in November, Vogt proceeded westward to Spain, not 
being able to re-enter Syria owing to the international crisis. In southern Spain, 
as further east, Halogeton was observed matured and in full fruit as contrasted to 
the small seedlings observed in the early sirring. Five (one questionable) species 
of Halogeton were studied. For each locality surveyed for Halogeton, related 
plants of the Chaenopodiaceae, especially of the tribe Salsolae, were studied as 
well. Approximately 35 plant species in addition to the species of Halogeton were 
thus observed. Altogether 80 to 120 species of insects were found affecting 18 to 
20 species of the tribe Salsoleae. Included among these are the insects found to 
occur on Halogeton, one species of which, H. glomeratus, was too local and scarce 
to support significant populations. About 60-80 species of insects were found on 
the remaining species of Halogeton. Among these insects are examples that attack 
the seedling plant, suck stem leaf and bract, defoliate, bore stem, chew and bleed 
stem, bore taproot and crown, bore taproot, chew and bleed taproot, feed on 
fruiting branches and feed on seeds. In general the insects range widely in the 
vast geographical region surveyed and foodplantwise they range generally over 
the members of the tribe Salsoleae, apparently with only a few highly specific 
forms. However, there are indications and good possibilities that a number of 
them are forms sufficiently specialized that they will hardly range outside the 
tribe Salsoleae and much less likely outside the subfamily Suaedoidea to attack 
economic and otherwise important plants of the western U.S.A. belonging to the 
subfamily Ohenopoidea, including sugar beet, table beet, spinach, and winterfat 
(Atriplex spp.). (Speaker's abstract.) 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1958 45 

Visitors introduced were Mr. and Mrs. Archie H. Symonds and Mrs. E. R. 
McGovran, and member J. Maldonado Capriles. Dr. Maldonado is en route to 
Pakistan as a public health officer for ICA. The meeting adjourned at 10:00 PM. 
— Kellie O'Neill, Recording Secretary. 



The 662nd regular meeting of the Society was held in Room 43 of the U. S. 
National Museum on Thursday, April 4, 1957, with 33 members and 17 visitors 
present. President Campbell called the meeting to order at 8:00 PM and the 
minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 

President Campbell announced the appointment of a committee, consisting of 
A. B. Gurney (chairman), W. D. Reed and W. B. Wood, which is to advise the 
president on other committee appointments as well as to nominate officers for the 
coming year. 

The following persons were elected to membership: Alberto W. Vazquez, 5722 "S. 
11th St., Arlington, Va. ; Dr. George W. Evans, Dept. Entomology, Virginia Poly- 
technic Institute, Blacksburg ; Elroy R. Krestensen, Univ. Maryland Fruit Lab., 
Hancock; John A. Davidson, 239 Park Ave., Takoma Pk., Md. ; and Robert 0. 
Schuster, Dept. Entomology, University of California at Davis. 

President Campbell reported that a special Executive Committee meeting had 
been held to arrange the commemoration of the hundredth anniversary of Dr. 
L. 0. Howard's birth. It was voted that the Society join the Insecticide Society 
of Washington to sponsor a dinner appropriate to the occasion. M. D. Leonard 
was appointed chairman for this dinner. Helen Sollers told about activities honor- 
ing Dr. Howard in other societies, and suggested that members of the Society 
might tell their friends in other entomological groups about the Society's plans. 
M. P. Jones asked President Campbell to place an item about the Howard dinner 
in the Entomological Society of America Bulletin. 

The deaths of R. A. Cushman, Ina L. Hawes, J. G. Saunders and Honorary 
Member A. G. Boving were announced by President Campbell, who appointed com- 
mittees to prepare the several obituaries. W. H. Anderson spoke about Dr. Boving ; 
C. F. W. Muesebeck told about Mr. Cushman 's life and service to entomology; 
Margaret S. Bryant, USDA Library, spoke about Miss Hawes; and President 
Campbell gave a talk on Mr. Saunders prepared by M. D. Leonard, who was 
not present. 

The principal speaker of the evening was Neal A. Weber of Swarthmore College, 
whose title was, * ' The Fungus-Growing Ants and their Fungi. ' ' The primary 
purpose of the present studies is to explain how ants maintain a flourishing culture 
of only one fungus when they take into their nest a pellet of caterpillar or beetle 
feces containing the spores of Penicillium, Aspergillus, Trichoderma or other 
fungi and/or bacteria. While primarily a tropical American group, these ants 
have extended their range into the United States and the arid part of Mexico by 
finding the requisite and constant high humidity deep in the soil. Many species 
form a typical crater entrance, that of the Florida to New Jersey pine barrens, 
Trachymyrmex septentrionalis, is usually a semi-circular crater, while other species 
may have circular crater or turret entrances. Many species form large nests of 



46 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1958 



many thousands of workers. In order to study these colonies in detail, it is neces- 
sary to bring portions into the laboratory. A Petri dish may suffice for an entire 
colony of a small species, while others are kept in larger observation nests of 
Incite or glass. "When a portion of a colony and part of its garden are placed on 
sterile nutrient agar, the ants may successfully maintain their own fungus as an 
island surrounded by numerous colonies of contaminants. To succeed in this man- 
ner appears to require an unusual antibiotic activity. The constant licking of the 
ant fungus and new substrate and the frequent defecation on them impart special 
qualities to the garden that may explain this condition. The ant fungi are being 
cultured in the absence of the ants. These fungi on standard nutrient media are 
easily overwhelmed by common contaminants. The fungus of the 2 mm. Cyphomyr- 
mex costatns Mann of Central America was successfully reared to the mature 
sporophore stage and represents the first ant fungus to be so reared. It is now 
being named by the French authority on the tropical members of this group. 
(Speaker's abstract.) The paper was followed by questions and comments by 
President Campbell, Mr. Wade, T. E. Snyder, K. E. Lipinsky, W. H. Anderson, 
A. B. Gurney, and others. 

Visitors introduced were Katherine A. King, University of Maryland student, 
and W. G. Bruce, Plant Pest Control Division, ABS, USDA. 

The meeting was adjourned at 10.00 PM. — Kellie O'Neill, Becordlng Secre- 
tary. 






NEW AMMUNITION? 

Search for improved insecticides and fumigants 
gets high priority at Diamond's enlarged 
Research Center. Increasing sales of our own 
products give evidence of this interest. We 
welcome requests for cooperation on research 
and development projects. 



Dia.moncl 
Chemiccils 




PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 3, FEBRUARY, 1958 



47 



hJidiM'd^imkli^ij^ldiM^? 




PRODUCTION 



A greal deal of woik and knowledge goes irilo tlie 
development of insecticides. Once developed, how- 
ever, they're a priceless defense against the loss of 
food and fiber, the disease, and the annoyance 
caused by man's insect enemies. Velsicol Chemical 
Corporation manufactures five basic insecticides 
that are thoroughly proven, widely reconnriended. 
and extensively used: Heptachlor. Cliiordane. 



Endrin. Parathion and Methyl Parathion. Each of 
them is rated most efficient for specific types of 
insect control, and all are available everyv%here, in 
ready-to-use, reasonably priced formulations. If 
you deal with any phase of insect control, we think 
you will find technical information about these in- 
secticides highly useful. 



NEW! VELSICOIGIBBEREILINS! 

Amaz.rg plorl growfh slimulant Vcls. 



I progcam in piog.i 



wmiE FOR A IDOCHURt OF lECHNICAl INFORMATION. PREPARID BY VIISICOIJ fNTOMOlOCISTS' 
HEPTACHLOR • CHLORDANE • ENDRIN • PARATHION • METHYL PARATHION 

imk VELSICOL CHEMICAL CORPORATION 

330 East Grand Ave.,' Chicago 11, Illinois 



VC 1126-7108 AS APPEARING IN: 

AMERICAN JOURNAL Of TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE. ANNUALS OF THE 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST, FLORIDA 

ENTOMOLOGIST, JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY, 
PAN PACIFIC ENTOMOLOGIST, PRECEDINGS OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL 
SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON, O.C. 



48 PRO(". ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 1, FEBRUARY, 1958 

Pyrenone* 



HELPS TO PRESERVE 
PRINCIPLE OF NATURAL CONTROL 



JLyrenone quickly kills destructive, annoy- 
ing and disease-carrying insects. 

In the absence of sunlight, it remains effective 
for long periods of time. In fact, a single application 
of Pyrenone protects stored grains from insect at- 
tacks for an entire storage season. 

On growing crops Pyrenone kills the accessible 
stages of insects fast — even between showers of 
rain. Yet natural factors of rain and sunlight do not 
permit Pyrenone to form long-lasting residues. Be- 
cause long-lasting residues are not present, the newly 
emerging parasites and predators are free to com- 
plete their life cycles and to continue to parasitize 
or feed upon destructive insect pests. 

This means that Pyrenone is completely com- 
patible with the natural control of crop-destroying 
insects. 



'Reg. U.S. Pat. Off., F.M.C. 



FAIRFIELD CHEMICAL DIVISION 

Food Machinery and Chemical Corporation 

441 Lexington Avenue • New York 17, N. Y. 



^^ BRANCHES IN PRINCIPAL CITIES 




fff, 



m 



In Canada: Natural Products Corporation, Toronto and Montreal 



A Cyanamid Report 

MALATHION 

FOR DIRECT APPLICATION ON ANIMALS 

With newly-granted residue tolerances, malathion can be applied 
directly to beef cattle, poultry, and swine. This is the result of 
three years of extensive research in 11 states. The work proved 
conclusively the safety and usefulness of malathion as a spray for 
controlling cattle and poultry lice, poultry mites (northern fowl 
and chicken red mite), and cattle and poultry ticks. In addition, 
malathion dust may be applied to nests, litter, and floor space. 
Roost paints using malathion emulsifiable liquid may also be used 
in poultry houses. In addition to spraying beef cattle with mala- 
thion for lice control, rubbing devices incorporating the product 
have been most effective in suppressing lice and horn flies. 

Do not apply malathion to lactating dairy cows, since it has not yet 
been accepted for this use, nor should it be used on calves under 
one month of age. 

PROTECTANT FOR STORED GRAIN 

With newly-granted residue tolerances for malathion on wheat, 
barley, oats, rice, rye, corn, grain sorghum, and peanuts (post- 
harvest), grain handlers storing grain have a method of protect- 
ing grain from loss to insects. Malathion, either in dust or spray 
form, applied to the grain as it is being loaded into bins, affords 
protection against confused flour beetle, rice weevil, granary 
weevil, saw-toothed grain beetle, flat grain beetle, red flour beetle, 
rusty grain beetle, lesser grain beetle, and Indian meal moth. It is 
also suggested as a residual wall, floor, and machinery spray in 
grain elevators, in treating truck beds, box cars, and ships' holds 
before loading grain. Where Indian meal moth infestations de- 
velop, surface applications of malathion dusts or sprays at pre- 
scribed intervals afford protection. 

NEW USES FOR MALATHION ON CROPS 

Tolerances have been established on 37 additional crops, including: 

Vegetables Fruits 

Asparagus Bramble family 

Carrots and other root crop Nectarines 

Garlic— Leeks— Shallots Quinces 

Several leaf vegetables Currants 

Pumpkins Gooseberries 

Also, small grains, cotton, mushrooms, peppermint, spearmint, 
corn and rice. With these additions, malathion is now recom- 
mended on 93 crops. 

Developers and producers of malathion and parathion 



American Cyanamid Company, Insecticide Department, 
30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York 20, N. Y. 




QUALITY INSECTICIDES 



Preferred by Home Owners, 
Food Processors and Dairymen 

QUICK ACTION GULFSPRAY (Liquid) 

A "space spray" for quick knockdown and kill of many 
kinds of flying and crawling insects. Contains 0.10% Pyre- 
thrins, 0.12% Piperonyl Butoxide, and 0.75% Methoxychlor. 

GULFSPRAY AEROSOL BOMB 

Gulf's carefully researched formula provides quick knock- 
down action and high kill. Contains 0.25% Pyrethrins, 1% 
Piperonyl Butoxide, and 2% Methoxychlor. 

GULF MOTH PROOFER (Bomb) 

An easy-to-use pressurized spray for protecting woolens 
against moth and carpet beetle damage. Contains 3% DOT 
and 3% Perthane. 

GULF ANT AND ROACH BOMB 

A convenient pressurized spray containing contact and resid- 
ual insecticides for killing ants and cockroaches. Contains 
0.08% Pyrethrins and 2% Chlordane. 

SPECIAL GULFSPRAY (Liquid) 

A superlative-quality insecticide specially formulated for 
use where foodstuffs are processed, stored, served, and sold. 
Contains 0.25% Pyrethins and 0.20% Piperonyl Butoxide. 

GULF LIVESTOCK SPRAY 

Long proven formula with effective insect- killing power and 
repellent properties. Contains 0.07% Pyrethrins and 0. 1 9% 
Piperonyl Butoxide. 

GULF OIL CORPORATION 

GULF BUILDING, PITTSBURGH 30, PA. 



VOL. 60 



APRIL 1958 



NO. 2 



PROCEEDINGS 



of the 



ENTOMDLOGICAL SOCIETY 

. WASHINGTON 




U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 
WASHINGTON 25, D. C. 

PUBLISHED BIMONTHLY 



CONTENTS 

BARBER, H, G. — A New Species of Nysius From Alaska and Alberta, Can- 
ada (Hetniptera, Lygaeidae) 70 

CUNLIFFE, F. — Pyroglyphus morlani, a New Genus and Species of Mite 
Forming a New Family Proglyphidae, in the Acaridiae (Acarina, Sar- 
coptiformes) 85 

DAVIDSON, J. A. — A New Species of Lizard Mite and a Generic Key to 
the Family Pterygosomidae (Acarina, Anystoidea) . 75 

KROMBEIN, K. V. — Additions During 1956 and 1957 to the Wasp Fauna 
of Lost River State Park, West Virginia, with Biological Notes and Descrip- 
tions of New Species (Hymcnoptera, Aculeata) 49 

LA RIVERS, IRA — New Ambrysus Records for Mexico (Hemiptera, Nau- 
coridae) 71 

MALDONADO-CAPRILES, J., PIPPIN, W. F., and KUNS, M. L.— An 
Annotated Check List of the Mosquitoec of Mona Island, Puerto Rico, 
and the Larva and Male of Aedes obturbator D. & K. (Diptera, Culicidae) 65 

STONE, A. & KNIGHT, K. L. — Two New Names in Mosquitoes (Diptera, 
Culicidae ) ...._....— 69 

THURMAN, ERNESTINE B. — Laelaps keegani, nom. nov. for Laelaps 
berlesei Keegan, 1956 (Acarina, Laelaptidae) 74 

TIPTON, V. J. 8C BOESE, J. L. — Steatonyssus furmani, a New Nearctic 
Bat Mite (Acari, Macronyssidae) - 80 

TODD, E. L. — A Note on the Identity of Nerthra planifrons (Melin) 
(Hemiptera, Gelastocoridae) - - - 79 

OBITUARY— Ina Louise Hawes, 1896-1957 87 

SOCIETY MEETINGS 90 

ANNOUNCEMENT 84 



THE 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON 

Oboanized March 12, 1884 



OFFICEBS FO& 1958 

R. I. Sailee, President 

Entomology Research Division, ARS, USDA 
Plant Industry Station, North Building 
Beltsville, Maryland 

R. H. Nelson, First Vice President 
Entomological Society of America 
1530 P St., N.W. 
Washington 5, D. C. 

P. W. Oman, Second Vice President 

Entomology Research Division, ARS, USDA 
Plant Industry Station, North Building 
Beltsville, Maryland 

Helen Soul-ers, Recording Secretary 
Plant Pest Control Division, ARS 
U.S. Department of Agriculture 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Paul Woke, Corresponding Secretary 
7213 Beacon Terrace 
Bethesda, Maryland 

P. P. Harrison, Treasurer 
Department of Entomology 
University of Maryland 
College Park, Maryland 

R. H. FOOTE, Editor 
c/o Division of Insects 
U.S. National Museum 
Washington 25, D. C. 

H. J. CONKLB, Custodian 

Plant Quarantine Division, ARS 
U.S. Department of Agriculture 
Washington 25, D. C. 

J. G. ROZEN, Program Chairman 
c/o Division of Insects 
U.S. National Museum 
Washington 25, D. C. 

H. H. Shkpard, Nominated to Represent the 
Society a-8 Vice President of 
the Washinifton Academy of 
Sciences. 

FMRD-CSS 

U.S. Department of Agriculture 

Washington 25, D. C. 



Executive Committee 

T. L. BiSSELL, University of Maryland 

B. A. St. George, U.S. Dept. Agriculture 

F. L. Campbell, National Research Council 

Honorary President 

R. E. Snodgrass, U.S. National Museum 

Honorary Members 

C. F. W. MtJESEBECK, U.S. National Museum 

H. G. Barber, U.S. National Museum 

A. B. Gahan, Berwyn, Maryland 



Regular meetings of the Society are held in 
Room 43 of the U. S. National Museum on the 
first Thursday of each month from October to June, 
inclusive, at 8 P.M. Minutes of meetings are pub- 
lished regularly in the Proceedings. 

KEMBEBSUIP 

Members shall be persons over 18 years of ago 
who have an interest in the science of entomology. 
Annual dues for members are $4.00 ; initiation fee 
is $1.00 (U. S. currency). 

PBOcssomras 

Published bimonthly beginning with February by 
the Society at Washington, D. C. Members in good 
standing are entitled to the Proceedings free of 
charge. Non-member subscriptions are $5.00 per 
year, both domestic and foreign (U. S, currency), 
payable in advance. All remittances should be 
made payable to The Entomological Society of 
Washington. 

The Society does not exchange its publications 
for those of other societies. 

All manuscripts intended for publication should 
be addressed to the Editor. Acceptable papers sub- 
mitted by members will be published in the order 
received and will be given precedence over those 
by non-members. Immediate publication may be 
obtained at a cost to the author of about $12.00 
per piinted page, plus cost of all engraving. Titles 
of papers should be concise but compreh. nsive and 
should indicate the systematic position of the sub- 
ject insect. By-lines should indicate present mail- 
ing address of the author and his organizational 
affiliation, if possible. Citations in the text of pa- 
pers longer than one printed page should be by 
author and date and should refer to a list of con- 
cluding references in which author, year, title, 
name of publicatioa, volume and page are given in 
that order. In shorter articles, references to litera- 
ture should be included in parentheses in the text. 

Proportions of full-page illustrations should 
closely approximate 4-5/16 x 6" (26 x 36 picas) ; 
this usually allows explanatory matter to appear on 
the same page. Cost of illustrations in excess of 
that for one full-page line cut will be borne by the 
author. 

Reprints of published papers may be obtained at 
the following costs plus postage and insurance, 
provided that a statement of the number desired 
accompanies the returned proofs: 



2 pp. 
I copit„ 
$2.00 



4 pp. 8 pp. 



50 copies: 

$3.00 $5.00 



12 pp. 16 pp. Covert 
$5.60 $6.25 $4.00 



100 copies: 

2.50 3.80 



6.00 7.20 8.25 4.75 



Additional copies, per 100: 
1.00 1.15 2.00 



2.60 



3.15 



1.50 



Purchase of reprints by institutions whose in- 
voices are subject to notarization or other invoice 
fees will have the cost of such fees added to the 
purchase price. 



Entered as second-class matter at tbe Post Office at Washing-ton, D. C. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Entomological Society of Washington 

VoL 60 APRIL 1958 No. 2 



ADDITIONS DURING 1956 AND 1957 TO THE WASP FAUNA OF LOST 

RIVER STATE PARK, WEST VIRGINIA, WITH BIOLOGICAL NOTES AND 

DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES 

(Hymenoptera, Aculeata) 

Karl V. Krombein, Entomology Research Division, U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

The wasp fauna of Lost River State Park, Hardy Count}', West 
Virginia, has been the subject of several earlier papers (Krombein: 
Proc. Ent. Soe. Wash. 54 : 175-184, 6 figs., 1952 ; Bui. Brooklyn Ent. 
Soc. 49: 1-7, 1954; Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 58: 153-161, 3 figs., 1956). 
Those papers catalogued the wasp fauna as it occurred early in the 
summer (June 18-25 and July 18, 1951 ; June 29-July 5, 1953 ; and 
July 4-11, 1955). About 80 species were taken during each of those 
years, and the cumulative total amounted to 128 species. 

We were able to spend part of our family vacation in the Park in 
1956 from August 21 to September 2, and again in 1957 from July 29 
to August 11. The summer of 1956 was cooler and rainier than normal, 
and more species (120) were active than during earlier periods in pre- 
ceding years. In contrast, extreme drought conditions prevailed dur- 
ing the summer of 1957, and 82 species were collected. In 1956 I col- 
lected 39 species not taken in previous years, and in 1957 there were 
28 new to the Park list. Allowing for duplications in these two years, 
the faunal list now stands at 179 species in the families already listed. 
In addition, another family, the Chrysididae, has now been worked up, 
and the 12 species collected in the Park during these five years brings 
the grand total to 191. 

In addition to the collection data presented below for the species 
not listed previously, I am recording a few biological notes, descrip- 
tions of three new species, Chrysis (Chrysis) cembricola, Methocha 
(Methocha) impolita and Gorytes (Gorytes) deceptor, a redescription 
of Spilomena alhochipeaia Bradley, and a description of the previously 
unknown male of Nitela virginiensis Rohwer. 

I am indebted to the following specialists for identification of the 
prey captured by several of the wasps: B. J. Kaston (Araneae), Kellie 
O'Neill (thysanopterous prey of Spilomena pusilla (Say)), and 
C. W. Sabrosky (Diptera). 



50 proc. ent. soc. wash., vol. 60, no. 2, april, 1958 

Additions to the Wasp Fauna 
Family CKBYSIDIDAE 

This family of cuckoo wasps was not included in the previous reports, so all 
collection data are given here. 

Omalus iridescens (Norton). 1 $, July 18, 1951; 1 S , July 1, 1953; along trails. 
Omalus laeviventris Cresson. 1 $, July 18, 1951; 1 $, June 30, 1953; 1 $, Au- 
gust 26, 1956; two of these taken along trails on vegetation. 
Omalus sinuosus (Say). 1 9, June 21 and 1 $, July 18, 1951; 2 9 9, June 29 

and July 5, 1953; 1 9, July 10, 1955; some of these taken on log cabin 

walls, others along trails. 
Hedychridium dimidiatum Say. 2 9 9, June 30 and July 4, 1953; 1 9,2 $ $ , 

July 4-8, 1955; 3 9 9,2 S S, August 25-27, 1956; 10 9 9,1 $, August 1-11, 

1957; along trails, mostly on ground but some on foliage. 
Hedychridium fletcheri Bodenstein. 1 S, August 30, 1956; along trail. 
Hedychrum violaceum Brulle. 5 S $, June 30-July 4, 1953; 3 9 9,4 $ $, 

July 5-10, 1955; 1 S, August 24, 1956; mostly along trails, but a few on 

log cabin walls. 
Chrysis (Chrysogona) verticalis Patton. 1 $, July 5, 1953; 2 9 9, July 4-10, 

1955; 4 9 9,2 $ S , August 23-30, 1956; 2 9 9, July 30-August 10, 1957; 

mostly along trails, but several on log cabin walls. 
Chrysis (Trichrysis) parvula Fabricius. 1 9 , June 24, 1951 ; 1 9 , June 30, 1953 ; 

2 9 9,3 S S, July 4-10, 1955; 2 9 9,15, July 31-August 7, 1957; mostly 

on log cabin walls, but several along trails. 
Ohrysis (Chrysis) cembricola, new species. 6 9 9, June 19-24, 1951; 1 9, June 

30, 1953; 6 9 9, July 5-10, 1955; 1 $, August 30, 1956; mostly on log cabin 

walls, but a few along trails including the single male. 
Chrysis (Chrysis) chalcopyga Mocsary. 12 9 9, June 18-24, 1951 ; 1 9 , July 1, 

1953; 1 9, July 29, 1957; mostly on log cabin walls, but a few along trails. 
Chrysis (Chrysis) coerulans Fabricius. 2 9 9,1 $ , June 19-20, 1951; 1 9,2 $ $ , 

August 22-27, 1956; 1 9,1 S, August 7-11, 1957; mostly along trails, but 

at least one on log cabin wall. 
Mesitiopterus kahlii Ashmead. 1 $ , August 28, 1956; along trail. 

Family BETHYLIDAE 

Epyris sp. 1. 4 6 S, August 25-29, 1956; 1 9,8 S $, August 1-10, 1957. 
Anisepyris columbianus (Ashmead). 1 S ; August 25, 1956. [Det. H. E. Evans]. 
Rhabdepyris wp. 1. S, August 27, 1956 

Holepyris sp. 2 9 9,2 i 3 ; August 25-29, 1956; 2 S $ August 7-9, 1957. 
Pseudisobrachium myrmecophilum (Ashmead). 1 S, August 11, 1957; crawling 
on gravelly soil along trail edge. [Det. H. E. Evans]. 

Family TIPHIIDAE 

Tiphia intermedia Malloch. 5 9 9,2 S 6 ; August 23-30, 1956; 1 9,1 S, Au- 
gust 3-8, 1957. 

Tiphia transversa Say. 1 S , August 3, 1957. 

Tiphia sp. 1. 1 9, 19 $ $, August 6-7, 1957; on ground and flying low over 
ground in an area of two square meters. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 2, APRIL, 1958 51 

Methocha (Methocha) impolita, new species. 1 9, August 8, 19.57; crawling in 

sun on gravelly soil along trail edge. 
Myrmosa (Myrmosa) blakei Bradley. 1 9, August 25, 1956; 1 $, August 7, 

1957; crawling on gravelly soil at trail edge. 

Family MUTILLIDAE 

Dasymutilla vesta vesta (Cresson). 1 9, August 3, 1957, 

Ephuta pauxilla pauxilla Bradley. 2 S S, August 23-25, 1956; on foliage along 
trail. 

Ephuta scrupea (Say). 5 S S, August 23-29, 1956; along trail on foliage. I re- 
corded a female of this species as conchate Mickel in 1956. The latter species 
should be deleted from the Park list. 

Family VESPIDAE 

Zethus (Zethusculus) spinipes spinipes Say. 1 9, August 11, 1957. 
Stenodynerus (Stenodynenis) blepharus Bohart. 1 $ , August 26, 1956. 

Family POMPILIDAE 

Priocnemioides unlfasciatus unifasciatus (Say). 1 $ , August 29, 1956; crawling 
over leaf litter in open woods. 

Dipogon (Dipogon) brevis brevis (Cresson). 1$, August 27, 1956. 

Dipogon (Dipogon) brevis recalvus Townes. 2 $ $, August 24-25, 1956. This 
and the preceding species were taken within several hundred feet of each other 
in identical habitats. I wonder if this does not indicate that recalvus is ae- 
tually a distinct species rather than a subspecies of brevis. 

Priocnemis (Priocnemis) hestia (Banks). 9 9 9,5 S $ , August 23-29, 1956; 
1 6 , July 29, 1957; in open woods flying among undergrowth. 

Auplopus caerulescens subcorticalis (Walsh). 3 9 9,2 $ S , August 23-26, 1956; 
1 9,1 (5 , August 6-7, 1957. 

Ageniella (Ageniella) cupida (Cresson). 1 9, August 28, 1956. 

Ageniella (Ageniella) norata Banks. 14 9 9, 56 $ $, August 22-29, 1956; 1 $, 
August 7, 1957; mostly taken in open woods flying among undergrowth. 

Ageniella (Ageniella) partita Banks. 1 9, August 29, 1956. 

Ageniella (Ageniella) sp. 1 9, August 29, 1956; 1 9, August 10, 1957. This is 
possibly the unknoAvn female of mintaka Brimley which has been taken in the 
Park in two previous years. 

Ageniella (Priophanes) agenioides (Fox). 1 9, August 28, 1956. 

Ceropales hatoda Brimley. 2 9 9,4 S $ , August 26-30, 1956; 1 9,2 $ S, July 
31-August 10, 1957. 

Evagetes subangulatus (Banks). 1 9, August 29, 1956. 

Tachypompilus ferrugineus nigrescens (Banks). 1 9, August 28, 1956; in clear- 
ing in open woods. 

Aporinellus taeniatus wheeleri Bequaert. 1 9, August 30, 1956; on gravelly 
path. 

Family AMPULICIDAE 
Ampulex (Rhinopsis) canaliculata Say. 1 9, August 26, 1956; on rail fence. 



52 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 2, APRIL, 19.58 

Family SPHECIDAE 

Astata (Astata) leuthstromi Ashmead. 2 9$, August 23-25, 1956; 2 $9,1 $, 
August 1-9, 1957; on gravelly soil along trail edge in sun. 

Astata (Astata) nubecula Cresson. 3 9 9, August 23-25, 1956; 1 9, August 10, 
1957; on gravelly soil along trail edge in sun. 

Solierella plenociiloides plenoculoides (Fox). 2 9 9,1 $, August 26-30, 1956; 
2 9 9, July 30, 1951; on gravelly path. 

Nitela virglniensis Roliwer. 3 9 9,1 S , August 24-27, 1956. 

Tachysphex sepulcralis Williams. 3 $ $, August 24-28, 1956; on gravelly path. 

Tachysphex n. sp. 1. 2 9 9, August 26-30, 1956; on gravelly path. 

Tachysphex n. sp. 2. 1 <?, August 30, 1956; 3 S S , August 3-11, 1957; on gravelly 
path. 

Motes (Notogonius) argentata (Beauvois). 1 9,1 S, August 24-25, 1956; 1 9, 
August 8, 1957; on gravelly path. 

Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) tridentatum Packard. 1 9, August 9, 1957. 

Psen (Psen) erythropoda Rohwer. 1 9 , July 31, 1957. 

Mimesa (Mimesa) pauper Packard. 1 $ , August 6, 1957. 

Stigmus (Stigmus) inordinatus universitatus Rohwer. 3 9 9, August 27- Sep- 
tember 1, 1956; 1 9, August 9, 1957; along trail through open Avoods. This 
species was not known previously from east of Colorado. 

Spilomena alboclypeata Bradley. 1 9, August 24, 1956; crawling on log of cabin 
wall in sun. 

Sphex aureonotatus (Cameron). 19, August 22, 1956; 1 9,1 S, July 30-August 
1, 1957. 

Sphex umarius urnarius (Dahlbom). 1 $, August 26, 1956. 

Nysson (Nysson) lateraUs Packard. 4 9 9,1 S, August 24-27, 1956; 9 9 9, 
August 1-11, 1957; on gravelly soil along trail edge in sun. 

Lestiphorus cockerelli (Rohwer). 1 9, August 26, 1956; on oak foliage in sun. 

Gorytes (G-orytes) deceptor, new species. 3 9 9, July 31-August 8, 1957. 

Crabro (Crabro) discretiis Fox. 1 9, August 29, 1956; 2 9 9, July 31-August 1, 
1957; on trail through open woods. 

Ectemnius (Ectemnius) brunneipes (Packard). 1 9, August 26, 1956. 

Oxybelus decorosum Mickel. 4 5 5, July 30-August 6, 1957; on gravelly path. 

Biological Notes 

Family POMPILIDAE 

Dipogon (Deuteragenia) sayi sayi Banks 

A female (73057 A), 7.5 mm. long, was captured with her paralyzed spider prey 
on vegetation at the edge of a clearing in the woods, July 30, 1957. The spider 
was an adult female thomisid, Xysticus fraternus Banks, 5.1 mm. long. 

Calicurgus hyalinatus alienatus (Smith) 

One female (8357 A), 6.3 mm. long, was taken on August 3, 1957. She was 
pulling her paralyzed spider prey beneath some leaf litter at the edge of a trail 
exposed to the full sun. The spider was a male araneid in the penultimate instar, 
Araneus marmoreus Clerck, 6.1 mm. long. 



PKOC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 2, APRIL, 1958 53 

A second female (8857 A), 5.7 mm. long, was captured while she was transport- 
ing her paralyzed spider prey in a similar habitat on August 8, 1957. The spider 
was a male araneid in the penultimate instar, probably of a species of Neoscona, 
4.1 mm. long. 

Anoplius (Lophopompilus) Carolina (Banks) 

A slightly worn female (82856 A), 12 mm. long, was captured August 28, 1956, 
on a trail through the woods in dense shade. She was walking backward over the 
trail, dragging a large paralyzed spider, which she held by the hind coxae in her 
mandibles. The spider was a mature male agelenid, Wadotes hybridus (Emerton), 
1.3 mm. long. 

Family SPHECIDAE 
Spilomena pusilla (Say) 

A slightly worn female (83056 A), 2.4 mm. long, was collected August 30, 1956, 
as she walked on a log in the cabin wall in the sun near the entrance to her bur- 
row. She held in her mandibles a paralyzed immature thrips 0.72 mm. long. The 
nymph was probably in the second instar and appeared to belong to the variabilis 
(Beach) section of the genus Sericothrips. 

Euplilis (Corynopus) coarctatus modestus (Kohwer) 

A newly emerged pair (82656 A) was taken in copula on oak foliage at the edge 
of a trail through open woods on August 26, 1956. 

Crabro (Crabro) discretus Fox 

A somewhat worn female (82956 A), 11.5 mm. long, was captured on the ground 
August 29, 1956, on a trail through open woods. She was struggling to get into 
the air with her prey, a large, paralyzed male larvaevorid, Achaeionenra sp. (pos- 
sibly aletiae Eiley), which was 12 mm. long and much bulkier than the wasp. 

Taxonomic Notes 

Family CHRYSIDIDAE 

Chrysis (Chrysis) cembricola, new species 

(Figure 1) 

This rather small, slender Chrysis is seemingly closer to chalcopyga 
Mocsary (= nitidula auctt. not F.) than to any other species in the 
Nearctic fauna. Such characters as the relative length of the head and 
pronotum, sculpture of frontal concavity, and shape of the lateral and 
apical margins of the third abdominal tergum cause it to run to 
nitidula in Aaron's key to the North American species (Trans. Amer. 
Ent. Soc. 12: 232-233, 1885). However, it is distinguished at once 
from chalcopyga by its smaller size (7.5 mm. as against 9.5 ram. aver- 
age length), the different head length :width ratio (0.56 as compared 
to 0.45), first and second abdominal terga with the punctures mostly 
separated instead of confluent in longitudinal rows medianly on the 
first and basal half of second, and the ocelli in an equilateral triangle 
instead of a lower, flattened triangle. 



54: 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 2, APRIL, 1958 




Fig 1 Chrysis cembricola, female, dorsum of head and pronotum; figs. 2-4, 
Spilomena spp., frontal view of male heads, figs. 2a-4a, same of female heads; 
figs. 2, 2a, S. pusilla; figs. 3, 3a, S. ampliceps; figs. 4, 4a, albocli/peata; fig. 5, 
S. pusilla, lateral view of female pronotum; fig. 6, S. alboclypeata, the same. 
(Drawings by A. D. Cushman; fig. 1 is 22 X, figs. 2-6, 44 X; specimens for figs. 
12 3 5 from Lost Eiver St. Pk., W. Va., for figs. 4, 6 from Arlington, Va.) 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 2, APRIL, 1958 55 

Type. 9 ; Lost River State Park, W. Va. ; July 5, 1955 (K. V. Krom- 
bein; on log cabin wall in sun) [U. S. National Museum, Type No. 
63508; by donation from author's collection]. 

Length 7.4 mm., forewiiig including tegula 5.4 mm. Mostly metallic blue, the 
frontal concavity, temples, legs and venter with bright green reflections in certain 
aspects; tarsi dark brown and flagellimfi black beyond second segment. Wings 
clear, the anterior edge of marginal cell narrowly infumated, the veins dark brown. 
Pubescence generally short, erect and inconspicuous; light brown on dorsum of 
head and thorax, somewhat longer and pale on sides of head and thorax, and 
thoracic venter; very short, suberect, denser and pale on abdominal dorsum. 

Head in frontal aspect with the width 1.1 times the height, the interocular dis- 
tance at level of facial carina 0.45 times the head width; in dorsal view (fig. 1) 
the length from facial carina to occiput 0.56 times the head width and subequal 
to interocular distance at level of posterior ocelli; mandible without an inner 
tooth ; clypeus with median length subequal to diameter of antennal fossa, tumid 
medianly, the apical margin broadly and shallowly emarginate for a distance equal 
to half the total Avidth, with scattered punctures except a narrow apical rim 
smooth ; facial concavity with height subequal to width, moderately concave, closely 
punctate, the punctures becoming progressively larger toward the facial carina; 
the latter not as strong and sharp as in chalcopyga, four-fifths the interocular 
distance at that level, the central three-fourths of the carina bowed slightly down- 
ward in middle, the extreme sides of carina turned downward at a very obtuse 
angle; dorsum of head with rather coarse, close punctures and a narrow smooth 
strip laterad of each hind ocellus; ocellar triangle equilateral, situated a little 
closer to facial carina than to occiput, only slightly raised, the lateral ocelli 
directed obliquely outward but not situated in pits; ocellocular line subequal to 
postocellar line; malar space very short, 0.6 times the length of antennal pedicel; 
temporal carina extending upward from base of mandible to a point opposite the 
facial carina; relative lengths of first four antennal segmnts as 5:2:3:2. 

Pronotum (fig. 1) at humeri 0.8 times the head width, the median length of disk 
one-third the humeral width and half the head length from facial carina to occiput ; 
humeri not projecting, right-angled as viewed from above; prehumeral slope almost 
perpendicular and with small close punctures except for a small smooth median 
area which is oblique; pronotal disk with larger, mostly subcontiguous punctures, 
such interspaces as are present with a few minute punctures, small depressed area 
at middle anteriorly; lateral margins of pronotum straight and slightly divergent 
posteriorly so that posterior width is 1.1 times the humeral width; lateral surface 
of pronotum with fine irregular rugulae and without a pit; scutum with length 
two-thirds the width, the surface with coarse, contiguous punctures, notaulices 
well-developed, subparallel, the parapsidal furrows slightly convergent posteriorly, 
weak and present on apical two-thirds only ; scutellum feebly convex, two-thirds as 
long as scutum, with large, shallow, contiguous pits; postscutellum more strongly 
convex, two-thirds as long as scutellum, sculpture as on scutum; mesopleuron 
divided into upper and lower plates by a series of foveae which intersect an 
oblique series of foveae, a rather large, shallow, smooth depressed area at the 
intersection; metapleural spine acute, short, barely reaching base of postero- 
lateral propodeal projection; propodeum obliquely declivous posteriorly, viewed 



56 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 2, APRIL, 1958 

from above the posterolateral projections are short and acutely angiilate (about 
60°); U-shaped groove of propodeal dorsum relatively broad, crossed by a few 
Aveak carina, the area enclosed by groove sculptured like postscutellum. 

Eelative median lengths of abdominal terga as 7:15:6; first tergum with a 
broad shallow depression anteriorly, with moderately large punctures which are 
more or less separated except laterally where they are confluent and somewhat 
larger and deeper, discally with scattered minute punctures also ; width of second 
tergum three-fourths the median length and one and one-half times the length of 
lateral margin, the posterolateral angles extending below anterolateral edge of 
third tergum; large punctures of second tergum smaller than those of first, sep- 
arated more widely along posterior margin than elsewhere but not confluent any- 
where, and Avith a very few scattered minute punctures, the apical margin slightly 
thickened; third tergum with lateral margins straight, apical margin with teeth 
short and obtuse, separated by shallow emarginations, the lateral and median 
teeth closer to each other than the two median teeth; punctures of third tergum 
about equal in size to those on second but mostly confluent ; submarginal f oveate 
groove extending two-thirds of distance to base of third tergum, the foveae not 
deeply impressed, about eight on a side. 

Alloiype. £ ; Lost River State Park, W. Va. ; August 30, 1956 
(K. V. Krombein; along trail through woods) [USNM]. 

Length 6.0 mm., forewing including tegula 4.0 mm. Color as in female except 
more purplish and with no green reflections, center of second tergum blackish, 
flagellum black beyond first segment. Wings and vestiture as in female. Sculpture 
and body proportions similar to female except as follows : facial carina evanescent ; 
first flagellar segment relatively shorter, only slightly longer than second; sub- 
marginal foveate groove of third tergum with the groove evanescent laterally and 
represented by only a few small pits; apical teeth of third tergum shorter and 
right-angled. 

Paratypes. 12 9 9 ; same data as type but June 19, 22, 23 and 24, 
1951, June 30, 1953, and July 5, 6, 9 and 10, 1955 (K. Y. Krombein; 
mostly on logs on cabin walls) . 12 9 9 ; Arlington, Va., June 14, 1952 
(1 9 ), June 21 and September 7, 1953 (2 9 9 ), May 22 and 31, 1954 
(2 9 9 ), and April 29 fl 9 reared from wooden trap nest K 11 of 
Symmorphus canadensis (Saussure), May 26 (3 9 9), May 30 
(299) and June 2 (1 9 ), 1957 (K. V. Krombein; on wooden walls 
of old cowshed). 1 9 ; Dunn Loring, Fairfax Co., W. Va. ; September 
11, 1954 (K. V. Krombein; on honeydew secretions of Toumeyella 
liriodendri (Gmel.) on foliage of Liriodendron tnlipifera). 39 9; 
"Westmoreland State Park, Westmoreland Co., Va. ; July 4 and 8, 1951 
(K. V. Krombein). 1 9 ; Brookland, Washington, D. C. ; May 15, 1908 
(R. W. Van Horn; bred from hickory) [USNIVI]. 1 9 ; Washington, 
D .C. ; May 28, 1944 (G. E. Bohart) [GEB]. 1 9 ; Washington, D. C. ; 
July 12, 1927 (lot no. 3978) [USNMl. 2 9 9; Biltmore, Buncombe 
Co.; N. C, June 10, 1924 (R. A. St. George) [USNM]. 1 9 ; Harris- 
burg, Dauphin Co., Pa.; June 17, 1916 (W. S. Fisher; on hickory) 
[USNM]. 1 9 ; Overbrook, Philadelphia Co., Pa.; August 16, 1914 



PROC. ENT. SOC. \V\>SH., VOL. 60, NO. 2, APRIL, 1958 57 

(G. M. Greene) [USNM]. Paratypes are in the U. S. National Mu- 
seum and personal collections of K. W. Cooper, G. E. Bohart and the 
author. 

About half of the paratypes have some greenish reflections on head 
and thorax. They are quite similar to the type in other details of the 
color, sculpture and pubescence, and are 5.9-7.8 mm. long. 

Biology. One female of cemhricola was reared at Arlington, Va., 
from a wooden trap nest (K 11) provisioned by the solitary vespid, 
Symmorphns canadensis (Saussure). This trap nest contained a bor- 
ing 70 mm. long with a diameter of 3 mm. It was set out in a horizon- 
tal position two meters above the ground on the wooden wall of an old 
cowshed on June 24, 1956. The host wasp completed her nest four days 
later. I split open the nest on June 30 and found two stored cells at 
the inner end, 19 and 21 mm. long respectively, separated by clay par- 
titions and with an empty vestibular cell 18 mm. long between cell 2 
and the closing clay plug at the entrance. The cells were stored with 
paralyzed larvae of the ehrysomelid leaf-miner in locust, Chalepus 
dorsalis Thuuberg. The egg of the vespid was attached by a slender 
thread to the ceiling at the inner end of each cell, that in cell 1 being 
shriveled. I did not see the chrysidid larva in cell 1 on June 30, but 
presumably it had sucked out the fluid contents of the host egg before 
beginning to feed on the stored prey as is customary with some other 
species of Chrysididae. On July 5 the chrysidid larva was beginning 
to spin its cocoon, and the Symmorphus larva in cell 2 was almost full 
grown. ^ The chrysidid larva coated the cell w^alls and ends with trans- 
parent silk. Then it spun a cocoon of transparent silk, almost 3 mm. in 
diameter and 6 mm. long, with rounded ends and with two small 
opaque patches of dense white silk near the outer end. I inspected this 
nest periodically during the next several months but the chrysidid 
remained in the prepupal state through October 8. On October 12 I 
placed all my trap nests outdoors for winter storage and brought 
them into my ofifice again on April 20, 1957. I made the first inspection 
of these over-wintering traps on April 22, and found a pale pupa with 
black eyes in this cocoon. M}^ experience has been that 2-3 days after 
pupation are required before a chrysidid pupa reaches the black-eyed 
stage, so this individual must have pupated not later than April 20. 
On April 26 there was a fully colored pupa in the cocoon. The adult 
wasp had cut through the cocoon and emerged when I opened the nest 
on April 29. Adult Symmorphus canadensis emerged from other trap 
nests kept under similar conditions from May 14 to 26. 

It is probable that cemhricola preys only on wasps nesting in pre- 
existing cavities in wood. Of the specimens in the type series nine of 
the thirteen females at Lost River State Park, W. Va., and all three 
females at Westmoreland State Park, Va., were taken on logs forming 



iThe SymmoriJhus larva in cell 2 died several days later. However, there can be 
no reasonable doubt as to the identity of the host wasp. I have reared Sijmmorphus 
canadensi.s from other trap nests containing the same prey and from the same 
station, and I know of no other wasp which preys on larvae of Chalepus dorsalif!. 



58 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. H, APRIL, 1958 

the cabin walls, and all twelve females at Arlington, Ya., were taken 
on the wooden wall of an old cowshed. There were a number of species 
of wasps nestin<i- in abandoned beetle burrows or other cavities in the 
logs or wood in each of these three localities, but the wasp that was 
most abundant and suitable in size to serve as a host for the chrysidid 
in each locality was Syinmorphus canadensis. It seems likely that this 
vespid may prove eventually to be one of the chief hosts of the 
chrysidid. I looked over the material of Siynnnorphns canadensis in 
the U. S. National Museum and found four females and two males 
bearing the same label data as the Biltmore, N. C, paratypes of 
cemhricola, and one female with the same label data as the Washing- 
ton, D. C. (lot no. 3978), paratype of ceml)ricola. There are no label 
data indicating a parasite-host relationship, but the identical label 
data suggest the possibility that the specimens might have occurred in 
the same restricted habitat. 

The rather limited collection and rearing data suggest that cem- 
hricola has successfully adjusted its developmental cycle to that of 
Symmorphus canadensis. The Symniorphus population nesting in my 
cowshed in Arlington is almost entirely univoltine as demonstrated by 
trap nest rearings and seasonal flight range. The population of the 
chrysidid at the same locality is largely univoltine as evidenced by 
similar data. However, occasionally there may be a very small partial 
second generation of both canadensis and cemhricola. Symmorphus 
was active during all our visits to Lost River State Park, but wdth 
noticeably higher population levels earlier in the season, indicating at 
least a partial second generation. All of the female cemhricola at the 
Park were taken during periods coinciding with the population peak 
of Symmorphus, and the captvire of a male at the end of August sug- 
gests at least a partial second generation of the chrysidid. 

Family TIPHIIDAE 
Methocha (Methocha) impolita, new species 

The female of this species is one of the most distinctive of the Nearc- 
tic forms, and may be recognized at once by the dull, roughened in- 
tegument of the head and thorax as contrasted to the highly polished, 
smooth integument of the other known species of this region. In addi- 
tion, the following combination of characters will serve to distinguish 
it from its congeners: the very short malar space (0.09 times the eye 
height) ; the front almost flat between the eyes; moderately gibbose 
scutum and scutellum ; blunt mesosternal teeth ; and basal and apical 
abdominal segments red, the intervening segments black in part or 
almost entirely. M. stygia (Say), the only species now known to occur 
within the range of impolita, has a longer malar space (0.18 times the 
eye height), the front rounded between eyes, the mesosternal teeth 
acute, and the abdomen is rarely so colored, usually being either en- 
tirely black, or entirely red, or with the base only red. The male of 
impolita is unknown. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 2, APRIL, 1958 59 

31. inipolita has been eollected in Lost River State Park, W. Va., at 
or near Washington, D. C, and at Ithaca, N. Y. The three specimens 
which I collected were all taken in open, sunny areas, on soils having 
a high content of gravel or larger stones. D. G. Shappirio informs me 
that the single specimen captured by him was from a similar soil type. 

Type. 9 ; Lost River State Park, W. Va. ; August 8, 1957 (K. V. 
Krombein; crawling in sun on gravelly soil along trail) [U. S. Na- 
tional Museum, Type No. 64088; by donation from author's collec- 
tion]. 

Length 7.4 mm. Head black, mandibles and basal seven antennal segments red; 
legs red except for some infuscation on femora above at apex, on tibiae outwardly 
and the last segment of all tarsi; abdomen red, the second to fourth terga with 
black bands covering the posterior half or two-thirds of these segments except for 
extreme apices, the bands broader along midline and narrowed toward sides, the 
posterior margins straight, the anterior margins arcuate. Pubescence quite sparse, 
pale golden on head and thoracic dorsum, silvery on rest of thorax, legs and 
abdomen. 

Head dull, strongly narrowed behind eyes, its greatest width 2.2 times the width 
at occipital carina; clypeus tumid in middle above the wide, depressed apical rim 
but not tuberculate there; malar space very short, 0.09 times the eye height; front 
almost flat between eyes; front and vertex with the integument finely shagreened, 
and with scattered large punctures which are closer between ocellar triangle and 
eyes than elseAvhere; least interocular distance half the head width; ocelli in a 
compact right-angled triangle, the ocellocular distance 1.6 times the posterior 
interocellar distance. 

Thorax dull ; pronotum along midline as long as combined lengths of scutum, 
scutellum and postscutellum, in profile strongly rounded, the surface finely 
shagreened and with a few scattered punctures and with some very close and fine, 
longitudinal wrinkles dorsally ; scutum and scutellum subequal in length, gibbose, 
in profile the scutum separated from pronotum by a right-angled notch, the surface 
finely shagreened; mesopleuron finely shagreened and with a few oblique rugae 
above posteriorly; mesosternum with a pair of erect blunt teeth in front of mid 
coxae ; metasternum with a pair of acute teeth in front of hind coxae ; propodeum 
finely shagreened, dorsally Avith very close and fine, longitudinal wrinkles, pos- 
teriorly with half a dozen arcuate carinae above abdominal insertion, and laterally 
with fine, close oblique wrinkles. 

Abdomen shining and with a few scattered fine punctures; first sternite with a 
median groove on basal two-thirds. 

Male. Unknown. 

Paratypes. 2 9 9; Dunn Loring, Fairfax Co., Va. ; June 26, 1949, 
and July 26, 1947 (K. V. Krombein; crawling on clayey soil having a 
high gravel content in an area open to sun) [KVK]. 1 9 ; Clifton, 
Fairfax Co., Va. ; June 9, 1933 (J. C. Bridwell) [USNM]. 1 9 ; Rock 
Creek Park, Washington, D. C; June 26, 1947 (D. G. Shappirio) 
[DGS]. 1 9 ; Van Natta's Dam, Ithaca, Tompkins Co., N. Y. ; July 
20, 1931 (P. P. Babiv) [CUJ. 



60 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 2, APRIL, 1958 

The paratyi)es vary in length from 5.1 to 8.7 mm. The color also 
show.s considerable variation as follows : in the specimens with the most 
red (Clifton and Dunn Loring) the head and thorax are as in type 
but the legs are all red and the black stripes on second to fourth 
terga are narrower and do not extend as far laterad ; in the specimens 
with the least red (Washington and Ithaca) the head, thorax and 
legs are as in type but the second to fourth terga are all black except 
for extreme base of second, narrow apices of eacli, and small antero- 
lateral areas on third and fourth. The vestiture and body proportions 
are quite similar. The sculpture varies somewhat as follows : the 
smallest specimen (Dunn Loring) lacks the fine close wrinkles on pro- 
notum and propodeum as does the Ithaca specimen, and the next to the 
smallest (Washington) lacks them on propodeum; and the two largest 
(Clifton and Dunn Loring) have a few oblique to arcuate wrinkles oi? 
gibbose part of scutum. 

Family SPHECIDAE 
Nitela virginiensis Kohwer 

The male of this species has not been reported previously. It is ex- 
tremely similar to the female in details of the sculpture, color and 
vestiture, and, aside from secondary sexual characters, it differs only 
in being a bit smaller, 3.5 mm. long. Neither the legs nor antennae 
hear any sexual modifications. The seventh sternum has the surface 
convex and clothed with moderately dense, short erect hair, and the 
apical margin is broadly and shallowly emarginate ; the preceding 
sterna do not bear modified vestiture. 

Spilomena alboclypeata Bradley 
(Figures 4, 4a, 6) 

This species has not been recognized since its description fifty years 
ago from a unique male from British Columbia. Some time during 
the intervening years the head of the type was lost. The original de- 
scription is very brief and fails to give the facial maculations in pre- 
cise detail, so that the exact identification remained in doubt until I 
had an opportunity recently to dissect the genitialia from the type. A 
study of these and of the external characters of the thorax and ab- 
domen enabled me to identify as alhoclypeata a short series of male^s 
and a much larger series of associated females from British Columbia, 
Oregon, California, Idaho, Montana, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, 
Colorado, Kansas, West Virginia and Virginia. I am giving a re- 
description of the male below, as well as a description of the hitherto 
unknown female, and also a key for the separation of the three species 
of Spilomena known from Lost Eiver State Park. 

Marginal cell of forewing with scattered minute setae ; pronotuui with a deli- 
cate carina extending from side of pronotal disk onto pronotal lobe; propodeal 
dorsum with a broad U-shaped area delimited by a sharp carina. FEMALE: 
greatest width of temple 1.3 times eye width; face (fig. 3a) delicately but 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 2, APRIL, 1958 61 

noticeably liiieolate, quite shiny. MALE: lower half of face yellow (fig. 3); 
flagelluni testaceous except apical segment, clothed with appressed setae; 
third and fourth abdominal sterna with appressed short setae on apical third 
or half — - _ _ ampliceps Krombein 

Marginal cell of forewing devoid of setae; pronotum (fig. 5) with a delicate 
carina extending from side of pronotal disk onto pronotal lobe; propodeal 
dorsum with a broad U-shaped area delimited by a sharp carina. FEMALE: 
greatest width of temple subequal to eye width ; face delicately and noticeably 
lineolate, rather dull (fig. 2a). MALE: face yellow in middle for only a short 
distance above clypeus, the sides more broadly yellow (fig. 2) ; flagellum dark, 
clothed with appressed setae; third and fourth sterna with very narrow bands 
of dense, short appressed setae at apices pusilla (Say) 

Marginal cell of forewing devoid of setae; pronotum (fig. 6) without such a 
carina; U-shaped area on propodeal dorsum without marginal carina. FE- 
MALE: greatest width of temple subequal to eye width; face very shiny, the 
lineolations evanescent (fig. -la). MALE: face immaculate above middle of 
clypeus, the sides with a moderately large, subtriangular, pale yellow to white 
spot (fig. 4); flagellum dark, clothed with denser suberect setae; third and 

fourth sterna with sparser, appressed setae on apical half or more 

alboclypeata Bradley 

Female. Length 2.2-2.8 mm., forewing including tegula 1.6-2.2 mm. Black, with- 
out metallic reflections; mandible light red, the base and apex darker; tegula trans- 
parent, testaceous; legs varying from almost completely testaceous except coxae 
to the following condition — apices narrowly of trochanters and femora, and bases 
and apices of mid and hind tibiae, fore tibia, and tarsi except apical segment, 
testaceous. Pubescence short and inconspicuous, silvery; extremely sparse and 
short on front and mesopleuron ; a little denser on scutum, scutellum and last three 
abdominal segments; denser, though still relatively sparse, on mesosternum. Wings 
clear hyaline with violaceous reflections, sparsely setose, the marginal cell of fore- 
wing bare; stigma dark brown; veins pale to darker testaceous. 

Head very shiny, the lineolation delicate and evanescent; in frontal view (fig. 
4a) subcircular, the height and width subequal; viewed from above the width 
twice the length, and vertex as long as dorsal eye length ; in lateral view the temple 
slightly angulate opposite middle of eye, its greatest width a bit greater than eye 
width; antennal scape 0.6 times as long as clypeal width at anterior mandibular 
condyles; postocellar distance 0.8 times the ocelloccipital distance and 0.7 times 
the ocelloeular distance; clypeus tumid in middle, but without a sliarply defined 
trigonal platform, the margin of median lobe slightly emarginate; lower third of 
front with a very delicate median carina which is gradually evanescent above, and 
which extends slightly downward onto clypeus. 

Thorax except propodeum, very shiny ; pronotum dorsally with a strong, com- 
plete carina, viewed from laterally not produced upward into a tooth, no delicate 
carina extending from side of pronotal disk onto pronotal lobe (fig. 6) ; scutum 
and scutellum more noticeably lineolate than front, with scattered minute punc- 
tures discernible at 68 diameters, notaulices as long as in pitsiUix but not so 
strongly impressed; mesopleuron smooth with a few tiny punctures, episternal 
suture minutely foveolate; propodeum dull, the dorsal surface with a pair of 



62 PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 2, APRIL, 1958 

longitudinal carinae near midline converging slightly toward apex; broad U-shaped 
area on propodeal dorsum not margined by a carina, the surface with fine and 
moderately close, transverse carinae; lateral propodeal surface separated from 
dorsal and posterior surfaces by a fine carina, the surface with oblique separated 
carinae; posterior surface with delicate, more or less transverse carinae and a 
stronger median carina on lower half. 

Second submarginal cell of f orewing about three-fourths as wide above as below, 
the width above subequal to height of cell ; first recurrent nervure received near 
apex of first submarginal cell or interstitial with first transverse cubital vein. 

Legs and abdomen without noteworthy modifications. 

Male. Length 2.1-2.6 mm., forewing including tegula 1.5-1.9 mm. Black, 
without metallic reflections ; the following testaceous — tegula, fore leg except coxa 
and usually the fore tibia outwardly, mid and hind femora and hind tibia narrowly 
annulate at base and apex, mid tibia entirely, mid and hind tarsi except apical 
segment; the following varying from white to pale yellow — mandible except apical 
teeth which are light red, clypeus, malar space, postmandibular triangle, a 
triangular spot on side of face extending upward along eye margin two-fifths of 
distance to anterior ocellus, and antennal scape. Pubescence as in female except 
antennal fiagellum clothed with rather dense, suberect short setae, and apical half 
of third abdominal sternum and all of fourth stenium with moderately dense, 
short appressed setae. Wings as in female. 

Head sculptured as in female, in frontal view the width slightly greater than 
height (1.06 times) (fig. 4) ; viewed from above the width 2.2 times the length, 
and vertex a little shorter than dorsal eye length; in lateral view the temple 
slightly angulate opposite middle of eye, its greatest width subequal to eye width; 
antennal scape 0.6 times as long as clypeal width at anterior mandibular condyles ; 
ocellocular and ocelloecipital distances subequal, the postocellar distance 0.7 times 
as great ; lower fourth of front with a very weak median carina which does not 
extend downward onto clypeus. 

Thorax and abdomen much as in female except for vestiture on third and fourth 
sterna. 

Legs without modifications. 

Venation similar to that of female except second submarginal cell of forewing 
about five-sixths as wide above as below, the width above subequal to height of cell. 

Three of the females (82253 C, 83053 A. and 92653 B) captured in 
Arlington, Va., were taken with prey. Each was taken near her burrow 
entrance in a board in a cowshed wall. Each was carrying a paralyzed, 
immature, pale green thrips in her mandibles. Two of the specimens 
of prey were lost before being measured, but the third (92653 B) was 
0.84 mm. in length. Females were active from at least 1000 to 1730 
hours in Arlington, and were taken in Mav, Jiilv. August and Septem- 
ber in 1953 and 1954. 

Gorytes (Gorytes) deceptor, new species 

This is extremely similar to simiUimus Smith in size, general color 
pattern and sculpture, but differs consistently in certain details of the 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 2, APRIL, 1958 63 

color and sculpture, and apparently also in the preferred prey. In 
simillimus the upper sector of the metapleural-propodeal suture is 
foveolate, while in deceptor this part of the suture is a faint simple 
impression. The propodeal sculpture also separates the two at once: 
both sexes of siiniUiniii.s have the rugae confined lo the extreme base 
of the enclosure and to a small area adjacent to insertions of the 
abdomen and hind coxae ; in deceptor the propodeal enclosure is 
entirely longitudinally rugose in the male and on the basal half or more 
in the female, and both sexes have a much more extensive area of the 
posterior surface rugose. The most noticeable differences in color are 
as follows : the palpi are yellow except basal segment in deceptor, 
entirely fuscous in sii)iillimus; in the female of deceptor the antennal 
flagellum and mid and hind trochanters are yellow beneath, while in 
nmillimus the apical segments of the flagellum and all trochanters are 
dark beneath ; in deceptor males the trochanters are yellow beneath 
but in similUmus they are dark. I am indebted to I. H. H. Yarrow of 
the British Museum for comparison of material Avith the type of 
simillimvs Smith. 

There are two published records of si)nilli)nus preying on adult 
Cieadellidae in Buffalo, N. Y., and in Westmoreland State Park, Va. 
(Krombein: Ent. News 47: 93, 1936 and Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 78: 
95, 1952). K. W. Cooper captured a female of deceptor at Princeton, 
N. J., transporting an adult membracid. 

G. deceptor is known at present from a more circumscribed geo- 
graphic range than is simillimus, but additional collecting may prove 
them to be coextensive. Both species fly together at Lost River State 
Park. There are definite records of deceptor from New Hampshire, 
Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Virginia, West Virginia, Ontario, 
Michigan, Minnesota, Kansas and Nebraska. Published records indicate 
that similli)nus occurs from Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Maine 
south to Georgia, and in Ontario, Michigan, Illinois, Nebraska, and 
British Columbia. It is possible that some of these records for siniil- 
limus may be based on misidentifications. 

Type. 9 ; Lost River State Park, W. Va. ; July 31, 1957 (K. V. 
Krombein) [U. S. National Museum, Type No. 64095; by donation 
from author's collection]. 

Length 10.5 mm., foiowing 8.5 mm. Black and shining, the following lemon 
yellow: palpi except basal segment, base of mandible, clypeus except very narrow 
apical margin, supraclypeal area except subantennal sutures, narrow stripe along 
lower two-thirds of inner eye margin, antenna beneath, narrow stripe on pronotal 
dorsum, posterior half of pronotal lobe, small spot on mesopleuron below base of 
forewing, liand on posterior half of scutellum, a round spot on each side of 
propodeal enclosure behind spiracle, apical bands on first five terga, that on first 
covering the posterior third and with a deep right-angled emargination anteriorly 
toward middle, the remaining bands narrower, small posterolateral spots on second 
to fifth sterna which become progressively smaller toward apex, apices of all coxae 
beneath, all trochanters beneath, femora within on apical fourth or more, tibiae 



Gi PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 2, APRIL, 1958 

except in varying amounts beneath, and fore and mid tarsi. Wings with a faint 
yellowish cast, the marginal cell somewhat infuscated; veins fuscous. 

Sculpture and body proportions very similar to simillimus. Front rather dull 
from dense fine punctures and with some scattered superimposed larger ones; 
vertex and thorax except propodeum with minute, well-separated punctures; 
metapleuralpropodeal suture well-marked on lower two-thirds, evanescent above; 
propodeal enclosure delimited by foveolate grooves, with a narrow central furrow 
on either side of which are about ten longitudinal rugae on the basal two-thirds; 
posterior surface of propodeum and area above hind coxa with some vertical rugae 
extending about halfway to upper horizontal surface; pygidium triangular, rather 
narrow, the basal width about two-thirds the length, the surface shining and with 
scattered, moderately small punctures. 

Allohjpe. S ; Rochester, Monroe Co., N. Y. ; June 1939 [U8NM]. 

Length 10.1 mm., forewing 7.6 mm. Color pattern similar to type with following 
exceptions: clypeus all yellow, flagellum dark beneath, first sternum with narrow 
apical band, second and third sterna with lateral spots connected by a Ijroader 
band, apices of coxae and trochanters entirely yellow beneath. 

Sculptu:o aiul body proportions as in type except as follows: narrow longitudinal 
tyloides on first four flagellar segments as in simillimus; propodeal enclosure 
entirely rugose and posterior surface covered with vertical rugae, the lateral ones 
terminating above on the yellow propodeal spots. 

PoratijiJes. 2 9 9; same data as type, but August 1 and 8, 1957 (K. 
V. Krombein) [KVK]. 1 $ ; Arlington, Va. ; July 11, 1954 (K. V. 
Krombein) [KVK]. 2 2 9 ; Prineeton, Mercer Co., N. J. ; June 9, 1946 
and August 2, 1941 (the latter pinned with an adult membracid, 
Spissistilus constans (Wlk.)) (K. W. Cooper) [USNM]. 1 9 ; Shokan, 
Ulster Co., N. Y. ; July 8, 1936 (H. K. Townes) [KVK]. 2 9 9; Cor- 
nell University Campus, Ithaca, Tompkins Co., N. Y. ; June 18 and 
July 6, 1937 (P. P. Babiy) |CU]. 1 9 ; Ithaca, N. Y. (Chittenden) 
[USNM]. 1 9 ; Ithaca, N. Y., July 14, 1917 (E. C. Van Dyke) [Cal. 
Aead. Sci]. 1 9 ; Ringwood, Ithaca, N. Y. ; July 5, 1920 [CU]. 1 9 ; 
Forest Lawn Cemetery, Buffalo, Erie Co., N. Y. ; June 20, 1934 (K. V. 
Krombein) [KVK]. 1 S ; Hartford, Hartford Co., Conn.; June 12, 
1895 [U. Calif., Davis]. 1 S ; New Hampshire [USNM]. 1 i ; Ron- 
deau Park, Kent Co., Out.; June 28, 19:- 6 (G. Steyskal) [U. Mich.]. 
1 9 ; Ann Arbor, Washtenaw Co., Mich.; July 27, 1935 [U. Calif., 
Davis]. 1 $ ; Detroit, Wayne Co., Mich.; June 14, 1936 (G. Steyskal) 
[U. Mich.]. 1 9 ; Olmsted Co., Minn. (C. N. Ainslie) [USNM]. 1 9 ; 
Baldwin, Douglas Co., Kans. ; June (J. C. Bridwell) |USNM]. 1 9 ; 
Cams, Rock Co., Nebr. ; July 1, 1902 (W. D. Pierce) [U. Nebr.]. 

Female paratypes range from 8.5 to 11.5 mm. in length There is no 
significant variation in details of the sculpture except that rugae may 
cover only the basal half of the propodeal enclosure. Likewise, there 
is very little variation in the coloration, the chief diff'erence being a 
slight reduction in extent of the yellow markings in a couple of the 
specimens. The male paratypes are much like the allotype in colora- 
tion, but the rugae on posterior surface of propodeum do not extend 
((uite as high; they range from 8 to 9.5 mm. in length. 



PROC. KNT. SOC. WASH.j VOL. 60, NO. 2, APRIL, 1958 65 

AN ANNOTATED CHECK LIST OF THE MOSQUITOES OF MONA ISLAND, 

PUERTO RICO, AND THE LARVA AND MALE OF AEDES 

OBTURBATOR D. & K. 

(DiPTERA, CULICIDAE) 

J. Maldonado-Capriles,^ Warren r. Pippin,- and Merle L. Kuns-^ 

Mona Island is located in latitude 18° 05' North and longitude 67° 
85' West in the southern entrance to the Mona Passage between Puerto 
Rico and Hispaniola, West Indies. Politically the island is a part of 
Puerto Rico. The island is about 7 miles long from east to west and 
3^ miles from north to south, thus covering about 14,000 acres. 

The island is relatively flat and with two clear cut levels, the very 
narrow sandy and rocky coastal plain and the limestone plateau that 
ranges from 125 to 300 feet in elevation. Annual rainfall averages 
only 40 inches. Water is permanently found in less than half a dozen 
wells and cisterns built by people who have sporadically lived on the 
island. Due to the constant breeze and the relatively high diurnal tem- 
perature, water evaporates rapidly from the rock pools, etc. Addi- 
tional information on topography, climate, soil, vegetation, fauna, and 
flora can be found in condensed form in Ramos (1946). 

In his paper Ramos lists only two species of mosquitoes as occurring 
on the island, namely, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex pipiens L. A total 
of 14 species were collected by the authors during the period 1953 to 
1956. All of these except Aedes ohturhator D. & K. and PsoropJiora 
insularia (D. & K.) have been reported from Puerto Rico. The iden- 
tifications have been checked by Dr. Alan Stone, of the U. S. D. A., 
Washington, D. C, and for this and other suggestions we are indebted 
to him. 

1. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus). — Ramos (1946) says " Curran 1928:10 
reports 4: 6 6 collected February 21-26, 1914." This species has never 
been collected again. 

2. Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann). — Repeatedly found breeding in 
the small mangrove swamp and in an open cistern on the western shore 
near Sardinera. It is a vicious biter both day and night. Found to- 
gether with Psorophora johnstoni. 

3. Aedes mediovittatus ( Coquillett ) . — This species was found breeding 
in artificial containers in the western lowland, near the Coast Guard 
Station, in one concrete tank located near the center of the island, in 
bromeliads (probably Guzmania sp.), and in pools formed by water 
dripping from the roof of a cave near the light house. The water in 
these cave pools had a pH of 8.2. The part of the cave where these 
pools were found is well lighted. Adults are vicious biters both day 
and night. 



^College of Agriculture & Mechanic Arts, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. 
-Department of Entomology, Oklahoma A. & M., Stillwater, Oklahoma. 
372ncl Operations Squadron, Ramey Air Force Base, Puerto Rico. 



66 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 2, APRIL, 1958 




Aedes (Ochlcrotatus) obturbator D. & K. : Fig. 1, head, dorsal view; Pig. 2, 
individual spines of lateral comb of eighth segment; Fig. 3, air tube, lateral view; 
Fig. 4, anal segment, lateral view ; Fig. 5, basistyle, ventral view ; Fig. 6, claspette, 
lateral view ; Fig. 7, tenth sternum, ventral view ; Fig. 8, ninth tergum, dorsal view. 



PROC. ENT. SOC. WASH., VOL. 60, NO. 2, APRIL, 1958 67 

4. Aedes obturbator Dyar and Knab. — ^^Pound in semipermaueilt raill 
pools formed in roek depressions on the plateau and in cement catch- 
ment in the lowlands. Adults were taken feeding both day and night. 

Larva — Skin glabrous. Head (fig. 1) approximately one and one-half times as 
wide as long, swollen at sides. Antenna relatively short, one-third as long as head, 
nearly smooth except for an irregular double row of very small peg- or spine-like 
structures along dorsoposterior side, very few longer spines on apical third ; an- 
tennal hair double. Postclypeal hair (No. 4) very small, branched; frontal internal 
hairs (Nos. 5, 6) simple and long ante-antennal hair (No. 7) multiple, long. Hair 
No. 8 simple and long; No. 9 short and branched. Mental plate triangular, with a 
larger median tooth and 15 to 16 lateral teeth on each side. 

Eighth segment with lateral comb formed by 18 to 23 very weakly sclerotized 
elongated spines in a triangular patch ; individual spines with a central longer 
spine and two to four smaller on each side (fig. 2). Air tube (fig. 3) about twice 
as long as basal width; pecten reaching to apical two-thirds, with 14 to 15 spines, 
each successive spine slightly larger than preceding, last four more separated 
from each other, individual spines with a strong tooth and a smaller basal one; 
skin of air tube of scaly appearance ; tuft close to last spine of pecten, multiple. 
Anal segment (fig. 4) equal or slightly longer on its dorsal margin than wide at 
base ; ringed by sclerotized plate ; skin of scaly appearance ; ventral brush with 
8 multiple hairs; dorsal brush with a single and a multiple hair. Anal gills four, 
as long or slightly longer than anal segment; the dorsal pair slightly shorter 
than the ventral pair. Lateral abdominal hairs long and single, on segments III 
to VI shorter. 

Runs to couple 3 in Lane's (1953) key to the Neotropical Aedes. Can be sep- 
arated from A. fulvns and A. pennai by the shorter anal gills, the different head 
hairs, and the different antennal tuft. 

Male — The male at hand runs without any difficulty to A. obturbator in Lane's 
key to adult Aedes, therefore, it is very similar to the female. Proboscis one-fifth 
longer than fore femur; one and one-half times as long as antenna. Palpus as 
long as proboscis. Anterior claw serrate